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  • CLASSES

    HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/Statins and Cardiovascular Agent Combinations

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Combination calcium-channel blocker and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor; used for HTN or angina with hyperlipidemia in patients who were previously receiving the individually titrated drug components

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Caduet

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Amlodipine Besylate, Atorvastatin Calcium/Amlodipine, Atorvastatin/Caduet Oral Tab: 10-10mg, 10-20mg, 10-40mg, 10-80mg, 2.5-10mg, 2.5-20mg, 2.5-40mg, 5-10mg, 5-20mg, 5-40mg, 5-80mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of hypertension or coronary artery disease including angina (chronic stable angina or variant angina) in patients with coexisting hyperlipoproteinemia (hypercholesterolemia, type IV hypertriglyceridemia, or type III hyperlipoproteinemia) and/or patients at risk for complications of coronary artery disease (stroke prophylaxis, myocardial infarction prophylaxis).
    NOTE: The combination product (Caduet) is indicated in patients for whom treatment with both amlodipine and atorvastatin are appropriate (see separate monographs for more specific information regarding indications for each component).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    The recommended dosage range for amlodipine is 5—10 mg/day. For hypertension, titration should proceed over 7—14 days. Most patients require 10 mg/day for adequate treatment of angina. For atorvastatin, the initial dosage is 10—20 mg PO once daily; may start at 40 mg PO once daily in patients requiring > 45% LDL-reduction. The atorvastatin dosage range is 10—80 mg PO once daily (mean LDL reduction range: 43—60% LDL). After dosage initiation or titration, lipid concentrations should be analyzed within 2—4 weeks. Adjust dosage to attain the target LDL and lipid goals based on the NCEP guidelines.

    Geriatric and Debilitated patients

    The initial starting dosage for amlodipine should be reduced to 2.5 mg PO once daily. The dosage may be increased to 5 mg PO once daily. Maximum 5—10 mg/day amlodipine (based on tolerance and clinical response). For initiation of atorvastatin, see adult dosage. In general, elderly patients may have an increased cholesterol-lowering response to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. The degree of LDL-cholesterol reduction at a given atorvastatin dosage is greater than that seen in younger patient populations.

    Children and Adolescents >= 10 years (females must be  postmenarchal)

    The FDA-approved amlodipine dosage range for hypertension is 2.5—5 mg PO once daily. The maximum dosage studied is 5 mg/day PO. Amlodipine has not been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of angina in adolescents or children. Atorvastatin should be started at 10 mg PO once daily. Maximum dosage is 20 mg PO once daily. Atorvastatin is FDA-approved for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in adolescent boys and postmenarchal females. Adjust dosage at intervals >= 4 weeks to attain the target LDL and lipid goals.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    10 mg/day PO amlodipine and 80 mg/day PO atorvastatin.

    Elderly

    5—10 mg/day amlodipine (based on tolerance and clinical response) and 80 mg/day PO atorvastatin.

    Adolescents

    5 mg/day PO amlodipine and 20 mg/day PO atorvastatin.

    Children

    >= 10 years: 5 mg/day PO amlodipine and 20 mg/day PO atorvastatin.
    < 10 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Not recommended in patients with hepatic disease.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Amlodipine and atorvastatin are highly protein bound, and are not likely to be significantly removed by hemodialysis.

    ADMINISTRATION

     
    NOTE: Patients receiving amlodipine; atorvastatin therapy should also be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet, and this diet should be continued throughout therapy. Serum lipoprotein concentrations should be determined periodically and dosage adjusted according to individual response and established NCEP treatment guidelines.

    Oral Administration

    May be administered without regard to meals.

    STORAGE

    Caduet:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Dihydropyridine hypersensitivity

    Amlodipine is structurally related to nifedipine (1,4 dihydropyridine); therefore, amlodipine; atorvastatin is contraindicated in patients with known serious dihydropyridine hypersensitivity.

    Alcoholism, cholestasis, hepatic disease, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatitis, jaundice

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin is contraindicated in patients with active hepatic disease (including cholestasis, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatitis, and jaundice) or unexplained persistent elevations in serum aminotransferase concentrations. In addition, patients should minimize alcohol intake while receiving amlodipine; atorvastatin therapy, and amlodipine; atorvastatin should be avoided in patients with alcoholism. In patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are markedly increased. In patients with Childs-Pugh A disease, atorvastatin Cmax and AUC are each 4-fold greater. Atorvastatin Cmax and AUC are approximately increased 16-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in patients with Childs-Pugh B disease. Assess liver enzymes prior to initiation of amlodipine; atorvastatin therapy and repeat as clinically indicated. After extensive data review, the FDA concluded that the risk of serious liver injury is very low and routine periodic monitoring of liver enzymes has not been effective in detection or prevention of serious hepatic injury. If serious hepatic injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with atorvastatin, therapy should be interrupted. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart amlodipine; atorvastatin.

    Hypotension

    Amlodipine decreases peripheral resistance and can worsen hypotension. Amlodipine should not be used in patients with systolic blood pressures of less than 90 mmHg (i.e., severe hypotension). Amlodipine; atorvastatin should be used with caution in patients with mild to moderate hypotension. Blood pressure should be monitored carefully in all patients receiving amlodipine; atorvastatin.

    Electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disease, infection, myopathy, organ transplant, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment, rhabdomyolysis, seizure disorder, surgery, trauma

    Other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been associated with toxicity to the skeletal muscle system. Myopathy, defined as muscle aches or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values > 10 times upper limit of normal (ULN), should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Any evidence of myalgia, muscle weakness, or elevated CPK values may indicate myopathy, particularly if symptoms include fever or malaise. Clinicians should note that rhabdomyolysis and renal failure have been associated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. The risk of developing myopathy appears to be increased when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are used in combination with other drugs (see Drug Interactions). Amlodipine; atorvastatin should be discontinued immediately in any patient who develops myopathy or elevations in CPK. In addition, amlodipine; atorvastatin may be contraindicated in conditions that can cause decreased renal perfusion because renal failure is possible if atorvastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis occurs. Predisposing conditions include renal disease or renal impairment, hypotension, acute infection, endocrine disease, electrolyte imbalance, uncontrolled seizure disorder, major surgery, and trauma. Amlodipine; atorvastatin should be used with caution in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressant therapy such as cyclosporine because of an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure (see Drug Interactions). Renal disease has no influence on atorvastatin plasma concentrations or LDL cholesterol reductions; dosage adjustments are not needed in patients with renal impairment.

    Bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, heart failure, ventricular dysfunction

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin should be used with caution in patients with severe bradycardia or heart failure (particularly in combination with a beta-blocker) because of the risk of a slight negative inotropic effect and potent hypotensive effects due to the amlodipine component. Amlodipine should be avoided in cardiogenic shock or decompensated NYHA Class IV heart failure. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who are receiving amlodipine for the treatment of angina should be monitored for signs and symptoms of worsening heart failure. Although clinical studies (PRAISE-1, PRAISE-2) have shown that amlodipine did not worsen heart failure in patients with NYHA Class II or III heart failure, amlodipine should be used cautiously in patients with heart failure. In the Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation (PRAISE) trial, 1153 patients (80% with class III heart failure, either due to ischemic or nonischemic disease) were randomized to receive amlodipine 5—10 mg PO once daily or placebo. One month after randomization, the average amlodipine dosage was 8.8 +/- 0.6 mg/day PO. In the ischemic heart failure subgroup of PRAISE-1, the results with amlodipine therapy were similar to placebo. After an average of 14 months of follow-up, amlodipine-treated patients demonstrated a significant decrease in the primary endpoint of combined risk of either death or life-threatening cardiovascular event only in the subgroup of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients. A follow up trial (PRAISE-2) of non-ischemic heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) demonstrated no significant benefit with amlodipine. In the PRAISE-2 trial, no difference was observed in all-cause mortality vs. placebo, but there were more reports of pulmonary edema (manufacturer prescribing information).

    Aortic stenosis

    Since the vasodilation induced by amlodipine is gradual in onset, acute hypotension is unlikely and has rarely been reported after oral administration. Nonetheless, caution, as with any other peripheral vasodilator, should be exercised when administering amlodipine; atorvastatin, especially to patients with severe aortic stenosis. Amlodipine should be used cautiously in patients with advanced aortic stenosis because of the risk of worsening the abnormal valve pressure gradient associated with this condition.

    Acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease

    Rarely, an increased frequency, duration, and/or intensity of angina or acute myocardial infarction have occurred during amlodipine therapy, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients should be monitored for worsening angina when amlodipine; atorvastatin therapy is begun.

    Pregnancy

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin has been classified FDA pregnancy category X. Atorvastatin is contraindicated for use in pregnant females. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are important for fetal development including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes. Because atorvastatin decreases cholesterol synthesis, the drug may cause fetal harm. Other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been shown to cause malformations of vertebrae and ribs in fetal rats when given in high doses. Atorvastatin should be administered to females of childbearing age only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards.

    Breast-feeding

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin is contraindicated in women who are breast-feeding their infants. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are important for development including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes. Because atorvastatin decreases cholesterol synthesis, the drug may interfere with infant development.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Safe use of atorvastatin; amlodipine in neonates, infants and children under 10 years of age or in pre-pubertal patients has not been established. Safety and effectiveness in patients 10—17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have been evaluated in controlled clinical trials of 6 months duration in adolescent boys and postmenarchal females. Pediatric patients aged 10—17 years treated with atorvastatin have been reported to have an adverse experience profile generally similar to placebo. In a limited controlled study by the manufacturer, there was no detectable effect on growth or sexual maturation in boys or on menstrual cycle length in postmenarchal girls. Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. Amlodipine; atorvastatin should be administered to females of childbearing age only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking amlodipine; atorvastatin, therapy should be discontinued and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

    Geriatric

    Use amlodipine; atorvastatin cautiously in geriatric patients. Amlodipine clearance in elderly patients is diminished with a resultant increase in AUC of approximately 40—60% placing them at a greater risk for toxicity. Also, in general, elderly patients may have an increased cholesterol-lowering response to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are higher (about 40% for Cmax and 30% for AUC) in healthy elderly subjects than in young adults. The LDL-cholesterol reduction at a given atorvastatin dosage is greater than that seen in younger patient populations.

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatal hernia

    Use amlodipine; atorvastatin cautiously in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or hiatal hernia associated with reflux esophagitis because calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine, relax the lower esophageal sphincter.

    Hypertension, stroke

    A higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was seen in patients receiving atorvastatin 80 mg/day PO compared to placebo (55, 2.3% atorvastatin vs. 33, 1.4% placebo; HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.59; p=0.0168) in a post-hoc analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study. SPARCL consisted of 4731 subjects without CHD who had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within the previous 6 months who were administered atorvastatin 80 mg/day PO or placebo. The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic stroke was similar across treatment groups (17 vs. 18 for the atorvastatin and placebo groups, respectively). However, the incidence of nonfatal hemorrhagic stroke was significantly higher in the atorvastatin group (38, 1.6%) compared to the placebo group (16, 0.7%). The risk of hemorrhagic stroke was increased in those having hemorrhagic stroke as the qualifying study entry event (HR 5.65, 95% CI 2.82 to 11.30, p < 0.001), males (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.84, p = 0.01), and those with increasing age (10 year increments, HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.74, p = 0.001). Additionally, patients having stage 2 hypertension (defined by JNC-7) at the last study visit prior to a hemorrhagic stroke were also at increased risk (HR 6.19, 95% CI 1.47 to 26.11, p = 0.01). There was no relationship between the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and baseline or recent LDL level in atorvastatin-treated patients.

