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    Anthracyclines

    BOXED WARNING

    Bone marrow suppression, herpes infection, infection, neutropenia, requires a specialized care setting, requires an experienced clinician, thrombocytopenia, varicella, viral infection

    Severe bone marrow suppression is a relative contraindication to daunorubicin depending upon the etiology of the suppression. Patients with acute leukemia may require treatment with daunorubicin despite severe bone marrow suppression. Daunorubicin should be used cautiously in patients with bone marrow suppression, coagulopathy, or in those who have received previous myelosuppressive therapy such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Therefore, treatment with this drug requires an experienced clinician knowledgeable in the use of cancer chemotherapy, and administration of daunorubicin requires a specialized care setting, such as a hospital or treatment facility. Patients with preexisting marrow suppression, including neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia, should be allowed to recover their counts prior to daunorubicin administration. Patients should be treated for any active infection prior to receiving daunorubicin. Patients with a history of varicella zoster, other herpes infection (e.g., herpes simplex), or other viral infection are at risk for reactivation of the infection when treated with chemotherapy.

    Extravasation, intramuscular administration, subcutaneous administration

    Daunorubicin is considered a vesicant. Extravasation of daunorubicin infusions should be avoided. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of extravasation including pain, swelling and decreased blood return. If extravasation occurs, stop the infusion and remove the tubing. Attempt to aspirate the drug prior to removing the needle. Elevate the affected area and treat with ice packs. As this can be a progressive injury, appropriate long-term follow-up is required. Intramuscular administration and subcutaneous administration of daunorubicin is contraindicated due to severe skin and tissue necrosis which may occur.

    Hepatic disease, jaundice

    Patients with hepatic disease and/or jaundice should receive daunorubicin cautiously. The dose should be adjusted for elevations in the total bilirubin because daunorubicin is significantly cleared through the biliary tree.

    Renal failure, renal impairment

    Daunorubicin is eliminated renally. Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients with renal impairment or renal failure to avoid toxicity.

    Alcoholism, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiotoxicity, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, geriatric, heart failure, hypertension, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, long QT syndrome, malnutrition, maximum cumulative lifetime dose, myocardial infarction, QT prolongation, thyroid disease

    Severe cardiotoxicity including fatal congestive heart failure may occur during daunorubicin therapy or months to years after discontinuing therapy. Cardiotoxicity is dose related and the incidence increases after total cumulative doses exceeding 400—550 mg/m2 in adults, 300 mg/m2 in patients greater than 2 years of age, or 10 mg/kg in patients less than 2 years of age. The maximum cumulative lifetime dose of daunorubicin is 550 mg/m2 IV, or 400 mg/m2 IV in patients who have previously received mediastinal radiation. A history of cardiac disease and previous therapy with doxorubicin may increase the risk of daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity; perform a risk/benefit analysis prior to starting therapy in these patients. Monitor electrocardiogram and/or systolic ejection fraction prior to each course of daunorubicin therapy. Use daunorubicin with caution in patients with cardiac disease or other conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including cardiac arrhythmias, congenital long QT syndrome, heart failure, bradycardia, myocardial infarction, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Women, geriatric patients, patients with diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, malnutrition, alcoholism, or hepatic disease may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Anthracycline antineoplastic; used to treat acute leukemias; decreased incidence of mucositis and cardiotoxicity compared to doxorubicin; limited activity in solid tumors. (Liposomal product discussed in separate monograph)

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Cerubidine

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Cerubidine/Daunorubicin Hydrochloride Intravenous Inj Pwd F/Sol: 20mg
    Daunorubicin Hydrochloride Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 5mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) as remission induction or consolidation therapy in combination with other chemotherapy agents.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults <= 60 years

    45 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3 of the first course (induction) and on days 1 and 2 of subsequent courses (consolidation) in combination with cytarabine 100 mg/m2/day IV infusion daily for 7 days for the first course and for 5 days for subsequent courses. Depending on the results of a bone marrow evaluation following recovery from the previous course of induction therapy, up to 3 courses of induction therapy may be necessary. Alternatively, daunorubicin doses of 60 mg/m2/day† have been used in this regimen. Daunorubicin 90 mg/m2/day IV bolus on days 1, 2, and 3 has been given in combination with cytarabine† for remission induction. In a phase III study, 657 patients with AML aged 17 to 60 years were randomized to receive high-dose daunorubicin 90 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3 or conventional dose daunorubicin 45 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3. Compared to the conventional dose arm, patients randomized to the high-dose daunorubicin arm had a significantly increased complete remission rate (70.6% vs. 57.3%, p < 0.001) and overall survival (23.7 months vs. 15.7 months, p = 0.003). Adverse event rates were similar between treatment arms.

    Adults >= 60 years and Geriatric patients

    30 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3 of the first course (induction) and on days 1 and 2 of subsequent courses (consolidation) in combination with cytarabine 100 mg/m2/day IV infusion daily for 7 days for the first course and for 5 days for subsequent courses. This reduced daunorubicin dose of 30 mg/m2/day was based on a single study and may not be appropriate if optimal supportive care is available. Depending on the results of a bone marrow evaluation following recovery from the previous course of induction therapy, up to 3 courses of induction therapy may be necessary. Alternatively, daunorubicin doses of up to 60 mg/m2/day† have been used in this regimen. Daunorubicin 90 mg/m2/day IV bolus on days 1, 2, and 3 has been given in combination with cytarabine† for remission induction. In a phase III study, 813 patients with AML aged 60 to 83 years were randomized to receive high-dose daunorubicin 90 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3 or conventional dose daunorubicin 45 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3. Patients randomized to the high-dose daunorubicin arm had a significantly increased complete remission rate compared to the conventional dose arm (64% vs. 54%, p = 0.002), including a higher complete remission rate after the first induction cycle (52% vs. 35%, p < 0.001). Event-free survival, the primary endpoint, was not significantly different in the overall population, but was significantly improved in the high-dose arm among patients ages 60 to 65 years. The treatment arms did not differ significantly in the rates of grade 2 through 4 toxicities.

    For the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) as remission induction therapy in combination with other chemotherapy agents.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    45 mg/m2/day IV on days 1 to 3 in combination with vincristine 2 mg IV on days 1, 8, and 15; prednisone 40 mg/m2/day PO on days 1 through 22 (then tapered between days 22 to 29); and L-asparaginase 500 international units/kg/day IV for 10 days on days 22 through 32. Alternative regimens include daunorubicin 60 mg/m2/day IV on days 1, 2, and 3 plus vincristine and prednisone† or daunorubicin 25 mg/m2/dose IV on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in combination with prednisone, vincristine, asparaginase, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, and mercaptopurine.†

    Children >= 2 years and Adolescents

    25 mg/m2/dose IV on day 1 once weekly (or 1 mg/kg/dose in children with a body surface area less than 0.5 m2) in combination with vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 IV on day 1 once weekly and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO daily. If a complete remission has not been achieved within 4 courses of therapy and the patient is in a partial remission, an additional 1 or 2 courses may be given.

    Children < 2 years

    1 mg/kg/dose IV on day 1 once weekly in combination with vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 IV on day 1 once weekly and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO daily. If a complete remission has not been achieved within 4 courses of therapy and the patient is in a partial remission, an additional 1 or 2 courses may be given.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    NOTE: Exceeding the total cumulative anthracycline dose may increase the risk for drug-induced congestive heart failure.

    Adults

    45 mg/m2/dose IV, although doses up to 90 mg/m2/dose IV have been used off-label; total cumulative anthracycline dose: 550 mg/m2 IV or 400 mg/m2 IV in patients who have received radiation therapy involving the heart area.

    Geriatric

    45 mg/m2/dose IV, although doses up to 90 mg/m2/dose IV have been used off-label; total cumulative anthracycline dose: 550 mg/m2 IV or 400 mg/m2 IV in patients who have received radiation therapy involving the heart area.

    Adolescents

    25 mg/m2/dose IV; total cumulative anthracycline dose: 300 mg/m2 IV.

    Children

    Age >= 2 years and BSA > 0.5 m2: 25 mg/m2/dose IV; age < 2 years or BSA < 0.5 m2: 1 mg/kg/dose IV; total cumulative anthracycline dose: 300 mg/m2 IV for children >= 2 years or 10 mg/kg IV for children < 2 years.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Total bilirubin 1.2—3 mg/dL: reduce recommended dose by 50%.
    Total bilirubin > 3—5 mg/dL: reduce recommended dose by 75%.
    Total bilirubin > 5 mg/dL: Omit dose.

    Renal Impairment

    It is recommended in patients with a serum creatinine > 3 mg/dL to administer 50% of the dose.

    ADMINISTRATION

     
    CAUTION: Observe and exercise appropriate precautions for handling, preparing, and administering cytotoxic drugs.
     
    NOTE: Conventional daunorubicin is not used for the same indications as liposomal daunorubicin. In addition, doses may vary substantially; see daunorubicin liposomal dosage for specific information regarding this formulation.

    Injectable Administration

    Daunorubicin should be administered only under the supervision of a physician who is experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapy.
    Daunorubicin is administered intravenously. Because the drug is extremely irritating to tissues, it should not be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If evidence of extravasation occurs during administration, the infusion should be stopped and completed via another vein, preferably in another limb.
    Because aluminum darkens daunorubicin solutions, do not use aluminum needles during reconstitution or administration.
    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

    Intravenous Administration

    Reconstitution:
    Reconstitute 20 mg with 4 mL of sterile water for injection to give a solution containing 5 mg of daunorubicin per mL. During reconstitution, gently shake the vial until the powder is completely dissolved. The reconstituted solution is stable for 24 hours at room temperature or 48 hours under refrigeration. Do not expose to sunlight.
     
    Injection:
    Withdraw the desired dose of the reconstituted solution into a syringe containing 10—15 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride injection.
    Inject over 3—5 minutes via Y-site or 3-way stopcock into a free-flowing IV infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride for injection or 5% Dextrose for injection. Care should be taken to avoid extravasation because the drug may be irritating to extravascular tissue. Following injection, flush the vein with the IV infusion for 2—5 minutes and/or inject 5—10 mL of IV solution into the sidearm to flush the tubing.
    Rapid injection of daunorubicin IV solutions may cause facial flushing or erythema along the vein.
     
    Infusion:
    Dilute the reconstituted solution in 50—100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride injection, Lactated Ringer's, or 5% Dextrose for injection.
    Infuse 50 mL over 10—15 minutes or 100 mL over 30-45 minutes. Care should be taken to avoid extravasation because the drug may be irritating to extravascular tissue.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Protect from light
    - Store diluted product at room temperature (68 to 77 degrees F) for up to 24 hours
    - Store in carton until time of use
    - Store unreconstituted product in refrigerator (36 to 46 degrees F)
    Cerubidine:
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    NOTE: The liposomal formulation of daunorubicin is discussed in a separate monograph.

    Anthracycline hypersensitivity

    Daunorubicin is contraindicated in patients with known daunorubicin hypersensitivity; it is prudent to use with caution in patients with documented allergic reaction to other anthracycline medications (i.e., anthracycline hypersensitivity).

    Bone marrow suppression, herpes infection, infection, neutropenia, requires a specialized care setting, requires an experienced clinician, thrombocytopenia, varicella, viral infection

    Severe bone marrow suppression is a relative contraindication to daunorubicin depending upon the etiology of the suppression. Patients with acute leukemia may require treatment with daunorubicin despite severe bone marrow suppression. Daunorubicin should be used cautiously in patients with bone marrow suppression, coagulopathy, or in those who have received previous myelosuppressive therapy such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Therefore, treatment with this drug requires an experienced clinician knowledgeable in the use of cancer chemotherapy, and administration of daunorubicin requires a specialized care setting, such as a hospital or treatment facility. Patients with preexisting marrow suppression, including neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia, should be allowed to recover their counts prior to daunorubicin administration. Patients should be treated for any active infection prior to receiving daunorubicin. Patients with a history of varicella zoster, other herpes infection (e.g., herpes simplex), or other viral infection are at risk for reactivation of the infection when treated with chemotherapy.

    Radiation therapy

    Patients who have had previous radiation therapy may experience radiation recall reactions during daunorubicin therapy. Daunorubicin is a radiation sensitizer and should be used with caution in patients receiving concurrent radiation therapy.

    Dental disease, dental work

    Myelosuppressive effects of daunorubicin can increase the risk of infection or bleeding; therefore, dental work should be delayed until blood counts have returned to normal. Patients, especially those with dental disease, should be instructed in proper oral hygiene, including caution in use of regular toothbrushes, dental floss, and toothpicks.

    Extravasation, intramuscular administration, subcutaneous administration

    Daunorubicin is considered a vesicant. Extravasation of daunorubicin infusions should be avoided. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of extravasation including pain, swelling and decreased blood return. If extravasation occurs, stop the infusion and remove the tubing. Attempt to aspirate the drug prior to removing the needle. Elevate the affected area and treat with ice packs. As this can be a progressive injury, appropriate long-term follow-up is required. Intramuscular administration and subcutaneous administration of daunorubicin is contraindicated due to severe skin and tissue necrosis which may occur.

    Intramuscular injections

    Intramuscular injections should not be administered to patients with platelet counts < 50,000/mm3 who are receiving daunorubicin. IM injections may cause bleeding, bruising, or hematomas due to daunorubicin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Hepatic disease, jaundice

    Patients with hepatic disease and/or jaundice should receive daunorubicin cautiously. The dose should be adjusted for elevations in the total bilirubin because daunorubicin is significantly cleared through the biliary tree.

    Renal failure, renal impairment

    Daunorubicin is eliminated renally. Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients with renal impairment or renal failure to avoid toxicity.

    Hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, tumor lysis syndrome (TLS)

    Hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, and decreased urine output may be indicative of daunorubicin-induced tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Appropriate measures (e.g. aggressive hydration and allopurinol) must be taken to prevent severe electrolyte imbalances and renal toxicity during and following chemotherapy administration in patients with large chemosensitive tumors.

    Alcoholism, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiotoxicity, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, geriatric, heart failure, hypertension, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, long QT syndrome, malnutrition, maximum cumulative lifetime dose, myocardial infarction, QT prolongation, thyroid disease

    Severe cardiotoxicity including fatal congestive heart failure may occur during daunorubicin therapy or months to years after discontinuing therapy. Cardiotoxicity is dose related and the incidence increases after total cumulative doses exceeding 400—550 mg/m2 in adults, 300 mg/m2 in patients greater than 2 years of age, or 10 mg/kg in patients less than 2 years of age. The maximum cumulative lifetime dose of daunorubicin is 550 mg/m2 IV, or 400 mg/m2 IV in patients who have previously received mediastinal radiation. A history of cardiac disease and previous therapy with doxorubicin may increase the risk of daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity; perform a risk/benefit analysis prior to starting therapy in these patients. Monitor electrocardiogram and/or systolic ejection fraction prior to each course of daunorubicin therapy. Use daunorubicin with caution in patients with cardiac disease or other conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including cardiac arrhythmias, congenital long QT syndrome, heart failure, bradycardia, myocardial infarction, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Women, geriatric patients, patients with diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, malnutrition, alcoholism, or hepatic disease may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation.

    Accidental exposure, ocular exposure

    Use care to avoid accidental exposure to daunorubicin during preparation, handling, and administration. The use of protective gowns, gloves and goggles is recommended. Following skin or ocular exposure, skin and eyes should be thoroughly rinsed.

    Vaccination

    Vaccination during chemotherapy or radiation therapy should be avoided because the antibody response is suboptimal. When daunorubicin therapy is being planned, vaccination should precede the initiation of treatment by >= 2 weeks. The administration of live vaccines to immunocompromised patients should be avoided. Those undergoing chemotherapy should not be exposed to others who have recently received the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination is not contraindicated for the close contacts, including health care professionals, of immunocompromised patients. Passive immunoprophylaxis with immune globulins may be indicated for immunocompromised persons instead of, or in addition to, vaccination. When exposed to a vaccine-preventable disease such as measles, severely immunocompromised children should be considered susceptible regardless of their vaccination history.

    Pregnancy

    Daunorubicin is classified FDA pregnancy risk category D and should not be administered during pregnancy because of the possibility of teratogenic effects. Daunorubicin was teratogenic in animal studies at doses less than the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis with malformations including esophageal, cardiovascular, and urogenital abnormalities. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of daunorubicin in pregnant women. Women of reproductive potential should be warned against getting pregnant. If a woman becomes pregnant during therapy, she should be advised of the potential risks to the fetus.

    Breast-feeding

    It is unknown whether daunorubicin is excreted in breast-milk. Due to the potential for severe toxicity in the nursing infant, it is recommended mothers discontinue breast-feeding during daunorubicin therapy.