    Diabetes mellitus

    If amlodipine; atorvastatin is initiated in a patient with diabetes, increased monitoring of blood glucose control may be warranted. Increased hemoglobin A1c, hyperglycemia, and worsening glycemic control have been reported during therapy with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Because the use of statins has been associated with significant benefit for cardiovascular risk reduction and all-cause mortality at comparable rates in diabetic and non-diabetic patients , no changes to clinical practice guidelines have been recommended in either population. However, the increased risk of diabetes mellitus should be considered when initiating atorvastatin therapy in patients at low risk for cardiovascular events and in patient groups where the cardiovascular benefit of statin therapy has not been established. Although an analysis of participants from the JUPITER trial found an increased incidence of developing diabetes in patients allocated to rosuvastatin compared to placebo (270 reports of diabetes vs. 216 in the placebo group; HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05—1.49, p = 0.01), the cardiovascular and mortality benefits of statin therapy exceeded the diabetes hazard even in patients at high risk for developing diabetes (i.e., patients with one or more major diabetes risk factor: metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, BMI >= 30 kg/m2, or HbA1c > 6%). In patients at high risk for developing diabetes, treatment with rosuvastatin was associated with a 39% reduction in the primary endpoint (composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, unstable angina or revascularization, and cardiovascular death) (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47—0.79, p = 0.0001), nonsignificant reductions in venous thromboembolism (VTE) (HR 0.64, 0.39—1.06, p = 0.08) and total mortality (0.83, 0.64—1.07, p = 0.15), and a 28% increase in diabetes (1.28, 1.07—1.54, p = 0.01). In patients with no major diabetes risk factor, treatment with rosuvastatin was associated with a 52% reduction in the primary endpoint (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33—0.68, p = 0.0001), nonsignificant reductions in VTE (HR 0.47, 0.21—1.03, p = 0.05) and total mortality (HR 0.78, 0.59—1.03, p = 0.08), and no increase in diabetes (HR 0.99, 0.45—2.21, p = 0.99). For those at high risk for developing diabetes, 134 total cardiovascular events or deaths were avoided for every 54 new cases of diabetes diagnosed. In those without major risk factors, 86 total cardiovascular events or deaths were avoided with no excess new cases of diabetes diagnosed.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    bradycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    ventricular tachycardia / Early / 0-1.0
    atrial fibrillation / Early / 0-1.0
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / 0-1.0
    vasculitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hepatic failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hepatic necrosis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy / Delayed / 0-1.0
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    erythema multiforme / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cirrhosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myoglobinuria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    muscle paralysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    edema / Delayed / 1.8-10.8
    palpitations / Early / 0.7-4.5
    dyspnea / Early / 0-2.0
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 0-1.0
    gingival hyperplasia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 0-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    constipation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    leukopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 0.7-0.7
    angina / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peripheral vasodilation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    cholestasis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    jaundice / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myasthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bullous rash / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysarthria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetes mellitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    memory impairment / Delayed / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    amnesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    interstitial lung disease / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    diarrhea / Early / 0-14.1
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 4.2-12.9
    arthralgia / Delayed / 0-11.7
    gynecomastia / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    headache / Early / 7.3-7.3
    nausea / Early / 2.9-7.1
    dyspepsia / Early / 0-6.0
    fatigue / Early / 4.5-4.5
    dizziness / Early / 1.1-3.4
    flushing / Rapid / 0.7-2.6
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-2.0
    rash (unspecified) / Early / 0-2.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.6-1.6
    drowsiness / Early / 1.4-1.4
    paresthesias / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hypoesthesia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vertigo / Early / 0-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-1.0
    tremor / Early / 0-1.0
    flatulence / Early / 0-1.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-1.0
    back pain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 0-1.0
    purpura / Delayed / 0-1.0
    maculopapular rash / Early / 0-1.0
    weakness / Early / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Major) Isometheptene has sympathomimetic properties. Patients taking antihypertensive agents may need to have their therapy modified. Careful blood pressure monitoring is recommended.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as propoxyphene, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when propoxyphene is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Calcium channel blockers may potentiate the hypotension seen with aldesleukin, IL 2.
    Alemtuzumab: (Moderate) Alemtuzumab may cause hypotension. Careful monitoring of blood pressure and hypotensive symptoms is recommended especially in patients with ischemic heart disease and in patients on antihypertensive agents.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) Alfentanil may cause bradycardia. The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with alfentanil is increased in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. In addition to additive hypotensive effects, calcium-channel blockers that are CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil) can theoretically decrease hepatic metabolism of some opiates (CYP3A4 substrates), such as alfentanil. Diltiazem increases the half-life of alfentanil by 50% via inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 metabolism and may delay tracheal extubation after anesthesia. Reduced clearance of alfentanil should be considered when recovery from alfentanil infusions for anesthesia is evaluated in patients receiving concurrent diltiazem therapy.
    Aliskiren: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as pioglitazone, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased. (Minor) Concentrations of atorvastatin may be decreased with concomitant use of pioglitazone. The effect of pioglitazone capistration on the systemic exposure of atorvastatin was determined in a drug-drug interaction study. Coadministration of pioglitazone 45 mg once daily with atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 7 days resulted in a 14% and 23% reduction in atorvastatin AUC and Cmax, respectively. In addition, coadministration resulted in a 24% and 31% reduction in pioglitazone AUC and Cmax, respectively. Patients should be evaluated more frequently with respect to glycemic control and lipid therapy.
    Alprostadil: (Minor) The concomitant use of systemic alprostadil injection and antihypertensive agents, like calcium channel blockers, may cause additive hypotension. Caution is advised with this combination. Systemic drug interactions with the urethral suppository (MUSE) or alprostadil intracavernous injection are unlikely in most patients because low or undetectable amounts of the drug are found in the peripheral venous circulation following administration. In those men with significant corpora cavernosa venous leakage, hypotension might be more likely. Use caution with in-clinic dosing for erectile dysfunction (ED) and monitor for the effects on blood pressure. In addition, the presence of medications in the circulation that attenuate erectile function may influence the response to alprostadil. However, in clinical trials with alprostadil intracavernous injection, anti-hypertensive agents had no apparent effect on the safety and efficacy of alprostadil.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Amifostine: (Major) Patients receiving calcium-channel blockers should be closely monitored during amifostine infusions due to additive effects. Patients receiving amifostine at doses recommended for chemotherapy should have antihypertensive therapy interrupted 24 hours preceding administration of amifostine. If the antihypertensive cannot be stopped for 24 hours before chemotherapy doses of amifostine, patients should not receive amifostine.
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as amiodarone, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when amiodarone is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of myopathy in patients receiving amiodarone concurrently with atorvastatin. Amiodarone may inhibit hepatic CYP3A4 isoenzymes, and therefore has the potential to increase serum concentrations of atorvastatin.
    Amobarbital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Major) Coadministration of clarithromycin and calcium-channel blockers should be avoided if possible, particularly in geriatric patients, due to an increased risk of hypotension and acute kidney injury. Most reports of acute kidney injury were with the combination of clarithromycin with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 and involved elderly patients at least 65 years of age. Clarithromycin may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers (e.g., amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, nifedipine, and verapamil) via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. A retrospective, case crossover study, found the risk of hospitalization due to hypotension or shock to be significantly increased in geriatric patients exposed to clarithromycin during concurrent calcium-channel blocker therapy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-6.1). Concurrent use of azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.8). One case of a possible verapamil-clarithromycin interaction was reported, which was associated with hypotension. If the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving calcium-channel blocker therapy, azithromycin is the preferred agent. (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg per day of atorvastatin daily if coadministration with clarithromycin cannot be avoided. Concurrent use increases the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking clarithromycin and atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of concomitant therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. Clarithromycin inhibits the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The AUC of atorvastatin was increased 4.4-fold with the concomitant administration of clarithromycin. (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Coadministration of clarithromycin and calcium-channel blockers should be avoided if possible, particularly in geriatric patients, due to an increased risk of hypotension and acute kidney injury. Most reports of acute kidney injury were with the combination of clarithromycin with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 and involved elderly patients at least 65 years of age. Clarithromycin may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers (e.g., amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, nifedipine, and verapamil) via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. A retrospective, case crossover study, found the risk of hospitalization due to hypotension or shock to be significantly increased in geriatric patients exposed to clarithromycin during concurrent calcium-channel blocker therapy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-6.1). Concurrent use of azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.8). One case of a possible verapamil-clarithromycin interaction was reported, which was associated with hypotension. If the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving calcium-channel blocker therapy, azithromycin is the preferred agent. (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg per day of atorvastatin daily if coadministration with clarithromycin cannot be avoided. Concurrent use increases the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking clarithromycin and atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of concomitant therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. Clarithromycin inhibits the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The AUC of atorvastatin was increased 4.4-fold with the concomitant administration of clarithromycin. (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Amprenavir: (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Amyl Nitrite: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Antacids: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Patients receiving apomorphine may experience orthostatic hypotension, hypotension, and/or syncope. Extreme caution should be exercised if apomorphine is used concurrently with antihypertensive agents, or vasodilators such as nitrates.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Apraclonidine had minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure during clinical studies in patients with glaucoma. However, it is theoretically possible that additive blood pressure reductions could occur when apraclonidine is combined with the use of antihypertensive agents. Use caution during concurrent use, especially in patients with severe, uncontrolled cardiovascular disease, including hypertension.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if amlodipine and a multi-day regimen of oral aprepitant are used concurrently; monitor for an increase in amlodipine-related adverse effects for several days after administration. Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of amlodipine. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important. (Moderate) Use caution if atorvastatin and a multi-day regimen of oral aprepitant are used concurrently; monitor for an increase in atorvastatin-related adverse effects for several days after administration. Atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Aripiprazole: (Minor) Aripiprazole may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Armodafinil: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as armodafinil are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, asenapine can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use of antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of asenapine and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Atazanavir: (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with atazanavir. When atazanavir is boosted with cobicistat, use of atorvastatin is not recommended. The risk of developing myopathy or rhabdomyolysis increases when these drugs are used together. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. Increase atorvastatin serum concentrations may occur due to atazanavir inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. In addition, atorvastatin is a substrate of the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1); atazanavir is an OATP1B1 inhibitor. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of atorvastatin with cobicistat. Taking these drugs together increases the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. If these drugs must be used concurrently, use the lowest starting dose of atorvastatin and carefully titrate while monitoring for adverse events (myopathy). Do not exceed an atorvastatin dose of 20 mg per day. (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with atazanavir. When atazanavir is boosted with cobicistat, use of atorvastatin is not recommended. The risk of developing myopathy or rhabdomyolysis increases when these drugs are used together. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. Increase atorvastatin serum concentrations may occur due to atazanavir inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. In addition, atorvastatin is a substrate of the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1); atazanavir is an OATP1B1 inhibitor. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted. (Moderate) Coadministration of cobicistat (a CYP3A4 inhibitor) with calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4, such as amlodipine, may result in elevated calcium-channel blockers serum concentrations. If used concurrently, close clinical monitoring with appropriate dose reductions are advised.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Avanafil: (Moderate) Avanafil is a substrate of and primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Particular caution should be used when prescribing avanafil to patients receiving concomitant CYP3A4 substrates, such as amlodipine. Coadministration of avanafil with amlodipine increased the Cmax and AUC of avanafil by approximately 22% and 70%, respectively. The half-life of avanafil was prolonged to approximately 10 hrs. The Cmax and AUC of amlodipine decreased by approximately 9% and 4%, respectively. In addition, in a clinical pharmacology trial, additional reductions in blood pressure of 3 to 5 mmHg occurred following co-administration of a single avanafil (200 mg) dose with amlodipine compared with placebo. Patients should be monitored carefully and drug dosages should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Axitinib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of axitinib with amlodipine is necessary, due to the risk of increased axitinib-related adverse reactions. Axitinib is a CYP3A4 substrate and amlodipine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor, ketoconazole, significantly increased the plasma exposure of axitinib in healthy volunteers.The manufacturer of axitinib recommends a dose reduction in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, but recommendations are not available for moderate or weak CYP3A4 inhibitors.
    Azelaic Acid; Copper; Folic Acid; Nicotinamide; Pyridoxine; Zinc: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise. (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. (Moderate) HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been administered safely with niacin (nicotinic acid) in some patients; however the risk of potential myopathy should be considered. Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking niacin (nicotinic acid) in lipid-altering doses (i.e., >=1 g/day) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins) concurrently. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be carefully weighed against the potential risks. Patients undergoing combined therapy should be carefully monitored for myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, particularly in the early months of treatment or during periods of upward dose titration of either drug. Chinese patients receiving concomitant lipid-altering doses of niacin-containing products should not receive the 80 mg dose of simvastatin due to increased risk of myopathy. (Moderate) The risk of myopathy increases when HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with antilipemic doses of niacin (i.e., 1 g per day or more). Patients undergoing combined therapy should be carefully monitored for myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, particularly in the early months of treatment or during periods of upward dose titration of either drug. Chinese patients receiving concomitant lipid-altering doses of niacin-containing products should not receive the 80 mg dose of simvastatin due to increased risk of myopathy. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined 'statin' and fibrate therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    Azithromycin: (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of rhabdomyolysis if atorvastatin is coadministered with azithromycin. A clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction was not observed when atorvastatin was administered with azithromycin in a drug interaction study. However, a case series in the World Health Organization Adverse Drug Reaction (WHO-ADR) database was suggestive of a possible drug interaction resulting in rhabdomyolysis between statins, incuding atorvastatin, and azithromycin.
    Baclofen: (Moderate) Baclofen has been associated with hypotension. Concurrent use with baclofen and antihypertensive agents may result in additive hypotension. Dosage adjustments of the antihypertensive medication may be required.
    Barbiturates: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Because of the potential to cause coronary vasospasm , ergotamine theoretically could antagonize the therapeutic effects of calcium-channel blockers. Clinicians should also note that calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of ergotamine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity. (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Benzonatate: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Benzphetamine: (Major) Benzphetamine can increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of calcium-channel blockers. This represents a pharmacodynamic, and not a pharmacokinetic, interaction. Close monitoring of blood pressure, especially in patients who are taking antihypertensive agents, may be needed
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Bexarotene: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as bexarotene, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Black Cohosh, Cimicifuga racemosa: (Moderate) Use black cohosh with caution in combination with atorvastatin. In one case report, a patient taking atorvastatin (Lipitor) developed significantly elevated liver function tests (LFTs) after starting black cohosh 100 mg PO four times daily. Liver enzymes returned to normal when black cohosh was discontinued. It is unclear whether the elevated liver enzymes were due to the black cohosh product or an interaction between atorvastatin and black cohosh. The black cohosh dose is above that usually recommended for dietary supplementation, and cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported with black cohosh alone.
    Boceprevir: (Major) Use the lowest effective dose of atorvastatin and do not exceed a total daily dose of 40 mg when coadministered with boceprevir. The AUC and Cmax of atorvastatin were increased by 2.3-fold and 2.66-fold, respectively in a drug interaction study with boceprevir. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering amlodipine with boceprevir due to an increased potential for amlodipine-related adverse events. A reduction in the dose of amlodipine may be considered. If amlodipine dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of amlodipine. Amlodipine is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; boceprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated amlodipine plasma concentrations.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) Patients on antihypertensive agents receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood pressure and dosage adjustment of their medication. During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypotension was reported in roughly 12 percent of patients. (Minor) Monitor patients for the development of peripheral neuropathy when receiving bortezomib in combination with other drugs that can cause peripheral neuropathy like HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; the risk of peripheral neuropathy may be additive.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Although no specific interactions have been documented, bosentan has vasodilatory effects and may contribute additive hypotensive effects when given with calcium-channel blockers. In addition, bosentan may induce hepatic metabolism of calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 isoenzymes. Diltiazem and verapamil have potential to inhibit CYP3A4 metabolism of bosentan. Bosentan has been shown to have no pharmacokinetic interactions with nimodipine. (Moderate) Bosentan induces CYP3A4 and is expected to reduce plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The possibility of reduced anti-lipemic efficacy should be considered. Monitor cholesterol levels after adding bosentan therapy to evaluate the need for anti-lipemic dosage adjustment.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of amlodipine if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary. Amlodipine is a CYP3A substrate and brigatinib induces CYP3A in vitro; plasma concentrations of amlodipine may decrease. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of atorvastatin if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary. Atorvastatin is a CYP3A substrate and brigatinib induces CYP3A in vitro; plasma concentrations of atorvastatin may decrease.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Bupivacaine; Lidocaine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic lidocaine and amlodipine may increase lidocaine plasma concentrations by decreasing lidocaine clearance and therefore prolonging the elimination half-life. Monitor for lidocaine toxicity if used together. Lidocaine is a CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 substrate; amlodipine inhibits CYP3A4.
    Butabarbital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Cabozantinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in atorvastatin-related adverse events if concomitant use with cabozantinib is necessary, as plasma concentrations of atorvastatin may be increased. Cabozantinib is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and atorvastatin is a substrate of P-gp; the clinical relevance of this finding is unknown.
    Caffeine; Ergotamine: (Major) Because of the potential to cause coronary vasospasm , ergotamine theoretically could antagonize the therapeutic effects of calcium-channel blockers. Clinicians should also note that calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of ergotamine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids (Maalox TC) reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35%. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids (Maalox TC) reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35%. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered. (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids (Maalox TC) reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35%. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Calcium; Vitamin D: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids (Maalox TC) reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35%. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Carbamazepine may induce the hepatic metabolism of calcium-channel blockers by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme; which reduces the oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers. (Moderate) Carbamazepine, which is a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the efficacy of HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors which are CYP3A4 substrates, such as atorvastatin.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis. (Moderate) Concomitant use of carvedilol and atorvastatin may result in increased atorvastatin concentrations. Carvedilol is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and atorvastatin is a P-gp substrate. Monitor serum lipid profile and for signs and symptoms of myopathy during coadministration.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ceritinib: (Moderate) Monitor for atorvastatin-related adverse reactions, including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, if coadministration with ceritinib is necessary. Ceritinib is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4. Coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased the AUC and Cmax of atorvastatin by 3.3-fold and 20%, respectively, while coadministration with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor increased the atorvastatin AUC and Cmax by 33% and 38%, respectively. The strength of inhibition of CYP3A4 by ceritinib is unknown. (Moderate) Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema if coadministration of amlodipine with ceritinib is necessary; a dose reduction of amlodipine may be necessary. Ceritinib is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and amlodipine is metabolized by CYP3A4.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as chloramphenicol, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when chloramphenicol is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Chloroprocaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Cimetidine: (Major) Because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may theoretically blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production by interfering with cholesterol synthesis, the manufacturer recommends caution with concomitant administion of drugs that may decrease the concentrations or activity of endogenous hormones, such as cimetidine. It has also been reported that cimetidine could potentially increase the serum concentrations of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors via the inhibition of the hepatic isoenzymes. Cimetidine does not alter the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin, cerivastatin, or pravastatin. Clinical evidence of pharmacokinetic interactions with lovastatin and simvastatin is not available.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Major) The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin is increased if coadministered with ciprofloxacin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and ciprofloxacin therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ciprofloxacin, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when ciprofloxacin is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Coadministration of clarithromycin and calcium-channel blockers should be avoided if possible, particularly in geriatric patients, due to an increased risk of hypotension and acute kidney injury. Most reports of acute kidney injury were with the combination of clarithromycin with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 and involved elderly patients at least 65 years of age. Clarithromycin may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers (e.g., amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, nifedipine, and verapamil) via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. A retrospective, case crossover study, found the risk of hospitalization due to hypotension or shock to be significantly increased in geriatric patients exposed to clarithromycin during concurrent calcium-channel blocker therapy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-6.1). Concurrent use of azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.8). One case of a possible verapamil-clarithromycin interaction was reported, which was associated with hypotension. If the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving calcium-channel blocker therapy, azithromycin is the preferred agent. (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg per day of atorvastatin daily if coadministration with clarithromycin cannot be avoided. Concurrent use increases the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking clarithromycin and atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of concomitant therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. Clarithromycin inhibits the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The AUC of atorvastatin was increased 4.4-fold with the concomitant administration of clarithromycin.