    Children, infants

    The risk of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity appears to be increased in infants, children, and adolescents and may occur at lower cumulative doses. Cardiotoxicity is dose dependent and may be worse in patients who received thoracic irradiation. Impaired left ventricular systolic performance, reduced contractility, congestive heart failure, and death have been reported in pediatric patients who received anthracycline therapy, including daunorubicin. Children treated with anthracyclines may develop late cardiotoxicity. Due to the risk of long-term cardiotoxicity, it has been recommended that patients treated with anthracyclines should undergo screening with electrocardiograms and echocardiograms every 2 years and 24-hour continuous electrocardiograms and radionuclide angiograms every 5 years.

    Females

    Females may have an increased risk of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Female patients had a significantly greater reduction in cardiac contractility compared with male patients based on echocardiogram evaluations in a study in 120 children and adults who had been treated with bolus doses of doxorubicin (cumulative doses of 244—550 mg/m2) in childhood.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    heart failure / Delayed / 0-10.0
    pericarditis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    myocarditis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    pancytopenia / Delayed / 10.0
    cardiomyopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ventricular tachycardia / Early / Incidence not known
    AV block / Early / Incidence not known
    tissue necrosis / Early / Incidence not known
    tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    contact dermatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anemia / Delayed / 10.0
    neutropenia / Delayed / 10.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 10.0
    leukopenia / Delayed / 10.0
    bleeding / Early / Incidence not known
    superinfection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) / Early / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) / Early / Incidence not known
    ST-T wave changes / Rapid / Incidence not known
    QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    bundle-branch block / Early / Incidence not known
    oral ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    phlebitis / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hyperuricemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    secondary malignancy / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    nail discoloration / Delayed / 0-1.0
    rash (unspecified) / Early / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    fever / Early / 0-1.0
    chills / Rapid / 0-1.0
    alopecia / Delayed / 10.0
    urine discoloration / Early / 10.0
    infection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    diarrhea / Early / Incidence not known
    abdominal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    injection site reaction / Rapid / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Albuterol: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Albuterol; Ipratropium: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Alfuzosin: (Major) Based on electrophysiology studies performed by the manufacturer, alfuzosin has a slight effect to prolong the QT interval. The QT prolongation appeared less with alfuzosin 10 mg than with 40 mg. The manufacturer warns that the QT effect of alfuzosin should be considered prior to administering the drug to patients taking other medications known to prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Amiodarone: (Major) The concomitant use of amiodarone and other drugs known to prolong the QT interval should be done only after careful assessment of risks versus benefits, especially when the coadministered agent might decrease the metabolism of amiodarone. Amiodarone, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Although the frequency of TdP is less with amiodarone than with other Class III agents, amiodarone is still associated with a risk of TdP. Due to the extremely long half-life of amiodarone, a drug interaction is possible for days to weeks after discontinuation of amiodarone. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Amitriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Major) Clarithromycin is associated with an established risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Clarithromycin is associated with an established risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Anticoagulants: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Antithymocyte Globulin: (Moderate) Because antithymocyte globulin is an immunosuppressant, additive affects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. While therapy is designed to take advantage of this effect, patients may be predisposed to over-immunosuppression resulting in an increased risk of infection or other side effects.
    Apixaban: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Apomorphine: (Major) Limited data indicate that QT prolongation is possible with apomorphine administration; the change in QTc interval is not significant in most patients receiving dosages within the manufacturer's guidelines. In one study, a single mean dose of 5.2 mg (range 210 mg) prolonged the QT interval by about 3 msec. However, large increases (> 60 msecs from pre-dose) have occurred in two patients receiving 6 mg doses. Doses <= 6 mg SC are associated with minimal increases in QTc; doses > 6 mg SC do not provide additional clinical benefit and are not recommended. Caution should be exercised when prescribing apomorphine concomitantly with drugs that prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Arformoterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Argatroban: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Aripiprazole is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), and should be used cautiously with daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin due to the potential risk for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of these agents; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Moderate) Since arsenic trioxide can prolong the QT interval and cause torsades de pointes, it should be used cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) The administration of artemether; lumefantrine is associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Although there are no studies examining the effects of artemether; lumefantrine in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, such as daunorubicin, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation and should be avoided. Consider ECG monitoring if daunorubicin must be used with or after artemether; lumefantrine treatment. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Asenapine: (Major) Asenapine has been associated with QT prolongation. Therefore, asenapine should be used cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as myelosuppression or cardiomyopathy, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is aP-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Caution and close monitoring are recommended during concurrent use of atomoxetine and anthracycline therapy. QT prolongation has occurred during therapeutic use of atomoxetine and following overdose. Atomoxetine is considered a drug with a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Azithromycin: (Major) Due to a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), azithromycin and daunorubicin should be used together cautiously. There have been case reports of QT prolongation and TdP with the use of azithromycin in postmarketing reports. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. In addition, daunorubicin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and azithromycin is a P-gp inhibitor, so coadministration may lead to increased anthracycline concentrations.
    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccine, BCG: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Beclomethasone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Bedaquiline: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering bedaquiline with daunorubicin. Bedaquiline has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Prior to initiating bedaquiline, obtain serum electrolyte concentrations and a baseline ECG. An ECG should also be performed at least 2, 12, and 24 weeks after starting bedaquiline therapy. Acute cardiotoxicity and cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur during administration of daunorubicin. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Betamethasone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Betrixaban: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Potential QT prolongation has been reported in limited case reports with metronidazole. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Potential QT prolongation has been reported in limited case reports with metronidazole. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Bivalirudin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering daunorubicin with boceprevir due to an increased potential for daunorubicin-related adverse events. If daunorubicin dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of daunorubicin. Daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (PGP); boceprevir is an inhibitor of this efflux protein. Coadministration may result in elevated daunorubicin plasma concentrations.
    Budesonide: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Buprenorphine: (Major) If concurrent use of an anthracycline chemotherapy agent and buprenorphine is necessary, cautious use and close monitoring are advisable. Buprenorphine has been associated with QT prolongation and has a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. FDA-approved labeling for some buprenorphine products recommend avoiding use with Class 1A and Class III antiarrhythmic medications while other labels recommend avoiding use with any drug that has the potential to prolong the QT interval.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) If concurrent use of an anthracycline chemotherapy agent and buprenorphine is necessary, cautious use and close monitoring are advisable. Buprenorphine has been associated with QT prolongation and has a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. FDA-approved labeling for some buprenorphine products recommend avoiding use with Class 1A and Class III antiarrhythmic medications while other labels recommend avoiding use with any drug that has the potential to prolong the QT interval.
    Cabozantinib: (Major) Monitor for an increase in daunorubicin-related adverse events if concomitant use with cabozantinib is necessary, as plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be increased. Cabozantinib is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and daunorubicin is a substrate of P-gp; the clinical relevance of this finding is unknown.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased concentrations of daunorubicin may occur if it is coadministered with carvedilol; exercise caution. Carvedilol is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Celecoxib: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ceritinib: (Major) Periodically monitor electrolytes and ECGs in patients receiving concomitant treatment with ceritinib and daunorubicin; an interruption of ceritinib therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Ceritinib causes concentration-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Chloroquine administration is associated with an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). The need to coadminister chloroquine with drugs known to prolong the QT interval should be done with a careful assessment of risks versus benefits and should be avoided when possible. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Phenothiazines have been associated a risk of QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (TdP). This risk is generally higher at elevated drugs concentrations of phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine is specifically associated with an established risk of QT prolongation and TdP; case reports have included patients receiving therapeutic doses of chlorpromazine. Agents that prolong the QT interval could lead to torsade de pointes when combined with a phenothiazine, and therefore are generally not recommended for combined use or should be avoided. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Ciclesonide: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Major) Ciprofloxacin has been reported to cause QT prolongation and torsade de pointes. Use ciprofloxacin with caution with daunorubicin or doxorubicin as acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Cisapride: (Severe) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Because of the potential for torsades de pointes (TdP), use of cisapride with daunorubicin is contraindicated.