    Clobazam: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as clobazam, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Administer clopidogrel and amlodipine together with caution and monitor for reduced therapeutic response to clopidogrel. Clopidogrel requires hepatic biotransformation via 2 cytochrome dependent oxidative steps. The CYP3A4 isoenzyme is involved in one of the metabolic steps. Amlodipine is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. In a study of 200 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coadministration with a calcium-channel blocker (CCB) was associated with a reduced response to clopidogrel. Concomitant use of a CCB was also associated with a worse clinical outcome with the primary end point, a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and revascularization (PCI or CABG surgery), occurring more frequently in patients receiving a concomitant CCB. Amlodipine represented the largest subgroup of CCBs in the study, therefore it is unknown if these results can be applied to all CCBs. Another study compared concomitant use of amlodipine, a non-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibiting CCB, with concomitant use of a P-gp inhibiting CCB (e.g., verapamil, nifedipine, diltiazem) on the effect of clopidogrel. Only amlodipine was associated with a poor response to clopidogrel suggesting the interaction between amlodipine and clopidogrel may be more clinically relevant compared to P-gp inhibiting CCBs. The authors theorized that by inhibiting P-gp, the intestinal efflux of clopidogrel may be decreased, thereby increasing clopidogrel plasma concentrations and counteracting the effect of CCB-induced CYP3A4 inhibition. (Minor) Atorvastatin has been reported to attenuate the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel potentially by inhibiting CYP3A4 metabolism to its active metabolite; however, conflicting data exists. Patients should be monitored for therapeutic effectiveness when clopidogrel is administered with atorvastatin.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Clozapine used concomitantly with the antihypertensive agents can increase the risk and severity of hypotension by potentiating the effect of the antihypertensive drug.
    Cobicistat: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of atorvastatin with cobicistat. Taking these drugs together increases the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. If these drugs must be used concurrently, use the lowest starting dose of atorvastatin and carefully titrate while monitoring for adverse events (myopathy). Do not exceed an atorvastatin dose of 20 mg per day. (Moderate) Coadministration of cobicistat (a CYP3A4 inhibitor) with calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4, such as amlodipine, may result in elevated calcium-channel blockers serum concentrations. If used concurrently, close clinical monitoring with appropriate dose reductions are advised.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of atorvastatin with cobicistat. Taking these drugs together increases the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. If these drugs must be used concurrently, use the lowest starting dose of atorvastatin and carefully titrate while monitoring for adverse events (myopathy). Do not exceed an atorvastatin dose of 20 mg per day. (Moderate) Coadministration of cobicistat (a CYP3A4 inhibitor) with calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4, such as amlodipine, may result in elevated calcium-channel blockers serum concentrations. If used concurrently, close clinical monitoring with appropriate dose reductions are advised.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of atorvastatin with cobicistat. Taking these drugs together increases the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. If these drugs must be used concurrently, use the lowest starting dose of atorvastatin and carefully titrate while monitoring for adverse events (myopathy). Do not exceed an atorvastatin dose of 20 mg per day. (Moderate) Coadministration of cobicistat (a CYP3A4 inhibitor) with calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4, such as amlodipine, may result in elevated calcium-channel blockers serum concentrations. If used concurrently, close clinical monitoring with appropriate dose reductions are advised.
    Cod Liver Oil: (Moderate) Fish oil supplements may cause mild, dose-dependent reductions in systolic or diastolic blood pressure in untreated hypertensive patients. Relatively high doses of fish oil are required to produce any blood pressure lowering effect. Additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents. (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Co-Enzyme Q10, Ubiquinone: (Moderate) Co-enzyme Q10, ubiquinone (CoQ10) may lower blood pressure. CoQ10 use in combination with antihypertensive agents may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients who choose to take CoQ10 concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring. Patients should be advised to inform their prescriber of their use of CoQ10.
    Colchicine: (Moderate) Case reports exist describing the development of myotoxicity (i.e., muscle pain and weakness, rhabdomyolysis) with the concurrent administration of colchicine and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). Statins involved in the reported cases include simvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, and pravastatin. The pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanism of this interaction is not clear; however, both colchicine and statins are associated with the development of myotoxicity and concurrent use may increase the risk of myotoxicity. Patients receiving these agents concurrently should be monitored for myotoxicity.
    Colestipol: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin with colestipol resulted in approximately 25% lower plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was greater when atorvastatin and colestipol were administered together than when either drug was given alone.
    Conivaptan: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of conivaptan, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, and amlodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Oral conivaptan 40 mg twice daily has resulted in a 2-fold increase in the AUC and half-life of amlodipine. According to the manufacturer of conivaptan, concomitant use of conivaptan with drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, such as amlodipine, should be avoided. Subsequent treatment with CYP3A substrates may be initiated no sooner than 1 week after completion of conivaptan therapy. Based on the pharmacology of conivaptan, there is potential for additive hypotensive effects when coadministered with calcium-channel blockers. Intravenous infusion of conivaptan has been associated with orthostatic hypotension. Monitor blood pressure and fluid volume status closely in patients receiving conivaptan infusion. (Major) Concomitant use of conivaptan, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, and atorvastatin, a CYP3A4/P-gp substrate, should be avoided. Conivaptan 30 mg/day IV results in a 3-fold increase in the AUC of simvastatin, another CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, similar pharmacokinetic effects could be seen with atorvastatin. In clinical trials of oral conivaptan, two cases of rhabdomyolysis occurred in patients who were also receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors known to be metabolized by CYP3A4. According to the manufacturer, concomitant use of conivaptan with drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, such as atorvastatin, should be avoided. Subsequent treatment with CYP3A substrates, such as atorvastatin, may be initiated no sooner than 1 week after completion of conivaptan therapy.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Minor) In clinical evaluation, atorvastatin 20 mg was given once with bazedoxifene 40 mg in 30 postmenopausal women. Co-administration decreased the Cmax of bazedoxifene by 3% and increased AUC of bazedoxifene by 6%. The clinical effect of this change is not known. Monitor patients for loss of efficacy and increased side effects during conjugated estrogens; bazedoxifene therapy. In addition, bazedoxifene 40 mg was given for 8 consecutive days prior to co-administration of bazedoxifene 40 mg and atorvastatin 20 mg. Co-administration decreased the Cmax of atorvastatin by 14%. The AUC of atorvastatin was unchanged. The Cmax and AUC of 2-OH atorvastatin were decreased by 18% and 8%, respectively. The possibility of reduced anti-lipemic efficacy should be considered; however, the clinical relevance of this interaction has not been determined, since the AUC (exposure) of atorvastatin remained unchanged.
    Crizotinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in atorvastatin-related adverse reactions, including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, if coadministration with crizotinib is necessary. Atorvastatin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Crizotinib inhibits P-gp at clinically relevant concentrations and has the potential to increase plasma concentrations of drugs that are substrates of P-gp. (Moderate) Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema if coadministration of amlodipine with crizotinib is necessary; adjust the dose of amlodipine as clinically appropriate. Crizotinib is a moderate CYP3A substrate and amlodipine is a CYP3A substrate. Coadministration with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor in elderly hypertensive patients increased systemic exposure to amlodipine by 60%. However, coadministration with another moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine exposure.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Avoid the coadministration of atorvastatin and cyclosporine because the risk of developing myopathy increases when these two drugs are given together. Atorvastatin is a substrate for OATP1B1 transporter; cyclosporine is an inhibitor of this transporter. Concomitant administration of atorvastatin 10 mg and cyclosporine 5.2 mg/kg/day resulted in a significantly higer atorvastatin AUC (8.7-fold higher) compared to that of atorvastatin alone. (Moderate) Caution should be used when cyclosporine is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored, including cyclosporine levels as necessary. Amlodipine may increase cyclosporine concentrations. In one study, whole blood cyclosporine trough concentrations increased from 140.2 +/- 18.2 to 200 +/- 21.9 mcg/L after amlodipine addition. In another study, the systemic exposure (AUC) of cyclosporine increased following the addition of amlodipine, and was decreased in the absence of the drug. The postulated mechanism is the inhibitory effect of amlodipine on the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of cyclosporine from intestinal epithelial cells. Also, amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and theoretically, cyclosporine, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals.
    Dabrafenib: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as dabrafenib, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Daclatasvir: (Moderate) Caution and close monitoring is advised if daclatasvir is administered with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). Use of these drugs together may result in elevated Statin serum concentrations, potentially resulting in adverse effects such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.
    Dalfopristin; Quinupristin: (Moderate) Dalfopristin; quinupristin has been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 and may decrease the elimination of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with amlodipine can theoretically decrease the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as danazol , are coadministered with calcium-channel blockers. Monitor therapeutic response; a dose reduction of amlodipine may be required. (Moderate) The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is increased by concomitant administration of danazol with atorvastatin. Danazol is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and may inhibit the metabolism of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Until more data are available, danazol should be used very cautiously, if at all, in patients receiving statins which are CYP3A4 substrates.
    Dantrolene: (Moderate) Concurrent use with skeletal muscle relaxants and antihypertensive agents may result in additive hypotension. Dosage adjustments of the antihypertensive medication may be required.
    Daptomycin: (Moderate) Daptomycin has been associated with elevated CPK in clinical trials. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are known to cause myopathy. Since data regarding co-administration of daptomycin with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are limited, temporary suspension of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy should be considered in patients receiving daptomycin.
    Darunavir: (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily in adults when coadministered with darunavir boosted with either ritonavir or cobicisat. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. The risk of developing myopathy or rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with darunavir plus ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The atorvastatin AUC was increased 3.4-fold with the concomitant administration of darunavir plus ritonavir. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and darunavir plus ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of atorvastatin with cobicistat. Taking these drugs together increases the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. If these drugs must be used concurrently, use the lowest starting dose of atorvastatin and carefully titrate while monitoring for adverse events (myopathy). Do not exceed an atorvastatin dose of 20 mg per day. (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily in adults when coadministered with darunavir boosted with either ritonavir or cobicisat. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. The risk of developing myopathy or rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with darunavir plus ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The atorvastatin AUC was increased 3.4-fold with the concomitant administration of darunavir plus ritonavir. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and darunavir plus ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted. (Moderate) Coadministration of cobicistat (a CYP3A4 inhibitor) with calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4, such as amlodipine, may result in elevated calcium-channel blockers serum concentrations. If used concurrently, close clinical monitoring with appropriate dose reductions are advised.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with lopinavir; ritonavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with lopinavir; ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Dasatinib: (Moderate) Dasatinib inhibits CYP3A4. Therefore, caution is warranted when drugs that are metabolized by this enzyme, such as calcium-channel blockers, are administered concurrently with dasatinib as increased adverse reactions may occur. Diltiazem, nicardipine and verapamil may also inhibit the metabolism of dasatinib.
    Deferasirox: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as deferasirox, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Delavirdine: (Major) The risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, may be increased when delavirdine is given in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Coadminister delavirdine and atorvastatin cautiously; use the lowest possible dose of atorvastatin. Delavirdine is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Atorvastatin is a substrate of CYP3A4. If these drugs are coadministered, carefully monitor the patient. If treatment with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor is necessary, pravastatin should also be considered, since it is not significantly metabolized by CYP3A4 or CYP2C9 isoenzymes. (Moderate) Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as delavirdine, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when delavirdine is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Dexamethasone: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as dexamethasone, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of dexmedetomidine and calcium-channel blockers could lead to additive hypotension and bradycardia; use together with caution. Dexmedetomidine can produce bradycardia or AV block and should be used cautiously in patients who are receiving antihypertensive drugs that may lower the heart rate such as calcium-channel blockers.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Dexmethylphenidate can reduce the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive agents, including calcium-channel blockers. Periodic evaluation of blood pressure is advisable during concurrent use of dexmethylphenidate and antihypertensive agents, particularly during initial coadministration and after dosage increases of dexmethylphenidate.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Quinidine can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents due to the potential for additive hypotension.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects can occur with the concomitant administration of diazoxide with other antihypertensive agents. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. The manufacturer advises that IV diazoxide should not be administered to patients within 6 hours of receiving other antihypertensive agents.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diethylpropion: (Major) Diethylpropion has vasopressor effects and may limit the benefit of calcium-channel blockers. Although leading drug interaction texts differ in the potential for an interaction between diethylpropion and this group of antihypertensive agents, these effects are likely to be clinically significant and have been described in hypertensive patients on these medications.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Digoxin: (Major) Measure serum digoxin concentrations before initiating atorvastatin. Reduce digoxin concentrations by decreasing the digoxin dose by approximately 15-30% or by modifying the dosing frequency and continue monitoring. Coadministration of digoxin and atorvastatin increases the serum concentration and AUC of digoxin by 22% and 15%, respectively. Digoxin and atorvastatin are both substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Dihydroergotamine: (Major) Because of the potential to cause coronary vasospasm, dihydroergotamine theoretically could antagonize the therapeutic effects of anti-anginal agents including calcium-channel blockers. Dihydroergotamine is contraindicated for use in patients with coronary heart disease or hypertension. Clinicians should also note that calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties (e.g., diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil) may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of dihydroergotamine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Diltiazem: (Major) According to the manufacturer of diltiazem, clinicians should consider use of a non-CYP3A4-metabolized statin (e.g., pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin) in combination with diltiazem. Coadministration of atorvastatin 40 mg with diltiazem 240 mg was associated with a higher plasma concentration of atorvastatin. Increased concentrations of atorvastatin are associated with an increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Diltiazem is a CYP3A4 inhibitor; coadministration with atorvastatin (CYP3A4 substrate) may result in increased concentrations of atorvastatin. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration of diltiazem 180 mg/day PO (CYP3A4 inhibitor) with amlodipine 5 mg/day PO in elderly hypertensive patients resulted in a 60% increase in amlodipine systemic exposure. This effect might lead to hypotension or edema in some individuals. Caution should be used when diltiazem is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Dronabinol, THC: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with amlodipine is necessary, and monitor for an increase in dronabinol-related adverse reactions (e.g., feeling high, dizziness, confusion, somnolence). Dronabinol is a CYP2C9 and 3A4 substrate; amlodipine is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Concomitant use may result in elevated plasma concentrations of dronabinol.
    Dronedarone: (Major) Dronedarone is metabolized by CYP3A, is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A, and is an inhibitor of P-gp. Diltiazem and verapamil are inhibitors of CYP3A4 and substrates of CYP3A and P-gp; nifedipine and amlodipine are substrates for CYP3A4. In clinical trials, the coadministration of dronedarone and calcium-channel blockers (diltiazem, verapamil, and nifedipine) resulted in an increase in exposure of calcium channel blockers by 1.4 to 1.5 fold and an increase in dronedarone exposure by 1.4 to1.7 fold. Furthermore, calcium channel blockers may potentiate the electrophysiologic effects of dronedarone (e.g., decreased AV and sinus node conduction). If coadministration of calcium channel blockers and dronedarone cannot be avoided, administer low doses of the calcium channel blocker and increase dosage only after ECG verification of tolerability. (Moderate) Dronedarone is metabolized by CYP3A and is an inhibitor of CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-gp. Atorvastatin is a substrate for CYP3A4 and P-gp. Monitor for signs and symptoms of myopathy in patients receiving dronedarone concurrently with atorvastatin.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Dutasteride; Tamsulosin: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of tamsulosin with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. In addition, diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil may increase tamsulosin plasma concentrations via CYP3A4 inhibition. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Efavirenz has the potential to induce CYP3A4 isoenzymes according to in vivo studies with other CYP3A4 substrates. Until data with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are available, efavirenz should be coadministered with atorvastatin with caution. (Moderate) Use caution and careful monitoring when coadministering efavirenz with calcium-channel blockers; efavirenz induces CYP3A4, potentially altering serum concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme such as some calcium-channel blockers. When coadministered, efavirenz decreases the concentrations of diltiazem (decrease in Cmax by 60%, in AUC by 69%, and in Cmin by 63%) and its active metabolites, desacetyl diltiazem and N-monodesmethyl diltiazem; dose adjustments should be made for diltiazem based on clinical response. No data are available regarding coadministration of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., felodipine, nicardipine, and verapamil); as with diltiazem, calcium-channel blocker doses should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Efavirenz has the potential to induce CYP3A4 isoenzymes according to in vivo studies with other CYP3A4 substrates. Until data with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are available, efavirenz should be coadministered with atorvastatin with caution. (Moderate) Use caution and careful monitoring when coadministering efavirenz with calcium-channel blockers; efavirenz induces CYP3A4, potentially altering serum concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme such as some calcium-channel blockers. When coadministered, efavirenz decreases the concentrations of diltiazem (decrease in Cmax by 60%, in AUC by 69%, and in Cmin by 63%) and its active metabolites, desacetyl diltiazem and N-monodesmethyl diltiazem; dose adjustments should be made for diltiazem based on clinical response. No data are available regarding coadministration of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., felodipine, nicardipine, and verapamil); as with diltiazem, calcium-channel blocker doses should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering elbasvir; grazoprevir with amlodipine may cause the plasma concentrations of all three drugs to increase; thereby increasing the potential for adverse effects (i.e., elevated ALT concentrations and hepatotoxicity). Amlodipine is a substrate and weak inhibitor of CYP3A. Both elbasvir and grazoprevir are metabolized by CYP3A, and grazoprevir is also a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of hepatotoxicity. (Moderate) Studies have shown plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are increased when administered concurrently with elbasvir; grazoprevir. If these drugs are use together, the daily dose of atorvastatin should not exceed 20 mg. Atorvastatin is a substrate for the hepatic enzymes CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Eliglustat: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin and eliglustat may result in increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Monitor patients closely for atorvastatin-related adverse effects including myalgia, myopathy, myasthenia, and/or rhabdomyolysis; if appropriate, consider reducing the atorvastatin dosage and titrating to clinical effect. Atorvastatin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; eliglustat is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Eltrombopag: (Moderate) Eltrombopag is an inhibitor of the transporter OATP1B1. Drugs that are substrates for this transporter, such as atorvastatin, may exhibit an increase in systemic exposure if coadministered with eltrombopag; monitor patients for adverse reactions if these drugs are coadministered.
    Empagliflozin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Enflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Enzalutamide: (Major) Monitor for decreased efficacy of atorvastatin if coadministration with enzalutamide is necessary. Atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inducer decreased atorvastatin exposure by 80%. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood pressure if coadministration of amlodipine with enzalutamide is necessary; consider increasing the dose of amlodipine if clinically appropriate. Information is not available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A inducers on amlodipine, but monitoring is recommended by the manufacturer. Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Ephedrine: (Major) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics, such as ephedrine, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Blood pressure and heart rates should be monitored closely to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved.
    Epirubicin: (Major) Close cardiac monitoring is recommended throughout therapy in patients receiving concomitant treatment with epirubicin and calcium-channel blockers. Individuals receiving these medications concurrently are at increased risk of developing heart failure.
    Eplerenone: (Moderate) Amlodipine can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Ergonovine: (Major) Because of its potential to cause coronary vasospasm, ergonovine could theoretically antagonize the therapeutic effects of anti-anginal agents including calcium-channel blockers. In addition, calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of ergonovine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Ergotamine: (Major) Because of the potential to cause coronary vasospasm , ergotamine theoretically could antagonize the therapeutic effects of calcium-channel blockers. Clinicians should also note that calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of ergotamine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Erlotinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of erlotinib and HMG-coA reductase inhibitors (statins) may increase the risk for statin-induced myopathy. Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis has been observed rarely with concurrent use of statins and erlotinib during post-market use. The mechanism for this interaction is not known. Use erlotinib and statins together with caution and monitor for signs or symptoms of statin-related adverse events including myopathy (e.g., muscle pain or weakness) and rhabdomyolysis (e.g., nausea/vomiting, dark colored urine). (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of erlotinib with amlodipine is necessary due to the risk of increased erlotinib-related adverse reactions, and avoid coadministration with erlotinib if the patient is additionally taking a CYP1A2 inhibitor. If the patient is taking both amlodipine and a CYP1A2 inhibitor and severe reactions occur, reduce the dose of erlotinib by 50 mg decrements; the manufacturer of erlotinib makes the same recommendations for toxicity-related dose reductions in patients taking strong CYP3A4 inhibitors without concomitant CYP1A2 inhibitors. Erlotinib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2. Amlodipine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of erlotinib with ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the erlotinib AUC by 67%. Coadministration of erlotinib with ciprofloxacin, a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, increased the erlotinib AUC by 39% and the Cmax by 17%. Coadministration with amlodipine may also increase erlotinib exposure.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin is increased if coadministered with erythromycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. In healthy individuals, the plasma concentration of atorvastatin was increased 40% with coadministration of atorvastatin and erythromycin. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and erythromycin therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Major) Avoid administration of erythromycin and a calcium-channel blocker, particularly in geriatric patients. Coadministration has been associated with an increased risk of hypotension and shock. Azithromycin may be preferred if the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving calcium-channel blocker therapy. Erythromycin may also decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem, felodipine, and verapamil) via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Concurrent use of erythromycin with diltiazem and verapamil has been associated with sudden cardiac death. This interaction is likely due to the combined inhibition of CYP3A by erythromycin and the calcium channel blockers leading to increases in the serum concentrations of erythromycin and the calcium channel blockers.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin is increased if coadministered with erythromycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. In healthy individuals, the plasma concentration of atorvastatin was increased 40% with coadministration of atorvastatin and erythromycin. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and erythromycin therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Major) Avoid administration of erythromycin and a calcium-channel blocker, particularly in geriatric patients. Coadministration has been associated with an increased risk of hypotension and shock. Azithromycin may be preferred if the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving calcium-channel blocker therapy. Erythromycin may also decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem, felodipine, and verapamil) via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Concurrent use of erythromycin with diltiazem and verapamil has been associated with sudden cardiac death. This interaction is likely due to the combined inhibition of CYP3A by erythromycin and the calcium channel blockers leading to increases in the serum concentrations of erythromycin and the calcium channel blockers.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Minor) In vivo studies suggest eslicarbazepine is an inducer of CYP3A4. Coadministration of CYP3A4 substrates, such as amlodipine, may result in decreased serum concentrations of the substrates. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering and hypotensive efficacy when these drugs are coadministered with eslicarbazepine. Appropriate dose adjustments may be necessary. (Minor) In vivo studies suggest eslicarbazepine is an inducer of CYP3A4. Coadministration of CYP3A4 substrates, such as atorvastatin, may result in decreased serum concentrations of the substrate. Monitor for decreased efficacy of atorvastatin if coadministered with eslicarbazepine. Adjust the dose of atorvastatin if clinically significant alterations in serum lipds are noted.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Esomeprazole: (Moderate) Atorvastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) recognized as a substrate and inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin with esomeprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Atorvastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) recognized as a substrate and inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin with esomeprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction. (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Estrogens can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; patients who are receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with hormonal contraceptives should be monitored for antihypertensive effectiveness.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; patients who are receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with hormonal contraceptives should be monitored for antihypertensive effectiveness.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethotoin: (Moderate) Hydantoins (phenytoin, fosphenytoin, or ethotoin) may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving hydantoins.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Etomidate: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of etravirine and atorvastatin decreases atorvastatin serum concentrations and increases concentrations of the metabolite, 2-OH-atorvastatin. Atorvastatin may be a substrate of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme and etravirine induces the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. According to the manufacturer of etravirine, atorvastatin can be given without any dose adjustments, although its dose may need to be altered based on clinical response. The risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, may be increased when antiretrovirals are given in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as etravirine, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Ezetimibe; Simvastatin: (Major) Do not exceed a simvastatin dose of 20 mg/day in patients taking amlodipine due to increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. For patients chronically receiving simvastatin 80 mg/day who need to be started on amlodipine, consider switching to an alternative statin with less potential for interaction. Carefully weigh the benefits of combined use of amlodipine and simvastatin against the potential risks. Amlodipine increases the simvastatin exposure by approximately 1.5-fold.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fenofibrate: (Major) Use caution when coadministering atorvastatin and fenofibrate. Using lower starting and maintenance doses of atorvastatin should be considered. The risk of myopathy increases when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with fibric acid derivatives. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined 'statin' and fibrate therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Major) Use caution when coadministering atorvastatin and fenofibric acid. Using lower starting and maintenance doses of atorvastatin should be considered. The risk of myopathy increases when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with fibric acid derivatives. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined 'statin' and fibrate therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with fentanyl is increased in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Co-enzyme Q10, ubiquinone (CoQ10) may lower blood pressure. CoQ10 use in combination with antihypertensive agents may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients who choose to take CoQ10 concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring. Patients should be advised to inform their prescriber of their use of CoQ10. (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Fluconazole: (Major) Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin is increased if coadministered with fluconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and fluconazole therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Fluconazole may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, including amlodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Monitor blood pressure closely during concurrent use of these medications.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when fluoxetine is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when fluoxetine is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Flutamide: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as flutamide, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) A dose reduction of amlodipine may be required during coadministration of fluvoxamine. Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as fluvoxamine, may increase plasma concentrations of amlodipine, which might lead to hypotension and peripheral edema in some individuals.
    Fosamprenavir: (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily in adults when coadministered with fosamprenavir alone or in combination with ritonavir. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with fosamprenavir or fosamprenavir plus ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The atorvastatin AUC was increased 2.3-2.53-fold with the concomitant administration of fosamprenavir and fosamprenavir in combination with ritonavir. In addition, the AUC of fosamprenavir (without ritonavir) was reduced by 27% when coadministered with atorvastain; however, the addition of atorvastatin did not alter the fosamprenavir AUC when fosamprenaivr was boosted with ritonavir. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and fosamprenavir or fosamprenavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Hydantoins (phenytoin, fosphenytoin, or ethotoin) may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving hydantoins.
    Fospropofol: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Gemfibrozil: (Major) Avoid the concomitant administration of atorvastatin and gemfibrozil. The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with gemfibrozil. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and gemfibrozil therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    General anesthetics: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba: (Moderate) Ginkgo biloba appears to inhibit the metabolism of calcium-channel blockers, perhaps by inhibiting the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. A non-controlled pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers found that the concurrent administration of ginkgo with nifedipine resulted in a 53% increase in nifedipine peak concentrations. More study is needed regarding ginkgo's effects on CYP3A4 and whether clinically significant drug interactions result.
    Ginseng, Panax ginseng: (Moderate) Ginseng appears to inhibit the metabolism of calcium-channel blockers, perhaps by inhibiting the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. A non-controlled pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers found that the concurrent administration of ginseng with nifedipine resulted in a 30% increase in nifedipine peak concentrations. More study is needed regarding ginseng's effects on CYP3A4 and whether clinically significant drug interactions result.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Major) Coadministration of glecaprevir with atorvastatin is not recommended due to an increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. Coadministration may increase the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and OATP1B1/3; glecaprevir is an inhibitor of these transporters. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of atorvastatin with glecaprevir; pibrentasvir resulted in an approximately 8-fold increase in the AUC of atorvastatin. (Major) Coadministration of pibrentasvir with atorvastatin is not recommended due to an increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. Coadministration may increase the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and OATP1B1; pibrentasvir is an inhibitor of these transporters. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of atorvastatin with glecaprevir; pibrentasvir resulted in an approximately 8-fold increase in the AUC of atorvastatin.
    Glimepiride; Pioglitazone: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as pioglitazone, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased. (Minor) Concentrations of atorvastatin may be decreased with concomitant use of pioglitazone. The effect of pioglitazone capistration on the systemic exposure of atorvastatin was determined in a drug-drug interaction study. Coadministration of pioglitazone 45 mg once daily with atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 7 days resulted in a 14% and 23% reduction in atorvastatin AUC and Cmax, respectively. In addition, coadministration resulted in a 24% and 31% reduction in pioglitazone AUC and Cmax, respectively. Patients should be evaluated more frequently with respect to glycemic control and lipid therapy.
    Grapefruit juice: (Major) Grapefruit juice should be avoided in patients taking atorvastatin to avoid the potential for drug accumulation and toxicity (i.e., myopathy and rhabdomyolysis). Grapefruit juice contains a compound that inhibits the CYP3A4 isozyme in the gut wall. In one pharmacokinetic study, coadministration of 240 ml grapefruit juice once daily with a single 40 mg dose of atorvastatin resulted in a 37% increase in the AUC and a 16% increase in Cmax of atorvastatin. Excessive consumption of grapefruit juice (i.e., >= 750 ml to 1.2 L/day) has been reported to result in an up to 2.5-fold increase in AUC and/or a 71% increase in Cmax of atorvastatin.
    Griseofulvin: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as griseofulvin, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) In general, antipsychotics like haloperidol should be used cautiously with antihypertensive agents due to the possibility of additive hypotension.
    Halothane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Hawthorn, Crataegus laevigata: (Moderate) Hawthorn, Crataegus laevigata (also known as C. oxyacantha) may potentially interact with antihypertensive, heart failure, or arrhythmia medications such as the calcium-channel blockers. Following hawthorn administration, the cardiac action potential duration is increased and the refractory period is prolonged. Hawthorn may also lower peripheral vascular resistance. Patients with hypertension or heart failure should be advised to only use hawthorn with their prescribed medications after discussion with their prescriber. Patients who choose to take hawthorn should receive periodic blood pressure and heart rate monitoring.
    Heparin: (Minor) Concomitant use of amlodipine with potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium salts, salt substitutes containing potassium, or other drugs that may increase potassium concentrations such as heparin may lead to increases in serum potassium.
    Hydantoins: (Moderate) Hydantoins (phenytoin, fosphenytoin, or ethotoin) may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving hydantoins. (Moderate) Phenytoin, which is a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the efficacy of HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors which are CYP3A4 substrates including atorvastatin.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Minor) Because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may theoretically blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production by interfering with cholesterol synthesis, the manufacturer recommends that caution should be exercised when atorvastatin is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the concentrations or activity of endogenous hormones, such as spironolactone. The clinical relevance of these potential interactions has not been established.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Idelalisib: (Severe) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with atorvastatin, a CYP3A substrate, as atorvastatin toxicities, such as myopathy, may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib. Consider an alternative to atorvastatin. A single dose of 10 mg of rosuvastatin was administered alone and after idelalsib150 mg for 12 doses in healthy subjects and no changes in exposure to rosuvastatin were observed. (Major) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with amlodipine, a CYP3A substrate, as amlodipine toxicities may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, iloperidone can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use with antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of iloperidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Imatinib: (Major) The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, is increased if coadministered with imatinib, STI-571, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and imatinib, STI-571 therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as imatinib, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when imatinib is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Indinavir: (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with indinavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with CYP3A4 inhibitors such as indinavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and protease inhibitor therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Minor) Liraglutide did not change the AUC of atorvastatin following a single dose of atorvastatin 40 mg, administered 5 hours after a dose of liraglutide 1.8 mg at steady state; however, the Cmax of atorvastatin was decreased by 38% and the median Tmax of atorvastatin was delayed from 1 hour to 3 hours. The mechanism of the interaction is not known, nor is the clinical significance of this potential interaction. If atorvastatin and liraglutide are co-prescribed, it may be prudent to initially monitor the patient for altered atorvastatin effect.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Minor) Atorvastatin Cmax and Tmax were decreased approximately 31% and 3.25 hours, respectively, but atorvastatin AUC was not affected when lixisenatide 20 mcg and atorvastatin 40 mg were coadministered in the morning for 6 days. When atorvastatin was administered in the evening and lixisenatide in the morning, no increase for Tmax was observed, but the atorvastatin AUC and Cmax were increased by 27% and 66%, respectively. The mechanism of this potential interaction has not been described (although it may be due to delayed gastric emptying) and the potential for clinical significance is unknown. Monitor lipid panel for interaction.
    Intravenous Lipid Emulsions: (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with amlodipine may result in increased serum concentrations of amlodipine. Amlodipine is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together. (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with atorvastatin may result in elevated atorvastatin concentrations and increase the risk for adverse reactions, such as myopathy. Isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is an inhibitor of hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 as well as the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); atorvastatin is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Isoflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Isoniazid, INH: (Moderate) CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as isoniazid, INH, may increase the plasma level of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate) via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when isoniazid, INH is coadministered with amlodipine and therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Moderate) CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as isoniazid, INH, may increase the plasma level of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate) via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when isoniazid, INH is coadministered with amlodipine and therapeutic response should be monitored. (Moderate) Rifampin has been reported to significantly increase the plasma clearance and decrease the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, with the potential for reduced antilipemic efficacy. Although not studied, a similar interaction can be expected between other rifamycins (e.g., rifabutin, rifapentine) and other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). To evaluate this interaction, monitor serum lipid concentrations during coadministration of rifamycins with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. (Moderate) Rifampin is a potent inducer of the cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme system and can reduce the plasma concentrations and possibly the efficacy of calcium-channel blockers. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Moderate) CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as isoniazid, INH, may increase the plasma level of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate) via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when isoniazid, INH is coadministered with amlodipine and therapeutic response should be monitored. (Moderate) Rifampin has been reported to significantly increase the plasma clearance and decrease the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, with the potential for reduced antilipemic efficacy. Although not studied, a similar interaction can be expected between other rifamycins (e.g., rifabutin, rifapentine) and other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). To evaluate this interaction, monitor serum lipid concentrations during coadministration of rifamycins with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. (Moderate) Rifampin is a potent inducer of the cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme system and can reduce the plasma concentrations and possibly the efficacy of calcium-channel blockers. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) The pharmacologic effects of isoproterenol may cause an increase in blood pressure. If isoproterenol is used concomitantly with antihypertensives, the blood pressure should be monitored as the administration of isoproterenol can compromise the effectiveness of antihypertensive agents.
    Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Isosorbide Mononitrate: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily in adults when coadministered with itraconazole. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when higher doses of atorvastatin are used concomitantly with itraconazole. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Itraconazole inhibits the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. Itraconazole increases the AUC of atorvastatin by 2.5-3.3-fold, which is substantially less than the effect of itraconazole on the AUC of simvastatin and lovastatin (increased 19-fold and 20-fold, respectively). The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of concomitant therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have a negative inotropic effect that may be additive to those of itraconazole. In addition, itraconazole may increase amlodipine serum concentrations via inhibition of CYP3A4 with the potential for amlodipine toxicity. Edema has been reported in patients receiving concomitantly itraconazole and amlodipine, therefore, caution is recommended when administering these medications in combination. A dosage reduction of the calcium-channel blocker may be appropriate.
    Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and amlodipine concurrently. Although there is a theoretical interaction, the clinical significance is not known. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A, and amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Co-administration may increase amlodipine exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events. However, coadministration of erythromycin, another CYP3A inhibitor, in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine systemic exposure. (Moderate) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and atorvastatin concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Co-administration of ivacaftor with CYP3A and Pgp substrates, such as atorvastatin, can increase atorvastatin exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Ixabepilone: (Minor) Ixabepilone is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Atorvastatin is a Pgp substrate, and concomitant use of ixabepilone with a Pgp substrate may cause an increase in atorvastatin concentrations. Use caution if ixabepilone is coadministered with a Pgp substrate.
    Ketamine: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Ketoconazole: (Major) Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin is increased if coadministered with ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and ketoconazole therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. In addition, because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may theoretically blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production by interfering with cholesterol synthesis, the manufacturer recommends that caution should be exercised when atorvastatin is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the concentrations or activity of endogenous hormones, such as ketoconazole. The clinical relevance of these potential interactions has not been established. (Moderate) Ketoconazole may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, including amlodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Lacosamide: (Moderate) Lacosamide causes PR interval prolongation in some patients. Caution is advised during coadministration of lacosamide with other drugs that cause PR prolongation, such as calcium-channel blockers, since further PR prolongation is possible. If concurrent use is necessary, an ECG is recommended prior to initiation of lacosamide and after the drug is titrated to the maintenance dose. Patients receiving intravenous lacosamide should be closely monitored due to the potential for profound bradycardia and AV block during coadministration.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of bradycardia-inducing drugs (e.g., calcium-channel blockers) may have an additive effect on the reduction of heart rate associated with lanreotide. Adjust the calcium-channel blocker dose if necessary.
    Lansoprazole: (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction. (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Lanthanum Carbonate: (Major) To limit absorption problems, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ("statins") should not be taken within 2 hours of dosing with lanthanum carbonate. Oral drugs known to interact with cationic antacids, like statin cholesterol treatments, may also be bound by lanthanum carbonate. Separate the times of administration appropriately. Monitor the patient's lipid profile to ensure the appropriate response to statin therapy is obtained.
    Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Caution and close monitoring of adverse reactions, such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, is advised with concomitant administration of atorvastatin and ledipasvir; sofosbuvir. Concurrent use may result in increased atorvastatin exposure. Atorvastatin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); ledipasvir is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of amlodipine; monitor blood pressure closely. Amlodipine is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of amlodipine; monitor blood pressure closely. Amlodipine is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Levodopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Levomilnacipran has been associated with an increase in blood pressure. The effectiveness of antihypertensive agents, including amlodipine, may be diminished during concurrent use of levomilnacipran. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Lidocaine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic lidocaine and amlodipine may increase lidocaine plasma concentrations by decreasing lidocaine clearance and therefore prolonging the elimination half-life. Monitor for lidocaine toxicity if used together. Lidocaine is a CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 substrate; amlodipine inhibits CYP3A4.
    Liraglutide: (Minor) Liraglutide did not change the AUC of atorvastatin following a single dose of atorvastatin 40 mg, administered 5 hours after a dose of liraglutide 1.8 mg at steady state; however, the Cmax of atorvastatin was decreased by 38% and the median Tmax of atorvastatin was delayed from 1 hour to 3 hours. The mechanism of the interaction is not known, nor is the clinical significance of this potential interaction. If atorvastatin and liraglutide are co-prescribed, it may be prudent to initially monitor the patient for altered atorvastatin effect.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Lithium: (Major) Lithium neurotoxicity has been reported during co-administration of lithium and verapamil or diltiazem, and is possible during concurrent use of other calcium-channel blockers with lithium. Symptoms of toxicity have included ataxia, tremors, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and tinnitus. The interaction between verapamil and lithium is variable and unpredictable. Both decreased lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported after the addition of verapamil. The possibility of a loss of lithium's therapeutic effect due to lower serum lithium concentrations may be offset somewhat by the fact that calcium-channel blocking agents share some neuropharmacological actions with lithium; limited data suggest that oral verapamil is effective in controlling an acute manic episode either as a single agent or in combination with lithium. Regarding diltiazem, although neurotoxicity was reported after the addition of diltiazem, other drugs were administered concomitantly. Worsened psychosis has been reported with the combination of diltiazem and lithium. Until more data are available, diltiazem and verapamil should be used cautiously in patients receiving lithium.