    Citalopram: (Major) Citalopram causes dose-dependent QT interval prolongation. According to the manufacturer, concurrent use of citalopram with other drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin and doxorubicin, is not recommended. If concurrent therapy is considered essential, ECG monitoring is recommended. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Clarithromycin is associated with an established risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Clomipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Clozapine: (Major) It is unclear if concurrent use of other drugs known to cause neutropenia (e.g., antineoplastic agents) increases the risk or severity of clozapine-induced neutropenia. Because there is no strong rationale for avoiding clozapine in patients treated with these drugs, consider increased absolute neutrophil count (ANC) monitoring and consult the treating oncologist. Additionally, treatment with clozapine has been associated with QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), cardiac arrest, and sudden death. Antineoplastic agents with a possible risk of QT prolongation and TdP (torsade de pointes) include anthracyclines. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as myelosuppression or cardiomyopathy, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is aP-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as myelosuppression or cardiomyopathy, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is aP-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as myelosuppression or cardiomyopathy, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is aP-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Use with caution with other agents that may cause QT prolongation. Promethazine carries a possible risk of QT prolongation. In addition, promethazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If avoidance of promethazine with doxorubicin is not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Use with caution with other agents that may cause QT prolongation. Promethazine carries a possible risk of QT prolongation. In addition, promethazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If avoidance of promethazine with doxorubicin is not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be elevated when administered concurrently with conivaptan. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as myelosuppression or cardiomyopathy, is recommended during coadministration. Conivaptan is a p-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Corticosteroids: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Corticotropin, ACTH: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Cortisone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Crizotinib: (Major) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes in patients receiving crizotinib concomitantly with daunorubicin. An interruption of therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary for crizotinib patients if QT prolongation occurs. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin, although the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Crizotinib has also been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Moderate) Cyclobenzaprine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP), particularly in the event of acute overdose. Cyclobenzaprine administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Cyclophosphamide: (Major) Use caution if cyclophosphamide is used concomitantly with anthracyclines, as there may be an increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Concurrent administration of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin has resulted in an increase in exposure to doxorubicinol, a more cardiotoxic metabolite of doxorubicin. Additionally, concurrent treatment with doxorubicin (including doxorubicin liposomal) has been reported to exacerbate cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Concurrent use of daunorubicin with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as other immunosuppressives may result in additive effects. In addition, high doses of cyclosporine (starting at 16 mg/kg/day IV) may increase exposure to anthracyclines (e.g. daunorubicin) in cancer patients. Cyclosporine is a substrate and inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, an energy-dependent drug efflux pump encoded for by the multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR1). Overexpression of this protein has been described as a mechanism of resistance to naturally-occurring (non-synthetic) chemotherapy agents. Cyclosporine can block MDR1-mediated resistance when given at much higher doses than those used in transplantation and may also enhance the efficacy of daunorubicin by inhibiting this protein. Valspodar is a cyclosporine analog with less renal and immunosuppressive effects than cyclosporine while retaining effects on MDR. The addition of cyclosporine or valspodar to daunorubicin therapy may result in increases in AUC for both daunorubicin and daunorubincinol possibly due to a decrease in clearance of parent drug, a decrease in metabolism of daunorubincinol, or an increase in intracellular daunorubicin concentrations.
    Dabigatran: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Daclatasvir: (Moderate) Systemic exposure of daunorubicin, a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), may be increased when administered concurrently with daclatasvir, a P-gp and BCRP inhibitor. Taking these drugs together could increase or prolong the therapeutic effects of daunorubicin; monitor patients for potential adverse effects.
    Daclizumab: (Minor) Concurrent use of daunorubicin with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as other antineoplastic agents or immunosuppressives may result in additive effects.
    Dalteparin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Danaparoid: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of daunorubicin may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as myelosuppression or cardiomyopathy, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is aP-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir with daunorubicin may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Daunorubicin is known to increase the QT interval. While dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir did not prolong the QT interval to a clinically relevant extent in healthy subjects, ritonavir has been associated with dose-related QT prolongation in other trials. In addition, daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ritonavir and paritaprevir are P-gp inhibitorsis a P-gp inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring is advised if these drugs are administered together. (Major) The use of ritonavir could result in QT prolongation. Use ritonavir cautiously in patients taking other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ritonavir is a P-gp inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring is advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Dasatinib: (Major) In vitro studies have shown that dasatinib has the potential to prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization (prolong QT interval). Cautious dasatinib administration is recommended to patients who have or may develop QT prolongation such as patients taking drugs that lead to QT prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Deflazacort: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Degarelix: (Major) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously with daunorubicin include degarelix.
    Desflurane: (Major) Since halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Desipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Desirudin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) For patients taking a deutetrabenazine dosage more than 24 mg/day with daunorubicin, assess the QTc interval before and after increasing the dosage of either medication. Clinically relevant QTc prolongation may occur with deutetrabenazine. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Dexamethasone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Dextromethorphan; Promethazine: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Use with caution with other agents that may cause QT prolongation. Promethazine carries a possible risk of QT prolongation. In addition, promethazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If avoidance of promethazine with doxorubicin is not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Quinidine administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Diclofenac: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Diflunisal: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Some antineoplastic agents have been reported to decrease the absorption of digoxin tablets due to their adverse effects on the GI mucosa; the effect on digoxin liquid is not known. The reduction in digoxin tablet absorption has resulted in plasma concentrations that are 50% of pretreatment levels and has been clinically significant in some patients. It is prudent to closely monitor patients for loss of clinical efficacy of digoxin while receiving antineoplastic therapy.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Disopyramide: (Major) Disopyramide administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Dofetilide: (Severe) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Dofetilide, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Because of the potential for TdP, use of daunorubicin with dofetilide is contraindicated.
    Dolasetron: (Major) Dolasetron has been associated with a dose-dependant prolongation in the QT, PR, and QRS intervals on an electrocardiogram. Dolasetron injection is contraindicated for use for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting because the risk of QT prolongation is higher with the doses used for this indication; when the injection is used at lower doses (i.e., those approved for post-operative nausea and vomiting) or when the oral formulation is used, the risk of QT prolongation is lower and caution is advised. Dolasetron should be used cautiously with anthracyclines such as daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Donepezil: (Major) Case reports indicate that QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) can occur during donepezil therapy. Donepezil is considered a drug with a known risk of TdP. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin (including daunorubicin liposomal), doxorubicin (including doxorubicin liposomal), epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Caution and close monitoring are recommended during concurrent use of donepezil and anthracycline therapy.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Major) Case reports indicate that QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) can occur during donepezil therapy. Donepezil is considered a drug with a known risk of TdP. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin (including daunorubicin liposomal), doxorubicin (including doxorubicin liposomal), epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Caution and close monitoring are recommended during concurrent use of donepezil and anthracycline therapy.
    Doxepin: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Dronedarone: (Severe) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Dronedarone administration is associated with a dose-related increase in the QTc interval. The increase in QTc is approximately 10 milliseconds at doses of 400 mg twice daily (the FDA-approved dose) and up to 25 milliseconds at doses of 1600 mg twice daily. Although there are no studies examining the effects of dronedarone in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation. The concomitant use of dronedarone with other drugs that prolong the QTc may induce Torsade de Pointes (TdP) and is contraindicated.
    Droperidol: (Major) As droperidol can prolong the QT interval and cause torsades de pointes (TdP), it should NOT be used with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of anthracyclines; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Echinacea: (Major) Echinacea possesses immunostimulatory activity and may theoretically reduce the response to drugs that alter immune system activity like anthracyclines. Although documentation is lacking, coadministration of echinacea with immunosuppressants is not recommended by some resources.
    Edoxaban: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Efavirenz: (Major) Although data are limited, coadministration of efavirenz and daunorubicin may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation has been observed with use of efavirenz. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Major) Although data are limited, coadministration of efavirenz and daunorubicin may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation has been observed with use of efavirenz. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering daunorubicin with elbasvir; grazoprevir may result in elevated daunorubicin plasma concentrations. Daunorubicin is a substrate for the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); both elbasvir and grazoprevir are BCRP inhibitors.
    Eliglustat: (Major) Coadministration of daunorubicin (including daunorubicin liposomal) and eliglustat may result in increased concentrations of daunorubicin and an increased risk of QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmia. If coadministration is necessary, use caution and monitor closely. Eliglustat is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor that is predicted to cause PR, QRS, and/or QT prolongation at significantly elevated plasma concentrations. Daunorubicin, an anthracycline, is a P-gp substrate associated with acute cardiotoxicity, though the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Coadministration of daunorubicin and eliglustat may result in additive effects on the QT interval and, potentially, increased plasma concentrations of daunorubicin, further increasing the risk of serious adverse events (e.g., QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias).
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Enflurane: (Major) Since halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Enoxaparin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Eptifibatide: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Eribulin: (Major) Eribulin has been associated with QT prolongation. If eribulin and daunorubicin must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Erythromycin is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp); doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Additionally, acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of doxorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Erythromycin has a possible risk of causing QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Avoid coadministration of erythromycin and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Erythromycin is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp); doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Additionally, acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of doxorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Erythromycin has a possible risk of causing QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Avoid coadministration of erythromycin and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Escitalopram is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), and should be used cautiously with daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin due to the potential risk for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of these agents; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Etodolac: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) Etravirine is an inhibitor of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (PGP). Daunorubicin is a P-glycoprotein substrate. Increased concentrations of daunorubicin may occur if it is coadministered with etravirine; exercise caution.
    Ezogabine: (Major) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously with daunorubicin include ezogabine .
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Febuxostat: (Major) Coadministration of febuxostat and cytotoxic antineoplastic agents has not been studied. After antineoplastic therapy, tumor cell breakdown may greatly increase the rate of purine metabolism to uric acid. Febuxostat inhibits uric acid formation, but does not affect xanthine and hypoxanthine formation. An increased renal load of these two uric acid precursors can occur and result in xanthine nephropathy and calculi.
    Fenoprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fingolimod: (Major) Fingolimod initiation results in decreased heart rate and may prolong the QT interval. After the first fingolimod dose, overnight monitoring with continuous ECG in a medical facility is advised for patients taking QT prolonging drugs with a known risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Fingolimod has not been studied in patients treated with drugs that prolong the QT interval, but drugs that prolong the QT interval have been associated with cases of TdP in patients with bradycardia. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Flecainide: (Moderate) Flecainide is a Class IC antiarrhythmic associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or torsades de pointes (TdP); flecainide increases the QT interval, but largely due to prolongation of the QRS interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of anthracyclines; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Fluconazole: (Major) Fluconazole has been associated with QT prolongation and rare cases of torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Flucytosine: (Minor) Flucytosine can cause significant hematologic toxicity. It should be used cautiously with all antineoplastic agents, especially those that cause bone marrow depression.
    Fludrocortisone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Flunisolide: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Fluoxetine: (Major) Because QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine, the manufacturer recommends caution when using fluoxetine with other drugs that prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Major) Because QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine, the manufacturer recommends caution when using fluoxetine with other drugs that prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. (Moderate) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. Therefore, caution is advised when administering olanzapine with drugs having an established causal association with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of anthracyclines; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously with anthracyclines include fluphenazine.
    Flurbiprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fluticasone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) There may be an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) during concurrent use of fluvoxamine and daunorubicin. Coadminister with caution. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. QT prolongation and TdP have been reported during postmarketing use of fluvoxamine.
    Fondaparinux: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Formoterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Fosamprenavir: (Major) Caution is advised when administering daunorubicin with fosamprenavir, as concurrent use may result in reduced daunorubicin plasma concentrations. Daunorubicin is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Amprenavir, the active metabolite of fosamprenavir, is a P-gp inducer.
    Foscarnet: (Major) When possible, avoid concurrent use of foscarnet with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin. Foscarnet has been associated with postmarketing reports of both QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. If these drugs are administered together, obtain an electrocardiogram and electrolyte concentrations before and periodically during treatment.
    Gadobenate Dimeglumine: (Moderate) Gadobenate dimeglumine is a substrate for the canalicular multi-specific organic anion transporter (MOAT). Use with other MOAT substrates, such as anthracyclines, may result in prolonged systemic exposure of the coadministered drug. Caution is advised if these drugs are used together.
    Gemifloxacin: (Major) Use caution during coadministration of gemifloxacin and daunorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Gemifloxacin may prolong the QT interval in some patients. The maximal change in the QTc interval occurs approximately 5-10 hours following oral administration of gemifloxacin. The likelihood of QTc prolongation may increase with increasing dose of the drug; therefore, the recommended dose should not be exceeded especially in patients with renal or hepatic impairment where the Cmax and AUC are slightly higher.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of glecaprevir and daunorubicin as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of daunorubicin and increase the risk of adverse effects. Daunorubicin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); glecaprevir is an inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP. (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of pibrentasvir and daunorubicin as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of daunorubicin and increase the risk of adverse effects. Daunorubicin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); pibrentasvir is an inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Goserelin: (Moderate) Androgen deprivation therapy (e.g., goserelin) prolongs the QT interval; the risk may be increased with the concurrent use of drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Granisetron: (Major) According to the manufacturer, caution is advised if granisetron is administered to patients receiving drugs known to cause QT prolongation, including cardio-toxic chemotherapy. Cumulative high-dose anthracyclines may aggravate cardiac arrhythmias, including QT prolongation, that are possible with granisetron. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Halofantrine: (Severe) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Agents associated with prolonging the QT interval, which can cause torsades de pointes, such as halofantrine, should be not be used with daunorubicin due to the risk of additive acute cardiac effects.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Major) Since halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Haloperidol: (Major) Haloperidol is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 and doxorubicin is a major CYP2D6 substrate. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Additionally, acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of doxorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Haloperidol has a possible risk of causing QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Avoid coadministration of haloperidol and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity
    Halothane: (Major) Since halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Heparin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Hydrocortisone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of hydroxychloroquine and daunorubicin. Hydroxychloroquine increases the QT interval and should not be administered with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. Ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes have been reported with the use of hydroxychloroquine. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Post-marketing data indicate that hydroxyzine causes QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with hydroxyzine include certain anthracyclines. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Ibuprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ibutilide: (Major) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Ibutilide administration can cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP); proarrhythmic events should be anticipated. The potential for proarrhythmic events with ibutilide increases with the coadministration of other drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin.
    Iloperidone: (Major) Iloperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; however, torsade de pointes has not been reported. Since iloperidone can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Imipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Indacaterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Indomethacin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of inotuzumab ozogamicin with daunorubicin due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). If coadministration is unavoidable, obtain an ECG and serum electrolytes prior to the start of treatment, after treatment initiation, and periodically during treatment. Inotuzumab has been associated with QT interval prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Intranasal Influenza Vaccine: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Since halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Itraconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with itraconazole include the anthracyclines. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and daunorubicin concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Co-administration of ivacaftor with Pgp substrates, such as daunorubicin, may increase daunorubicin exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Ixabepilone: (Minor) Ixabepilone is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Daunorubicin is a Pgp substrate, and concomitant use of ixabepilone with a Pgp substrate may cause an increase in daunorubicin concentrations. Use caution if ixabepilone is coadministered with a Pgp substrate.
    Ketoconazole: (Major) Ketoconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Ketoprofen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ketorolac: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Lapatinib: (Major) Daunorubicin is a P-glycoprotein substrate. In vitro, lapatinib, at clinically relevant concentrations, inhibits CYP3A4. Also, lapatinib is a substrate and inhibitor of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). Coadministration with lapatinib may lead to increased daunorubicin serum concentrations. As increased serum concentrations are likely, cautious coadministration is recommended, and consider a daunorubicin dose reduction. Lapatinib can prolong the QT interval and should be administered with caution to patients who have or may develop prolongation of QTc, including patients taking cumulative high-dose anthracyclines.
    Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Caution and close monitoring of daunorubicin-associated adverse reactions is advised with concomitant administration of ledipasvir. Daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); ledipasvir is a P-gp inhibitor. Taking these drugs together may increase daunorubicin plasma concentrations.
    Lepirudin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Leuprolide: (Moderate) Androgen deprivation therapy (e.g., leuprolide) prolongs the QT interval; the risk may be increased with the concurrent use of drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Leuprolide should be used with caution with cardiotoxic drugs. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Androgen deprivation therapy (e.g., leuprolide) prolongs the QT interval; the risk may be increased with the concurrent use of drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Leuprolide should be used with caution with cardiotoxic drugs. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Levalbuterol: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Levofloxacin: (Major) Use caution if levofloxacin is coadministered with daunorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Levofloxacin has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Rare cases of torsade de pointes (TdP) have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving levofloxacin. According to the manufacturer, levofloxacin should be avoided in patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval.