    Lixisenatide: (Minor) Atorvastatin Cmax and Tmax were decreased approximately 31% and 3.25 hours, respectively, but atorvastatin AUC was not affected when lixisenatide 20 mcg and atorvastatin 40 mg were coadministered in the morning for 6 days. When atorvastatin was administered in the evening and lixisenatide in the morning, no increase for Tmax was observed, but the atorvastatin AUC and Cmax were increased by 27% and 66%, respectively. The mechanism of this potential interaction has not been described (although it may be due to delayed gastric emptying) and the potential for clinical significance is unknown. Monitor lipid panel for interaction.
    Lomitapide: (Major) Concomitant use of lomitapide and amlodipine may significantly increase the serum concentration of lomitapide. Therefore, the lomitapide dose should not exceed 30 mg/day PO during concurrent use. Amlodipine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; the exposure to lomitapide is increased by approximately 2-fold in the presence of weak CYP3A4 inhibitors. (Major) Concomitant use of lomitapide and atorvastatin may result in increased lomitapide concentrations. Therefore, the lomitapide dose should not exceed 30 mg/day PO during concurrent use. Atorvastatin is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; the exposure to lomitapide is increased by approximately 2-fold in the presence of weak CYP3A4 inhibitors.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of loperamide, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with amlodipine, a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. If these drugs are used together, monitor for loperamide-associated adverse reactions, such as CNS effects and cardiac toxicities (i.e., syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, torsade de pointes, cardiac arrest).
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of loperamide, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with amlodipine, a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. If these drugs are used together, monitor for loperamide-associated adverse reactions, such as CNS effects and cardiac toxicities (i.e., syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, torsade de pointes, cardiac arrest).
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with lopinavir; ritonavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with lopinavir; ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with lopinavir; ritonavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when these drugs are used together. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. Increased atorvastatin serum concentrations may occur due to lopinavir; ritonavir inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. In addition, atorvastatin is a substrate of the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1); lopinavir is an OATP1B1 inhibitor. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise. (Moderate) The risk of myopathy increases when HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with antilipemic doses of niacin (i.e., 1 g per day or more). Patients undergoing combined therapy should be carefully monitored for myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, particularly in the early months of treatment or during periods of upward dose titration of either drug. Chinese patients receiving concomitant lipid-altering doses of niacin-containing products should not receive the 80 mg dose of simvastatin due to increased risk of myopathy. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined 'statin' and fibrate therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter the systemic exposure of atorvastatin; if used together, monitor serum lipid concentrations. Atorvastatin is a substrate of CYP3A4 and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data suggests lumacaftor; ivacaftor may also induce and/or inhibit P-gp. While the induction of atorvastatin through the CYP3A pathway may lead to decreased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, the net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on P-gp transport is not clear. (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of amlodipine. If used together, monitor blood pressure closely; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased. Amlodipine is a CYP3A substrate. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of amlodipine. If used together, monitor blood pressure closely; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased. Amlodipine is a CYP3A substrate. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer. (Moderate) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and amlodipine concurrently. Although there is a theoretical interaction, the clinical significance is not known. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A, and amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Co-administration may increase amlodipine exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events. However, coadministration of erythromycin, another CYP3A inhibitor, in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine systemic exposure. (Moderate) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and atorvastatin concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Co-administration of ivacaftor with CYP3A and Pgp substrates, such as atorvastatin, can increase atorvastatin exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Maraviroc: (Minor) Use caution if coadministration of maraviroc with amlodipine is necessary, due to a possible increase in maraviroc exposure. Maraviroc is a CYP3A substrate and amlodipine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for an increase in adverse effects with concomitant use.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Melatonin: (Moderate) Melatonin may impair the efficacy of some calcium-channel blockers, and caution is advised with concurrent use. In one placebo-controlled study, melatonin evening ingestion led to significant increases in blood pressure (6.5 mmHg systolic and 4.9 mmHg diastolic) and heart rate (3.9 bpm) throughout the day in patients taking nifedipine (GITS formulation). Melatonin appeared to antagonize the antihypertensive effects of nifedipine. The mechanism of this interaction is unclear. It may be prudent to avoid melatonin use during calcium-channel blocker therapy.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mephobarbital: (Moderate) Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol lowering efficacy when barbiturates are coadministered with atorvastatin. Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers; atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. Area-under-the-curve values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol were increased by approximately 30% and 20%, respectively, when atorvastatin was given concurrently. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; monitor patients receiving concurrent therapy to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained.
    Metformin; Pioglitazone: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as pioglitazone, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased. (Minor) Concentrations of atorvastatin may be decreased with concomitant use of pioglitazone. The effect of pioglitazone capistration on the systemic exposure of atorvastatin was determined in a drug-drug interaction study. Coadministration of pioglitazone 45 mg once daily with atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 7 days resulted in a 14% and 23% reduction in atorvastatin AUC and Cmax, respectively. In addition, coadministration resulted in a 24% and 31% reduction in pioglitazone AUC and Cmax, respectively. Patients should be evaluated more frequently with respect to glycemic control and lipid therapy.
    Methamphetamine: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Methohexital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Methoxsalen: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest that calcium-channel blockers could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy.
    Methylergonovine: (Major) Because of its potential to cause coronary vasospasm, methylergonovine could theoretically antagonize the therapeutic effects of calcium-channel blockers. In addition, calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of methylergonovine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Methylphenidate can reduce the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive agents, including calcium-channel blockers. Periodic evaluation of blood pressure is advisable during concurrent use of methylphenidate and antihypertensive agents, particularly during initial coadministration and after dosage increases of methylphenidate.
    Methysergide: (Major) Because of the potential to cause coronary vasospasm , methysergide theoretically could antagonize the therapeutic effects of calcium-channel blockers. Clinicians should also note that calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of selected ergot alkaloids and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Metyrapone: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as metyrapone, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Mifepristone, RU-486: (Moderate) Coadministration of mifepristone may lead to an increase in serum levels of atorvastatin. Due to the slow elimination of mifepristone from the body, such interactions may be observed for a prolonged period after mifepristone administration. Mifepristone inhibits CYP3A4; atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor closely for "statin" related side effects, such as myopathy. The dose of atorvastatin, when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, should not exceed 40 mg/day. (Moderate) Mifepristone inhibits CYP3A4 and coadministration of mifepristone may lead to an increase in serum levels of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates, including many of the calcium-channel blockers. Drugs in which CYP3A is the primary route of metabolism should be used with caution if co-administered with mifepristone. The lowest possible dose and/or a decreased frequency of dosing must be used with therapeutic drug monitoring when possible. For calcium channel blockers, monitor blood pressure, heart rate, fluid retention and for shortness of breath as potential side effects. Avoiding calcium channel blockers by using other classes of antihypertensive agents that are not substrates for CYP3A4 may be appropriate in some patients requiring long-term administration of inhibitory drugs.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Milnacipran has been associated with an increase in blood pressure. The effectiveness of antihypertensive agents like amlodipine may be diminished during concurrent use of milnacipran. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Milrinone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents could lead to additive hypotension when administered with milrinone. Titrate milrinone dosage according to hemodynamic response.
    Mitotane: (Major) Use caution if mitotane and atorvastatin are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of atorvastatin and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. (Moderate) Use caution if mitotane and amlodipine are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of amlodipine and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of amlodipine.
    Modafinil: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as modafinil are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Nafcillin: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as nafcillin, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel: (Minor) Additive bradycardia may occur in patients receiving paclitaxel and other drugs known to cause bradycardia, such as calcium-channel blockers like amlodipine. These patients may require monitoring and information.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Nefazodone: (Major) Caution should be used if nefazodone is administered in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that are metabolized by CYP3A4, and dosage adjustments of these HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are recommended. There have been reports of rhabdomyolysis and myopathy when nefazodone has been administered to patients receiving statins metabolized by CYP3A4. Consider alternative therapy. Since pravastatin and rosuvastatin are not substantially metabolized and fluvastatin is a minor CYP3A4 substrate (20%), these statins are less likely to be significantly affected by CYP3A4 inhibitors such as nefazodone. (Moderate) Administering amlodipine with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as nefazodone, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when nefazodone is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Nelfinavir: (Major) Do not exceed 40 mg atorvastatin daily in adults when coadministered with nelfinavir. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with nelfinavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The atorvastatin AUC was increased by 74% with the concomitant administration of nelfinavir. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and nelfinavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Nesiritide, BNP: (Major) The potential for hypotension may be increased when coadministering nesiritide with antihypertensive agents.
    Netupitant; Palonosetron: (Moderate) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with amlodipine can theoretically decrease the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as netupitant, are coadministered with calcium-channel blockers. Monitor therapeutic response; a dose reduction of amlodipine; valsartan may be required.
    Neuromuscular blockers: (Minor) Calcium-channel blockers may prolong neuromuscular blockade.
    Nevirapine: (Minor) Nevirapine is an inducer of the cytochrome P4503A enzyme. Concomitant administration of nevirapine with drugs that are extensively metabolized by this enzyme, including calcium-channel blockers may require dosage adjustments. (Minor) Nevirapine, which is a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the efficacy of HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors which are CYP3A4 substrates including atorvastatin.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise. (Moderate) The risk of myopathy increases when HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with antilipemic doses of niacin (i.e., 1 g per day or more). Patients undergoing combined therapy should be carefully monitored for myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, particularly in the early months of treatment or during periods of upward dose titration of either drug. Chinese patients receiving concomitant lipid-altering doses of niacin-containing products should not receive the 80 mg dose of simvastatin due to increased risk of myopathy. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined 'statin' and fibrate therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Major) Do not exceed a simvastatin dose of 20 mg/day in patients taking amlodipine due to increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. For patients chronically receiving simvastatin 80 mg/day who need to be started on amlodipine, consider switching to an alternative statin with less potential for interaction. Carefully weigh the benefits of combined use of amlodipine and simvastatin against the potential risks. Amlodipine increases the simvastatin exposure by approximately 1.5-fold. (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise. (Moderate) The risk of myopathy increases when HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors are administered concurrently with antilipemic doses of niacin (i.e., 1 g per day or more). Patients undergoing combined therapy should be carefully monitored for myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, particularly in the early months of treatment or during periods of upward dose titration of either drug. Chinese patients receiving concomitant lipid-altering doses of niacin-containing products should not receive the 80 mg dose of simvastatin due to increased risk of myopathy. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined 'statin' and fibrate therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage.
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of myopathy if nicardipine is coadministered with atorvastatin. Nicardipine is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 isoenzymes. Coadministration with nicardipine may lead to an increase in serum levels of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates including atorvastatin.
    Nilotinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with amlodipine can theoretically decrease the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as nilotinib, are coadministered with calcium-channel blockers. Monitor therapeutic response; a dose reduction of amlodipine may be required. (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of myopathy if atorvastatin is coadministered with nilotinib. Concurrent use may result in increased atorvastatin exposure. Nilotinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor; atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Nitrates: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Nitroglycerin: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may occur when nitroprusside is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. Dosages should be adjusted carefully, according to blood pressure.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with amlodipine can theoretically decrease the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as octreotide, are coadministered with calcium-channel blockers. Monitor therapeutic response; a dose reduction of amlodipine may be required.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with lopinavir; ritonavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with lopinavir; ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Severe) Concomitant use of dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir or ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir with atorvastatin is contraindicated due to the potential for severe adverse reactions, including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Coadministration may result in elevated atorvastatin systemic concentrations. Atorvastatin is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of this isoenzyme.
    Omeprazole: (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction. (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Amlodipine is metabolized by CYP3A4; oritavancin is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of amlodipine may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently. (Moderate) Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4; oritavancin is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of atorvastatin may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Oxcarbazepine: (Moderate) Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when oxcarbazepine is coadministered with atorvastatin. Oxcarbazepine, which is a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as oxcarbazepine, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Oxymetazoline: (Major) The vasoconstricting actions of oxymetazoline, an alpha adrenergic agonist, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for changes in blood pressure.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Paliperidone may cause orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Lower initial doses of paliperidone may be necessary in patients receiving antihypertensive agents concomitantly.
    Pantoprazole: (Moderate) Atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) recognized as substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system. Likewise, studies show that lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole are also substrates and inhibitors of P-gp. Due to competitive inhibition of the P-gp transport system, coadministration may lead to increased intestinal absorption and/or decreased hepatic excretion of either product. The resulting increased drug bioavailability could lead to increased adverse events, including serious myopathies in the case of higher than normal statin plasma concentrations. For example, P-gp inhibition was suspected in a case report involving a patient presenting to the emergency room with rhabdomyolysis, causing third-degree AV block. The patient's medication history included atorvastatin (> 1 year history), esomeprazole (6-week history), and clarithromycin (500 mg x 3 doses prior to admission). Symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and chest pain coincided with the start of esomeprazole therapy. Due to the timing of symptom onset, clinicians suspected that esomeprazole likely increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations leading to rhabdomyolysis and further complications. Although competitive inhibition of CYP isoenzyme metabolism could have played a minor role in the interaction, the main pathway was thought to be competitive P-gp inhibition. Caution is therefore warranted when combining atorvastatin, lovastatin, red yeast rice (structurally similar to lovastatin), or simvastatin with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole. Substituting with dexlansoprazole or rabeprazole may represent a safer alternative. Treatment with pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin may also decrease the risk of a P-gp interaction.
    Pasireotide: (Major) Pasireotide may cause a decrease in heart rate. Closely monitor patients who are also taking drugs associated with bradycardia such as calcium-channel blockers. Dose adjustments of calcium-channel blockers may be necessary.
    Pazopanib: (Moderate) Pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and amlodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of amlodipine. Use caution when administering these drugs concomitantly. (Moderate) Pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of atorvastatin. Use caution when administering these drugs concomitantly.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Pentobarbital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Pentoxifylline has been used concurrently with antihypertensive drugs (beta blockers, diuretics) without observed problems. Small decreases in blood pressure have been observed in some patients treated with pentoxifylline; periodic systemic blood pressure monitoring is recommended for patients receiving concomitant antihypertensives. If indicated, dosage of the antihypertensive agents should be reduced.
    Perampanel: (Moderate) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as perampanel, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Phenobarbital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as topiramate, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Phenytoin: (Moderate) Hydantoins (phenytoin, fosphenytoin, or ethotoin) may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving hydantoins.
    Photosensitizing agents: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest that calcium-channel blockers could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Pioglitazone: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as pioglitazone, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased. (Minor) Concentrations of atorvastatin may be decreased with concomitant use of pioglitazone. The effect of pioglitazone capistration on the systemic exposure of atorvastatin was determined in a drug-drug interaction study. Coadministration of pioglitazone 45 mg once daily with atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 7 days resulted in a 14% and 23% reduction in atorvastatin AUC and Cmax, respectively. In addition, coadministration resulted in a 24% and 31% reduction in pioglitazone AUC and Cmax, respectively. Patients should be evaluated more frequently with respect to glycemic control and lipid therapy.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Posaconazole: (Severe) The concurrent use of posaconazole and atorvastatin is contraindicated due to the risk of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. If treatment with posaconazole is unavoidable, a brief suspension of atorvastatin therapy can be considered. Coadministration of these drugs may result in elevated atorvastatin plasma concentrations, causing an increased risk for adverse events. Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme responsible for atorvastatin metabolism. (Moderate) Theoretically, posaconazole may inhibit the metabolism of many calcium-channel blockers via inhibition of CYP3A4. Use caution when coadministering posaconazole and any calcium-channel blocker.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) Prazosin is well-known to produce a 'first-dose' phenomenon. Some patients develop significant hypotension shortly after administration of the first dose. The first dose response (acute postural hypotension) of prazosin may be exaggerated in patients who are receiving beta-adrenergic blockers, diuretics, or other antihypertensive agents. Concomitant administration of prazosin with other antihypertensive agents is not prohibited, however. This can be therapeutically advantageous, but lower dosages of each agent should be used. The use of alpha-blockers with verapamil can lead to excessive hypotension; In addition, verapamil has been reported to increase the AUC and Cmax of prazosin.
    Primidone: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Procainamide: (Moderate) Procainamide can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Intravenous administration of procainamide is more likely to cause hypotensive effects.
    Procaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Propofol: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as propoxyphene, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when propoxyphene is coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Protease inhibitors: (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Quinidine: (Moderate) Quinidine can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents due to the potential for additive hypotension.
    Quinine: (Moderate) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with amlodipine can theoretically decrease the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as quinine, are coadministered with calcium-channel blockers. Monitor therapeutic response; a dose reduction of amlodipine may be required. (Moderate) Patients receiving concomitant atorvastatin and quinine should be monitored closely for muscle pain or weakness. Lower starting doses of atorvastatin should be considered while patients are receiving quinine. Atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate; therefore, quinine has the potential to inhibit the metabolism of atorvastatin leading to an increased potential of rhabdomyolysis.
    Raltegravir: (Moderate) Raltegravir use has been associated with elevated creatinine kinase concentrations; myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported. Use raltegravir cautiously with drugs that increase the risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins).
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Ranolazine inhibits CYP3A isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein transport. Although not studied, ranolazine may theoretically increase plasma concentrations of CYP3A4 and/or P-glycoprotein substrates such as atorvastatin. Monitor serum lipid profile and for signs and symptoms of myopathy during coadministration.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider during concurrent use of an MAOI and a calcium-channel blocker.
    Red Yeast Rice: (Severe) Since compounds in red yeast rice claim to have HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor activity, red yeast rice should not be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. The administration of more than one HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor at one time would be duplicative therapy and perhaps increase the risk of drug-related toxicity including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with remifentanil may be increased in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers due to additive hypotensive effects.
    Ribociclib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of ribociclib with amlodipine is necessary, as the systemic exposure of amlodipine may be increased resulting in an increase in treatment-related adverse reactions including hypotension and edema. Exposure to ribociclib may also increase, increasing ribociclib-related adverse reactions (e.g., neutropenia, QT prolongation). Ribociclib is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4. Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of ribociclib, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, with atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, is necessary, as the systemic exposure of atorvastatin may be increased resulting in an increase in atorvastatin-related adverse reactions.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of ribociclib with amlodipine is necessary, as the systemic exposure of amlodipine may be increased resulting in an increase in treatment-related adverse reactions including hypotension and edema. Exposure to ribociclib may also increase, increasing ribociclib-related adverse reactions (e.g., neutropenia, QT prolongation). Ribociclib is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4. Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of ribociclib, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, with atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, is necessary, as the systemic exposure of atorvastatin may be increased resulting in an increase in atorvastatin-related adverse reactions.