    Levomethadyl: (Severe) Levomethadyl is contraindicated with agents that may prolong the QT interval such as daunorubicin.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Lithium should be used cautiously with daunorubicin. Lithium has been associated with QT prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Live Vaccines: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Long-acting beta-agonists: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Coadministration of loperamide with anthracycline therapy may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). At high doses, loperamide has been associated with serious cardiac toxicities, including syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, TdP, and cardiac arrest. Acute cardiac toxicities have also occurred during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Coadministration of loperamide with anthracycline therapy may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). At high doses, loperamide has been associated with serious cardiac toxicities, including syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, TdP, and cardiac arrest. Acute cardiac toxicities have also occurred during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Lopinavir; ritonavir administration is associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration of lopinavir; ritonavir with other drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin and doxorubicin, may result in additive QT prolongation. Administer lopinavir; ritonavir and daunorubicin or doxorubicin with caution. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, doxorubicin is a CYP3A4 substrate and lopinavir; ritonavir inhibits CYP3A4. Coadministration may result in elevated plasma concentrations of doxorubicin and an added risk of adverse reactions such as QT prolongation. (Major) The use of ritonavir could result in QT prolongation. Use ritonavir cautiously in patients taking other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ritonavir is a P-gp inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring is advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Although the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown, concurrent use of daunorubicin and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter daunorubicin exposure; caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together. Daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor has the potential to both induce and inhibit P-gp. The net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on P-gp transport is not clear, but substrate exposure may be affected leading to decreased efficacy or increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and daunorubicin concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Co-administration of ivacaftor with Pgp substrates, such as daunorubicin, may increase daunorubicin exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Maprotiline: (Major) Maprotiline has been reported to prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Cases of long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes (TdP) tachycardia have been described with maprotiline use, but rarely occur when the drug is used alone in normal prescribed doses and in the absence of other known risk factors for QT prolongation. Limited data are available regarding the safety of maprotiline in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs. Maprotiline should be used cautiously with anthracyclines such as daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Measles Virus; Mumps Virus; Rubella Virus; Varicella Virus Vaccine, Live: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Measles/Mumps/Rubella Vaccines, MMR: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mefloquine: (Major) There is evidence that the use of halofantrine after mefloquine causes a significant lengthening of the QTc interval. Mefloquine alone has not been reported to cause QT prolongation. However, due to the lack of clinical data, mefloquine should be used with caution in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. In addition, mefloquine inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate. Concurrent use may increase the serum concentrations of daunorubicin, further increasing the risk for QT prolongation.
    Meloxicam: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Use with caution with other agents that may cause QT prolongation. Promethazine carries a possible risk of QT prolongation. In addition, promethazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If avoidance of promethazine with doxorubicin is not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Mesoridazine: (Severe) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Agents associated with prolonging the QT interval, which can cause torsades de pointes, such as mesoridazine, should be not be used with daunorubicin due to the risk of additive acute cardiac effects.
    Metaproterenol: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Methadone: (Major) Methadone is considered to be associated with an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP), especially at higher doses (> 200 mg/day but averaging approximately 400 mg/day in adult patients). Since methadone can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of anthracyclines; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Methylprednisolone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Metronidazole: (Moderate) Potential QT prolongation has been reported in limited case reports with metronidazole. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Mifepristone, RU-486: (Moderate) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering mifepristone (RU-486) with daunorubicin. Mifepristone has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. There is no experience with high exposure or concomitant use with other QT prolonging drugs. To minimize the risk of QT prolongation, the lowest effective dose of mifepristone should always be used. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) There may be an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) during concurrent use of mirtazapine and daunorubicin. Coadminister with caution. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Cases of QT prolongation, TdP, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death have been reported during postmarketing use of mirtazapine, primarily following overdose or in patients with other risk factors for QT prolongation, including concomitant use of other medications associated with QT prolongation.
    Mometasone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Moxifloxacin: (Major) According to the manufacturer, moxifloxacin should be avoided in patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval, such as daunorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Prolongation of the QT interval has been reported with administration of moxifloxacin. Post-marketing surveillance has identified very rare cases of ventricular arrhythmias including torsade de pointes (TdP), usually in patients with severe underlying proarrhythmic conditions. The likelihood of QT prolongation may increase with increasing concentrations of moxifloxacin, therefore the recommended dose or infusion rate should not be exceeded.
    Mycophenolate: (Major) Concurrent use of daunorubicin with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as other antineoplastic agents or immunosuppressives may result in additive effects.
    Nabumetone: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Naproxen: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Nilotinib: (Major) Coadministration of nilotinib with daunorubicin should be avoided. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Coadministration of nilotinib and a drug that prolongs the QT interval is not advised as nilotinib also prolongs the QT interval. If concurrent administration is unavoidable, the manufacturer of nilotinib recommends interruption of nilotinib treatment. If nilotinib must be continued, closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Nilotinib is an inhibitor of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). Daunorubicin is a P-glycoprotein substrate. Increased concentrations of daunorubicin are likely if it is coadministered with nilotinib; exercise caution.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Norfloxacin: (Moderate) Quinolones have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Although extremely rare, torsade de pointes has been reported during post-marketing surveillance of norfloxacin. These reports generally involved patients with concurrent medical conditions or concomitant medications that may have been contributory. Norfloxacin should be used cautiously with other agents that may prolong the QT interval or increase the risk of TdP. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Nortriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Administer octreotide cautiously in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval. Arrhythmias, sinus bradycardia, and conduction disturbances have occurred during octreotide therapy (see Adverse Reactions), warranting more cautious monitoring during octreotide administration in higher risk patients with cardiac disease. Since bradycardia is a risk factor for development of TdP, the potential occurrence of bradycardia during octreotide administration could theoretically increase the risk of TdP in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Ofloxacin: (Major) Some quinolones, including ofloxacin, have been associated with QT prolongation and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Post-marketing surveillance for ofloxacin has identified very rare cases of torsades de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. Therefore, caution is advised when administering olanzapine with drugs having an established causal association with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Olodaterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir with daunorubicin may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Daunorubicin is known to increase the QT interval. While dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir did not prolong the QT interval to a clinically relevant extent in healthy subjects, ritonavir has been associated with dose-related QT prolongation in other trials. In addition, daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ritonavir and paritaprevir are P-gp inhibitorsis a P-gp inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring is advised if these drugs are administered together. (Major) The use of ritonavir could result in QT prolongation. Use ritonavir cautiously in patients taking other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ritonavir is a P-gp inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring is advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Ondansetron: (Major) If ondansetron and daunorubicin must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Ondansetron has been associated with a dose-related increase in the QT interval and postmarketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Osimertinib: (Major) Monitor electrolytes and ECGs for QT prolongation if coadministration of daunorubicin with osimertinib is necessary; an interruption of osimertinib therapy and dose reduction may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Concentration-dependent QTc prolongation occurred during clinical trials of osimertinib. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Oxaliplatin: (Major) Monitor ECGs and electrolytes in patients receiving oxaliplatin and daunorubicin concomitantly; correct electrolyte abnormalities prior to administration. QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including fatal torsade de pointes have been reported with oxaliplatin use in postmarketing experience. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Oxaprozin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Palifermin: (Moderate) Palifermin should not be administered within 24 hours before, during infusion of, or within 24 hours after administration of antineoplastic agents.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Paliperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; however, torsade de pointes has not been reported. Since paliperidone can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Pasireotide: (Major) Cautious use of pasireotide and drugs that prolong the QT interval is needed, as coadministration may have additive effects on the prolongation of the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Pazopanib: (Major) Coadministration of pazopanib and other drugs that prolong the QT interval is not advised; pazopanib has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy. If pazopanib and daunorubicin must be continued, closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation.
    Penicillamine: (Major) Do not use penicillamine with antineoplastic agents due to the increased risk of developing severe hematologic and renal toxicity.
    Pentamidine: (Major) Pentamidine has been associated with QT prolongation. Pentamidine should be administered cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Pentosan: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously with daunorubicin include perphenazine. Theoretically, perphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with daunorubicin.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously with daunorubicin include perphenazine. Theoretically, perphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with daunorubicin. (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Use with caution with other agents that may cause QT prolongation. Promethazine carries a possible risk of QT prolongation. In addition, promethazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If avoidance of promethazine with doxorubicin is not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Pimavanserin: (Major) Pimavanserin may cause QT prolongation and should generally be avoided in patients receiving other medications known to prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Coadministration may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Pimozide: (Severe) Pimozide is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Because of the potential for TdP, pimozide is contraindicated with any drugs associated with QT prolongation such as the anthracyclines (e.g. daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of anthracyclines; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Additionally, pimozide is a mild inhibitor of CYP2D6 and doxorubicin is a CYP2D6 substrate; clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin.