    Rifabutin: (Moderate) Rifabutin may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers. (Minor) Rifampin has been reported to significantly increase the plasma clearance and decrease the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, with the potential for reduced antilipemic efficacy. Although not studied, a similar interaction can be expected between other rifamycins (e.g., rifabutin, rifapentine) and other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). To evaluate this interaction, monitor serum lipid concentrations during coadministration of rifamycins with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
    Rifampin: (Moderate) Rifampin has been reported to significantly increase the plasma clearance and decrease the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, with the potential for reduced antilipemic efficacy. Although not studied, a similar interaction can be expected between other rifamycins (e.g., rifabutin, rifapentine) and other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). To evaluate this interaction, monitor serum lipid concentrations during coadministration of rifamycins with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. (Moderate) Rifampin is a potent inducer of the cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme system and can reduce the plasma concentrations and possibly the efficacy of calcium-channel blockers. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers.
    Rifapentine: (Moderate) Rifapentine may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers. (Minor) Rifampin has been reported to significantly increase the plasma clearance and decrease the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, with the potential for reduced antilipemic efficacy. Although not studied, a similar interaction can be expected between other rifamycins (e.g., rifabutin, rifapentine) and other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins). To evaluate this interaction, monitor serum lipid concentrations during coadministration of rifamycins with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Risperidone has been associated with orthostatic hypotension and may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Clinically significant hypotension has been observed with concomitant use of risperidone and antihypertensive medications. Lower initial doses or slower dose titration of risperidone may be necessary in patients receiving antihypertensive agents concomitantly.
    Ritonavir: (Major) Use caution and the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary if atorvastatin must be coadministered with lopinavir; ritonavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with lopinavir; ritonavir. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and lopinavir; ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Rivaroxaban: (Minor) Coadministration of rivaroxaban and atorvastatin may result in increases in rivaroxaban exposure and may increase bleeding risk. Atorvastatin is an inhibitor of P-gp, and rivaroxaban is a substrate of P-gp. If these drugs are administered concurrently, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Sapropterin: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of sapropterin and atorvastatin as coadministration may result in increased systemic exposure of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); in vitro data show that sapropterin may inhibit P-gp. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for increased side effects of atorvastatin.
    Saquinavir: (Major) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily in adults when coadministered with saquinavir in combination with ritonavir. Appropriate clinical assessments should be made to ensure the lowest possible atorvastatin dose is used. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with saquinavir plus ritonavir. Patients should be monitoried for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness especially in the initial months of therapy and any time the dosage of either drug is titrated upward. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The atorvastatin AUC was increased 3.9-fold with the concomitant administration of saquinavir in combination with ritonavir in a pharmacokinetic study; however, the dose of saquinavir plus ritonavir used in the study was lower than doses used in clinical practice. The increase in atorvastatin AUC due to coadministration with clinically appropriate doses of saquinavir plus ritonavir are likely to be even higher. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully against the benefits of combined 'statin' and saquinavir plus ritonavir therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Sarilumab: (Moderate) In vitro, sarilumab has the potential to affect expression of multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP3A4. A 45% decrease in simvastatin exposure was noted 1 week after a single sarilumab dose; simvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Utilize caution when using sarilumab with CYP3A4 substrate drugs where a decrease in effectiveness is undesirable such as atorvastatin.
    Secobarbital: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Sevoflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Sildenafil: (Moderate) Monitor for additive hypotension if amlodipine is administered concurrently with sildenafil, as both agents act independently to reduce blood pressure. When sildenafil 100 mg was co-administered with amlodipine (5 mg or 10 mg) to hypertensive patients, the mean additional reduction on supine blood pressure (SBP) was 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic
    Silodosin: (Moderate) During clinical trials with silodosin, the incidence of dizziness and orthostatic hypotension was higher in patients receiving concomitant antihypertensive treatment. Thus, caution is advisable when silodosin is administered with antihypertensive agents. Silodosin is extensively metabolized by CYP450 3A4 and is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In theory, antihypertensive drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 such as diltiazem, verapamil, and nicardipine may cause significant increases in silodosin plasma concentrations. Verapamil may also interact with silodosin through its effects as a P-gp inhibitor.
    Siltuximab: (Minor) Caution is warranted in patients with co-administered CYP3A4 substrates, such as atorvastatin, in which a decreased effect would be undesirable. Cytochrome P450s in the liver are down regulated by infection and inflammation stimuli, including cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inhibition of IL-6 signaling by siltuximab may restore CYP450 activities to higher levels leading to increased metabolism of drugs that are CYP450 substrates as compared to metabolism prior to treatment. The effect of siltuximab on CYP450 enzyme activity can persist for several weeks after stopping therapy.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine with simeprevir, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and intestinal CYP3A4, may result in increased amlodipine plasma concentrations. Caution and clinical monitoring are recommended if these drugs are administered together. (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin with simeprevir, an inhibitor of OATP1B1 and intestinal CYP3A4, results in increased atorvastatin plasma concentrations. If these drugs are given together, use the lowest effective atorvastatin dose; do not exceed 40 mg daily. Closely monitor for statin-associated adverse reactions, such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.
    Simvastatin: (Major) Do not exceed a simvastatin dose of 20 mg/day in patients taking amlodipine due to increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. For patients chronically receiving simvastatin 80 mg/day who need to be started on amlodipine, consider switching to an alternative statin with less potential for interaction. Carefully weigh the benefits of combined use of amlodipine and simvastatin against the potential risks. Amlodipine increases the simvastatin exposure by approximately 1.5-fold.
    Simvastatin; Sitagliptin: (Major) Do not exceed a simvastatin dose of 20 mg/day in patients taking amlodipine due to increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. For patients chronically receiving simvastatin 80 mg/day who need to be started on amlodipine, consider switching to an alternative statin with less potential for interaction. Carefully weigh the benefits of combined use of amlodipine and simvastatin against the potential risks. Amlodipine increases the simvastatin exposure by approximately 1.5-fold.
    Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by calcium-channel blockers. False study results are possible in patients with drug-induced hyper- or hypo-responsiveness; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of results.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with antacids reduced the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by approximately 35 percent. However, LDL-cholesterol reduction was not altered.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir: (Major) Montior patient closely when atorvastatin is coadministered with velpatasvir as this may significantly increase the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, which may increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Atorvastatin is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein (P-gP) and OATP1B1 transporters as well as CYP3A4, while velpatasvir inhibits P-gp, OATP1B1, and CYP3A4. (Moderate) Use caution when administering velpatasvir with amlodipine. Taking these drugs together may increase velpatasvir plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in adverse events. Amlodipine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; velpatasvir is a substrate of CYP3A4.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Major) Montior patient closely when atorvastatin is coadministered with velpatasvir as this may significantly increase the serum concentrations of atorvastatin, which may increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Atorvastatin is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein (P-gP) and OATP1B1 transporters as well as CYP3A4, while velpatasvir inhibits P-gp, OATP1B1, and CYP3A4. (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering voxilaprevir with atorvastatin. Taking these drugs together may increase atorvastatin plasma concentrations; thereby increasing the risk for adverse events, such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis. Initiate atorvastatin at the lowest approved dose. If higher doses are needed, use the lowest necessary dose based on risk and benefit assessment. Atorvastatin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 (OATP1B1). Voxilaprevir is an inhibitor of both P-gp and OATP1B1. (Moderate) Use caution when administering velpatasvir with amlodipine. Taking these drugs together may increase velpatasvir plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in adverse events. Amlodipine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; velpatasvir is a substrate of CYP3A4.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Spironolactone: (Minor) Because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may theoretically blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production by interfering with cholesterol synthesis, the manufacturer recommends that caution should be exercised when atorvastatin is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the concentrations or activity of endogenous hormones, such as spironolactone. The clinical relevance of these potential interactions has not been established.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) St. John's wort appears to induce the metabolism of the calcium-channel blockers, apparently by the induction of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. A non-controlled pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers found that concurrent administration of St. John's wort with nifedipine resulted in a 53% decrease in nifedipine peak concentrations. The metabolism of other calcium channel blockers may also be increased; it is assumed the reductions in calcium-channel blocker concentrations could reduce clinical efficacy. (Moderate) St. John's Wort appears to induce several isoenzymes of the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Coadministration of St. John's wort could decrease the efficacy of some medications metabolized by these enzymes including atorvastatin.
    Streptogramins: (Moderate) Dalfopristin; quinupristin has been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 and may decrease the elimination of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Dalfopristin; quinupristin may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of amlodipine, resulting in elevated amlodipine plasma concentrations. Monitor patients for increased side effects, such as hypotension.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) The incidence and degree of bradycardia and hypotension during induction with sufentanil may be increased in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. In addition to additive hypotensive effects, calcium-channel blockers that are CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil) can theoretically decrease hepatic metabolism of some opiates (CYP3A4 substrates), such as sufentanil.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine may result in increased serum concentrations of tacrolimus. Monitor tacrolimus concentrations and make dose adjustments as necessary to avoid toxicity of tacrolimus toxicity during concurrent use. (Moderate) The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may be increased when used with tacrolimus.
    Tamsulosin: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of tamsulosin with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. In addition, diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil may increase tamsulosin plasma concentrations via CYP3A4 inhibition. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly.
    Telaprevir: (Major) The concurrent use of atorvastatin and telaprevir should be avoided because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Telaprevir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4, which is responsible for atorvastatin metabolism; coadministration results in significant increases in the pharmacokineitic parameters (AUC and Cmax) of atorvastatin. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering amlodipine with telaprevir due to an increased potential for amlodipine-related adverse events. A reduction in the dose of amlodipine should be considered. If amlodipine dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of telaprevir treatment. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of amlodipine. Amlodipine is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; telaprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated amlodipine plasma concentrations.
    Telbivudine: (Moderate) The risk of myopathy may be increased if an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor is coadministered with telbivudine. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during periods of upward dosage titration.
    Telithromycin: (Major) The concurrent use of telithromycin with atorvastatin is not recommended. Therapy with atorvastatin should be suspended while taking telithromycin; there are no known adverse effects with short-term discontinuation of statins. Rhabdomyolysis has been reported during concurrent use of atorvastatin and telithromycin. Telithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Increased exposure to atorvastatin increases the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. (Moderate) Serious adverse events, including hypotension, have been reported in patients taking telithromycin concomitantly with calcium channel blockers metabolized by the cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isoenzyme, such as amlodipine. Telithromycin is a substrate and inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isozyme. Concurrent administration may result in increased serum concentrations of the calcium channel blocker and increased risk for adverse events.
    Telotristat Ethyl: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of telotristat ethyl and amlodipine is necessary, as the systemic exposure of amlodipine may be decreased resulting in reduced efficacy. If these drugs are used together, monitor patients for suboptimal efficacy of amlodipine; consider increasing the dose of amlodipine if necessary. Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. The mean Cmax and AUC of another sensitive CYP3A4 substrate was decreased by 25% and 48%, respectively, when coadministered with telotristat ethyl; the mechanism of this interaction appears to be that telotristat ethyl increases the glucuronidation of the CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of telotristat ethyl and atorvastatin is necessary, as the systemic exposure of atorvastatin may be decreased resulting in reduced efficacy. Monitor patients for suboptimal efficacy of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate; telotristat ethyl is a CYP3A4 inducer.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of temsirolimus with atorvastatin is necessary, and monitor for an increase in atorvastatin-related adverse reactions. Temsirolimus is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while atorvastatin is a P-gp substrate. Pharmacokinetic data are not available for concomitant use of temsirolimus with P-gp substrates, but exposure to atorvastatin is likely to increase.
    Teriflunomide: (Moderate) Concurrent use of teriflunomide, an inhibitor of the hepatic uptake organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP1B1, with some HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins), including atorvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, or simvastatin may increase the AUC of the statin. Administration of cyclosporine, another OATP1B1 inhibitor, increased the plasma AUC of pravastatin 9.9-fold. Additive hepatotoxicity may occur. Caution should also be exercised when using combination dosage forms, such as amlodipine; atorvastatin, ezetimibe; simvastatin, lovastatin; niacin, niacin; simvastatin, and simvastatin; sitagliptin. Monitor patients for signs of myopathy or hepatotoxicity.
    Tetrabenazine: (Moderate) Tetrabenazine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Lower initial doses or slower dose titration of tetrabenazine may be necessary in patients receiving antihypertensive agents concomitantly.
    Tetracaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents. Use extreme caution with the concomitant use of tetracaine and antihypertensive agents.
    Thalidomide: (Moderate) Thalidomide and other agents that slow cardiac conduction such as calcium-channel blockers should be used cautiously due to the potential for additive bradycardia.
    Thiopental: (Minor) Significant CYP3A4 inducers, such as thiopental, may decrease the efficacy of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, such as atorvastatin, which are CYP3A4 substrates. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when thiopental is coadministered with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors which are metabolized by CYP3A4.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Thiothixene should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Additive hypotensive effects are possible.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Coadministration of amlodipine and beta-blockers can reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance. When these drugs are given together, however, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance can occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis.
    Tipranavir: (Major) Avoid the concurrent use of atorvastatin and tipranavir used in combination with ritonavir. The risk of developing myopathy/rhabdomyolysis increases when atorvastatin is used concomitantly with tipranavir and ritonavir. Protease inhibitors inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of atorvastatin. The atorvastatin AUC was increased 9.4-fold with the concomitant administration of tipranavir in combination with ritonavir. (Moderate) Amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Theoretically, CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, may increase the plasma concentration of amlodipine via CYP3A4 inhibition; this effect might lead to hypotension in some individuals. Caution should be used when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are coadministered with amlodipine; therapeutic response should be monitored. Ritonavir also prolongs the PR interval in some patients; however, the impact on the PR interval of coadministration of ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the PR interval (including calcium channel blockers) has not been evaluated. If coadministration of these drugs is warranted, do so with caution and careful monitoring. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Tocilizumab: (Moderate) The formation of CYP450 enzymes may be suppressed by increased concentrations of cytokines such as IL-6 during chronic inflammation. Thus, it is expected that the formation of CYP450 enzymes could be normalized during tocilizumab receipt. The effect of tocilizumab on CYP450 enzyme activity may persist for several weeks after stopping tocilizumab. In vitro, tocilizumab has the potential to affect expression of multiple CYP enzymes including CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. A 57% decrease in simvastatin exposure was noted 1 week after a single tocilizumab dose; simvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Utilize caution when using tocilizumab in combination with CYP3A4 substrate drugs where a decrease in effectiveness is undesirable such as atorvastatin.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Topiramate: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as topiramate, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Major) Verapamil may increase the serum concentrations of atorvastatin. Verapamil is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) When verapamil (non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker) and amlodipine (dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker) are given, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance may occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis. Also, amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and verapamil is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of diltiazem (moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor) with amlodipine in elderly hypertensive patients resulted in a 60% increase in amlodipine systemic exposure. A similar pharmacokinetic effect may occur with verapamil. While concomitant use may be beneficial for carefully selected patients, caution is warranted; blood pressure, heart rate, and therapeutic response should be closely monitored.
    Tranylcypromine: (Severe) The use of hypotensive agents and tranylcypromine is contraindicated by the manufacturer of tranylcypromine because the effects of hypotensive agents may be markedly potentiated.
    Trazodone: (Minor) Due to additive hypotensive effects, patients receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with trazodone may have excessive hypotension. Decreased dosage of the antihypertensive agent may be required when given with trazodone.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Minor) Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers with amlodipine can theoretically increase the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine (a CYP3A4 substrate). Caution should be used when CYP3A4 inducers, such as valproic acid, divalproex sodium, are coadministered with amlodipine. Monitor therapeutic response; the dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased.
    Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of vemurafenib and atorvastatin may result in altered concentrations of atorvastatin and increased concenrations of vemurafenib. Vemurafenib is a substrate/inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and an inducer of CYP3A4. Atorvastatin is a substrate of PGP and CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of PGP. Use caution and monitor patients for toxicity and efficacy. (Moderate) Vemurafenib is an inducer of CYP3A4 and decreased plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme, such as amlodipine, could be expected with concurrent use. Use caution, and monitor therapeutic effects of amlodipine when coadministered with vemurafenib.
    Verapamil: (Major) Verapamil may increase the serum concentrations of atorvastatin. Verapamil is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and atorvastatin is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) When verapamil (non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker) and amlodipine (dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker) are given, hypotension and impaired cardiac performance may occur, especially in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, or aortic stenosis. Also, amlodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and verapamil is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of diltiazem (moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor) with amlodipine in elderly hypertensive patients resulted in a 60% increase in amlodipine systemic exposure. A similar pharmacokinetic effect may occur with verapamil. While concomitant use may be beneficial for carefully selected patients, caution is warranted; blood pressure, heart rate, and therapeutic response should be closely monitored.
    Voriconazole: (Major) Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors can lead to an increase in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The risk of developing myopathy during therapy with atorvastatin is increased if coadministered with voriconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. When possible, avoid concurrent use of HMG-reductase inhibitors with drugs known to increase the risk of developing rhabdomyolysis or acute renal failure. The serious risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis should be weighed carefully versus the benefits of combined atorvastatin and voriconazole therapy; there is no assurance that periodic monitoring of CK will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and renal damage. (Moderate) Voriconazole may inhibit the metabolism of many calcium-channel blockers via inhibition of CYP3A4. Although clinical data are lacking, it may be prudent to exercise caution when co-administering voriconazole and any calcium-channel blocker. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Per the manufacturer of atorvastatin, a clinically significant effect on the prothrombin time when atorvastatin is administered to patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy has not been documented. In a study by the manufacturer, patients chronically maintained on warfarin were administered atorvastatin (80 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Mean prothrombin times decreased slightly, but only for the first few days of treatment. Per prescribing information for warfarin sodium (Coumadin), however, all HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), including atorvastatin, have been associated with potentiation of warfarin's clinical effect. In patients taking atorvastatin, it may be prudent to monitor the INR at baseline, at initiation of atorvastatin, and after subsequent dosage changes. Adjust warfarin dosage based on INR and clinical response. Once a stable INR is documented, the INR can be monitored at the intervals otherwise recommended based on the indication for anticoagulation and co-existing conditions.
    Yohimbine: (Moderate) Yohimbine (a selective central alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist) can increase blood pressure, and therefore can antagonize the therapeutic action of antihypertensive drugs in general. One study in patients with essential hypertension (n = 25) reported an average rise of 5 mmHg in mean blood pressure and a 66% increase in plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations following yohimbine administration (4 x 5.4 mg tablets PO). Use with particular caution in hypertensive patients with high or uncontrolled BP.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) Zafirlukast is a CYP3A4 inhibitor which theoretically may decrease the hepatic metabolism of amlodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Ziprasidone: (Minor) Ziprasidone is a moderate antagonist of alpha-1 receptors and may cause orthostatic hypotension with or without tachycardia, dizziness, or syncope. Additive hypotensive effects are possible if ziprasidone is used concurrently with antihypertensive agents.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Zonisamide is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and atorvastatin is a substrate of P-gp. There is theoretical potential for zonisamide to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates. Use caution when starting or stopping zonisamide or changing the zonisamide dosage in patients also receiving drugs which are P-gp substrates.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin has been classified FDA pregnancy category X. Atorvastatin is contraindicated for use in pregnant females. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are important for fetal development including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes. Because atorvastatin decreases cholesterol synthesis, the drug may cause fetal harm. Other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been shown to cause malformations of vertebrae and ribs in fetal rats when given in high doses. Atorvastatin should be administered to females of childbearing age only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards.

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin is contraindicated in women who are breast-feeding their infants. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are important for development including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes. Because atorvastatin decreases cholesterol synthesis, the drug may interfere with infant development.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    •Amlodipine: Amlodipine inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium across cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes. Serum calcium levels remain unchanged. The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractility of smooth muscle cells resulting in dilation of coronary and systemic arteries. This dilation results in decreased vascular resistance and increased coronary blood flow and oxygen delivery to myocardial tissue. Myocardial oxygen consumption is also reduced. As with other dihydropyridine class calcium-channel blockers, amlodipine exerts its effects mainly on arteriolar vasculature. It has no significant effect on sinus node function or cardiac conduction, nor does it possess negative inotropic effects at clinical doses. Unlike other peripheral vasodilators, amlodipine has a gradual onset and reflex tachycardia does not occur. Amlodipine therapy usually does not affect hemodynamic parameters in patients with normal ventricular function. In general, calcium-channel blockers exert favorable effects on LVH, and do not worsen insulin resistance or exert detrimental effects on the lipid profile.
     
    •Atorvastatin: Atorvastatin is a selective, competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting hepatic enzyme responsible for converting HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols including cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase lowers the amount of mevalonate and subsequently reduces cholesterol levels in hepatic cells. This, in turn, results in up-regulation of LDL-receptors and increased hepatic uptake of LDL-cholesterol from the circulation. Atorvastatin ultimately reduces the levels of circulating total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and serum triglycerides. Drug dosage rather than systemic drug concentration correlates better with LDL-cholesterol reduction. As with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, atorvastatin exhibits no effects on antipyrine hepatic metabolism.
     
    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been reported to decrease endogenous CoQ10 serum concentrations; the clinical significance of these effects is unknown.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Amlodipine; atorvastatin is administered orally.
    Amlodipine: Like other calcium-channel blockers, amlodipine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 isoenzymes. The drug is approximately 93% bound to plasma proteins, but drug interactions secondary to displacement from binding sites have not been documented. Amlodipine is extensively metabolized to inactive compounds, and 10% of the parent compound and 60% of the inactive metabolites are excreted in the urine. The terminal half-life is about 30—50 hours, which is significantly longer than other dihydropyridines that are currently available. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached after 7 to 8 days of consecutive daily dosing.
    Atorvastatin: Atorvastatin is >= 98% bound to plasma proteins. A blood:plasma ratio of 0.25 indicates poor drug penetration into red blood cells. Animal data reveal that atorvastatin is likely to be secreted in human milk. Atorvastatin undergoes extensive metabolism to active ortho- and para-hydroxylated metabolites that account for approximately 70% of the circulating HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity. Based on in vitro studies, CYP3A4 may also contribute to metabolism. In animals, the ortho-hydroxy metabolite is further metabolized by glucuronidation. Elimination of atorvastatin and its metabolites occurs primarily in bile following hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. It does not appear that the drug undergoes enterohepatic recirculation, and less than 2% of a dose is recovered in the urine. The mean plasma elimination half-life is approximately 14 hours, however, the half-life of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is 20—30 hours because of the active metabolites.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporter: CYP3A4, P-gp
    Atorvastatin is a substrate and inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein (P-pg) transport system. Amlodipine and atorvastatin are CYP3A4 substrates, and their metabolism may theoretically be affected by CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers.

    Oral Route

    Amlodipine: Amlodipine is administered orally and is slowly but almost completely absorbed. Oral bioavailability ranges from 64—90%. Peak plasma concentrations are achieved between 6—12 hours post-dose, and maximum hypotensive effects are correspondingly delayed. Food does not appear to influence these parameters.
    Atorvastatin: Following oral administration, atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 1—2 hours. The extent of absorption increases in proportion to the dose of atorvastatin. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. Pre-systemic clearance and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism accounts for the low systemic bioavailability. Food decreases the rate and extent of atorvastatin absorption by approximately 25% and 9%, respectively, however, LDL-cholesterol reduction is similar whether the drug is given with or without food. Similarly, atorvastatin plasma concentrations are lower following evening doses compared with morning dosing and LDL-cholesterol reduction is the same regardless of the time of day the drug is administered.