    Pirbuterol: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Piroxicam: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Platelet Inhibitors: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Posaconazole: (Major) Posaconazole should be used cautiously with daunorubicin. Posaconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval as well as rare cases of torsade de pointes. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Prednisolone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Prednisone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Primaquine: (Moderate) Due to the potential for QT interval prolongation with primaquine, caution is advised with other drugs that prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Procainamide: (Major) Procainamide is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines have been reported to prolong the QT interval. Therefore, prochlorperazine should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Use with caution with other agents that may cause QT prolongation. Promethazine carries a possible risk of QT prolongation. In addition, promethazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If avoidance of promethazine with doxorubicin is not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Propafenone: (Major) Propafenone is a CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP2D6 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Additionally, acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of doxorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Propafenone has a possible risk of causing QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Avoid coadministration of propafenone and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Protriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Quetiapine: (Major) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that quetiapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. According to the manufacturer, use of quetiapine should be avoided in combination with drugs known to increase the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Quinidine: (Major) Quinidine administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Quinine: (Major) Quinine has been associated with QT prolongation and rare cases of torsade de pointes (TdP) and its use with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval should be avoided. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Ranolazine: (Major) Ranolazine is associated with dose- and plasma concentration-related increases in the QTc interval. The mean increase in QTc is about 6 milliseconds, measured at the tmax of the maximum dosage (1000 mg PO twice daily). However, in 5% of the population studied, increases in the QTc of at least 15 milliseconds have been reported. Although there are no studies examining the effects of ranolazine in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation. Ranolazine should be used cautiously with drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, doxorubicin is a CYP3A4 substrate and ritonavir inhibits CYP3A4. Coadministration may result in elevated plasma concentrations of doxorubicin and an added risk of adverse reactions such as QT prolongation.
    Regadenoson: (Moderate) Regadenoson should be used cautiously with daunorubicin. Regadenoson has been associated with QT prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Regorafenib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of regorafenib with daunorubicin is necessary, and monitor for an increase in daunorubicin-related adverse reactions. Daunorubicin is a BCRP substrate and regorafenib is a BCRP inhibitor. Administration of regorafenib for 14 days prior to a single dose of rosuvastatin, another BCRP substrate, increased the mean AUC and Cmax of rosuvastatin by 3.8-fold and a 4.6-fold, respectively; regorafenib-mediated BCRP inhibition may also increase exposure to daunorubicin.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ribociclib with daunorubicin due to an increased risk for QT prolongation. Ribociclib has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Concomitant use may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ribociclib with daunorubicin due to an increased risk for QT prolongation. Ribociclib has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Concomitant use may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Rilpivirine: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Risperidone: (Major) Risperidone has been associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or torsades de pointes; however, data are currently lacking to establish causality in association with torsades de pointes. Reports of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes during risperidone therapy are noted by the manufacturer, primarily in the overdosage setting. Since risperidone has potential to prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with daunorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Ritonavir: (Major) The use of ritonavir could result in QT prolongation. Use ritonavir cautiously in patients taking other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ritonavir is a P-gp inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring is advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Rivaroxaban: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Rofecoxib: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Rolapitant: (Moderate) Use caution if daunorubicin and rolapitant are used concurrently, and monitor for daunorubicin-related adverse effects, including cardiac effects. Daunorubicin is a substrate of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), where an increase in exposure may significantly increase adverse effects; rolapitant is a BCRP and P-gp inhibitor. The Cmax and AUC of another BCRP substrate, sulfasalazine, were increased by 140% and 130%, respectively, on day 1 with rolapitant, and by 17% and 32%, respectively, on day 8 after rolapitant administration. When rolapitant was administered with digoxin, a P-gp substrate, the day 1 Cmax and AUC were increased by 70% and 30%, respectively; the Cmax and AUC on day 8 were not studied. Of note, in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial showing efficacy of rolapitant in patients treated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (n = 1369), at least 50% of patients received a combination of anthracycline and cyclophosphamide. Non-gastrointestinal adverse effects are not reported by the manufacturer; however, an increased incidence of hematologic toxicity is possible, as well as an unknown impact on short- and long-term cardiotoxicity.
    Romidepsin: (Major) Romidepsin has been reported to prolong the QT interval. If romidepsin must be coadministered with another drug that prolongs the QT interval, appropriate cardiovascular monitoring precautions should be considered, such as the monitoring of electrolytes and ECGs at baseline and periodically during treatment. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Rotavirus Vaccine: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Rubella Virus Vaccine Live: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Salmeterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Sapropterin: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of sapropterin and daunorubicin as coadministration may result in increased systemic exposure of daunorubicin. Daunorubicin is a substrate for the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); in vitro data show that sapropterin may inhibit these transporters. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for increased side effects of daunorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Saquinavir: (Major) Saquinavir boosted with ritonavir increases the QT interval in a dose-dependent fashion, which may increase the risk for serious arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes (TdP). Avoid administering saquinavir boosted with ritonavir concurrently with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. If no acceptable alternative therapy is available, perform a baseline ECG prior to initiation of concomitant therapy and carefully follow monitoring recommendations. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) There have been post-marketing reports of QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes (TdP) during treatment with sertraline; therefore, caution is advisable when using sertraline in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation, including concurrent use of other drugs that prolong the QTc interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Sevoflurane: (Major) Since halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with anthracyclines due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Short-acting beta-agonists: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Simeprevir: (Major) Concomitant use of simeprevir and daunorubicin may result in increased daunorubicin plasma concentrations and side effects. Daunorubicin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), while simeprevir inhibits P-gp and BCRP. Monitor patients for adverse events such as myelosupression and cardiotoxicity.
    Sipuleucel-T: (Major) Concomitant use of sipuleucel-T and antineoplastic agents should be avoided. Concurrent administration of antineoplastic agents with the leukapheresis procedure that occurs prior to sipuleucel-T infusion has not been studied. Sipuleucel-T stimulates the immune system and patients receiving antineoplastic agents may have a diminished response to sipuleucel-T. When appropriate, consider discontinuing or reducing the dose of antineoplastic agents prior to initiating therapy with sipuleucel-T.
    Sirolimus: (Minor) Concurrent use of daunorubicin with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as other antineoplastic agents or immunosuppressives may result in additive effects.
    Smallpox Vaccine, Vaccinia Vaccine: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of voxilaprevir with daunorubicin. Taking these medications together may increase daunorubicin plasma concentrations, potentially increasing the risk for adverse events. Daunorubicin is a substrate for the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP). Voxilaprevir is a P-gp and BCRP inhibitor.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Solifenacin has been associated dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Torsades de pointes (TdP) has been reported with post-marketing use, although causality was not determined. This should be taken into consideration when prescribing solifenacin to patients taking other drugs that are associated with QT prolongation. Solifenacin should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Sorafenib: (Major) Sorafenib has been associated with QT prolongation. If sorafenib and another drug that prolongs the QT interval must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy. Daunorubicin concentrations may also increase with coadministration of sorafenib as daunorubicin is a P-glycoprotein (PGP) substrate and sorafenib is a PGP inhibitor in vitro.
    Sotalol: (Major) Sotalol administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Proarrhythmic events should be anticipated after initiation of therapy and after each upward dosage adjustment. Sotalol should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Sparfloxacin: (Severe) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of anthracyclines, although, the incidence is rare. Other agents associated with prolonging the QT interval, which can cause torsades de pointes, such as sparfloxacin, should be used cautiously with anthracyclines, due to the risk of additive acute cardiac effects following the administration of anthracyclines.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) QT prolongation resulting in ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported during post-marketing use of sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Sulindac: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Sunitinib: (Major) Sunitinib can prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Tacrolimus: (Major) Concurrent use of daunorubicin with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as other antineoplastic agents or immunosuppressives may result in additive effects. In addition, tacrolimus causes QT prolongation and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. In addition, reducing the tacrolimus dose, close monitoring of tacrolimus whole blood concentrations, and monitoring for QT prolongation is recommended when coadministrating tacrolimus with other substrates of CYP3A4 that also have the potential to prolong the QT interval such as doxorubicin.
    Tamoxifen: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of tamoxifen and daunorubicin due to an increased risk of QT prolongation. Tamoxifen has been reported to prolong the QT interval, usually in overdose or when used in high doses. Rare case reports of QT prolongation have also been described when tamoxifen is used at lower doses. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage.
    Telaprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering daunorubicin with telaprevir due to an increased potential for daunorubicin-related adverse events. If daunorubicin dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of telaprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of daunorubicin. Daunorubicin is a substrate of the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (PGP); telaprevir is an inhibitor of this efflux protein. Coadministration may result in elevated daunorubicin plasma concentrations.
    Telavancin: (Major) Daunorubicin should be used cautiously with telavancin. Telavancin has been associated with QT prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Telithromycin: (Major) Daunorubicin should be used cautiously with telithromycin. Telithromycin is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of temsirolimus with daunorubicin is necessary, and monitor for an increase in daunorubicin-related adverse reactions. Temsirolimus is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor in vitro, and daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate. Pharmacokinetic data are not available for concomitant use of temsirolimus with P-gp substrates, but exposure to daunorubicin is likely to increase.
    Terbutaline: (Minor) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Tetrabenazine: (Major) Tetrabenazine causes a small increase in the corrected QT interval (QTc). Therefore, it should be used cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Thioridazine: (Severe) Thioridazine is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Thioridazine is considered contraindicated for use along with agents that, when combined with a phenothiazine, may prolong the QT interval and increase the risk of TdP, and/or cause orthostatic hypotension. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during anthracycline (e.g., daunorubicin, doxorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin) treatment; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Additionally, thioridazine is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 and doxorubicin is a CYP2D6 substrate; clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Ticlopidine: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Tinzaparin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Tiotropium; Olodaterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Tirofiban: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Daunorubicin should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with tizanidine. Tizanidine administration may result in QT prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Tolmetin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Tolterodine has been associated dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. This should be taken into consideration when prescribing tolterodine to patients taking other drugs that are associated with QT prolongation. Tolterodine should be used cautiously with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Toremifene: (Major) Daunorubicin should be used cautiously with toremifene. Toremifene has been shown to prolong the QTc interval in a dose- and concentration-related manner. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Trastuzumab: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of anthracyclines and trastuzumab due to the risk of increased cardiac dysfunction. Anthracycline use after trastuzumab therapy may result in an additive or potentially synergistic increase in the risk of cardiomyopathy. Avoid anthracycline-based therapy for up to 7 months after trastuzumab is discontinued. If anthracycline therapy is necessary during this time period, monitor cardiac function.
    Trazodone: (Major) The manufacturer of trazodone recommends avoiding trazodone in patients receiving other drugs that increase the QT interval. Trazodone can prolong the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses. In addition, there are post-marketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP). Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Triamcinolone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents. Also, dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. However, these drugs are commonly used together in treatment
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines have been reported to prolong the QT interval. Therefore, trifluoperazine should be used cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Trimipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). TCAs should be used with caution and close monitoring with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Triptorelin: (Moderate) Androgen deprivation therapy (e.g., triptorelin) prolongs the QT interval; the risk may be increased with the concurrent use of drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Triptorelin should be used with caution with cardiotoxic drugs. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, or idarubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative, PPD: (Moderate) Immunosuppressives may decrease the immunological response to tuberculin purified protein derivative, PPD. This suppressed reactivity can persist for up to 6 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Consider deferring the skin test until completion of the immunosuppressive therapy.
    Typhoid Vaccine: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Ulipristal: (Minor) In vitro data indicate that ulipristal may be an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at clinically relevant concentrations. Thus, co-administration of ulipristal and P-gp substrates such as daunorubicin may increase the daunorubicin concentrations; use caution. With single doses of ulipristal for emergency contraception it is not clear this interaction will have clinical consequence. In the absence of clinical data, co-administration of ulipristal (when given daily) and P-gp substrates is not recommended.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Valdecoxib: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Vandetanib: (Major) The manufacturer of vandetanib advises avoiding coadministration with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval, such as daunorubicin. Vandetanib can prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner; torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden death have been reported. Rarely, acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of anthracyclines; acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. If coadministration is necessary, monitor the ECG. If the QTcF is more than 500 msec, interrupt vandetanib dosing until the QTcF is less than 450 msec; then, restart vandetanib at a lower dose. Additionally, daunorubicin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Coadministration with vandetanib increased the Cmax and AUC of digoxin, another P-gp substrate, by 29% and 23%, respectively.
    Vardenafil: (Major) Therapeutic (10 mg) and supratherapeutic (80 mg) doses of vardenafil produces an increase in QTc interval (e.g., 4 to 6 msec calculated by individual QT correction). The effect of vardenafil on the QT interval should be considered when prescribing the drug. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine, Live: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Vemurafenib: (Major) Vemurafenib has been associated with QT prolongation. If vemurafenib and another drug that is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during the administration of daunorubicin; although, the incidence is rare. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported. Concomitant use of vemurafenib and daunorubicin may also result in increased daunorubicin concentrations. Vemurafenib is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and daunorubicin is a P-gp substrate. Monitor patients for increased side effects.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Venlafaxine administration is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; torsades de pointes (TdP) has been reported with post-marketing use and should be used cautiously with other drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP including daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Avoid coadministration if possible. An additive risk of bleeding may occur when platelet inhibitors is used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia including antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines. In addition, ticagrelor is a mild CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; doxorubicin is a major substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Voriconazole: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering voriconazole with daunorubicin. Voriconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and rare cases of arrhythmias, including TdP. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported.
    Vorinostat: (Moderate) Since vorinostat can prolong the QT interval, it should be used cautiously with daunorubicin or doxorubicin due to the potential risks for anthracycline cardiac toxicity. Acute cardiotoxicity can occur during administration of daunorubicin or doxorubicin; cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy may also occur. Acute ECG changes during anthracycline therapy are usually transient and include ST-T wave changes, QT prolongation, and changes in QRS voltage. Sinus tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia, but other arrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia, heart block, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) have been reported during anthracycline therapy.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of anthracyclines, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants. In addition, rivaroxaban is a mild P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of P-gp. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of P-gp, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of rivaroxaban and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
    Yellow Fever Vaccine, Live: (Severe) Live virus vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live virus vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system.
    Ziprasidone: (Severe) According to the manufacturer, ziprasidone is contraindicated with any drugs that list QT prolongation as a pharmacodynamic effect when this effect has been described within the contraindications or bolded or boxed warnings of the official labeling for such drugs. Ziprasidone has been associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or torsades de pointes (TdP). Clinical trial data indicate that ziprasidone causes QT prolongation. In one study, ziprasidone increased the QT interval 10 msec more than placebo at the maximum recommended dosage. Comparative data with other antipsychotics have shown that the mean QTc interval prolongation occurring with ziprasidone exceeds that of haloperidol, quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, but is less than that which occurs with thioridazine. Given the potential for QT prolongation, ziprasidone is contraindicated for use with drugs that are known to cause QT prolongation with potential for torsades de pointes including daunorubicin.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Zonisamide is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and daunorubicin is a substrate of P-gp. There is theoretical potential for zonisamide to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates. Use caution when starting or stopping zonisamide or changing the zonisamide dosage in patients also receiving drugs which are P-gp substrates.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Daunorubicin is classified FDA pregnancy risk category D and should not be administered during pregnancy because of the possibility of teratogenic effects. Daunorubicin was teratogenic in animal studies at doses less than the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis with malformations including esophageal, cardiovascular, and urogenital abnormalities. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of daunorubicin in pregnant women. Women of reproductive potential should be warned against getting pregnant. If a woman becomes pregnant during therapy, she should be advised of the potential risks to the fetus.

    It is unknown whether daunorubicin is excreted in breast-milk. Due to the potential for severe toxicity in the nursing infant, it is recommended mothers discontinue breast-feeding during daunorubicin therapy.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Daunorubicin cytotoxicity occurs via mechanisms similar to other anthracyclines. Daunorubicin complexes with DNA by intercalating between DNA base pairs, causing the helix to change shape. This simple act of changing the conformation of DNA can interfere with strand elongation by inhibiting DNA polymerase and can inhibit protein synthesis due to affects on RNA polymerase. Daunorubicin also affects topoisomerase II, an enzyme responsible for DNA strand breaks during transcription. Daunorubicin stabilizes the initial DNA-enzyme complex leading to double-strand DNA breaks. Daunorubicin also undergoes reduction to form oxygen free radical intermediates. In the presence of oxygen and metal catalysts such as Fe2+, daunorubicin undergoes reduction to the semiquone radical. In the presence of oxygen, the semiqunone radical can form a superperoxide that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide forms hydroxyl radicals. Daunorubicin-derived radicals can induce membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA strand scission, and direct oxidation of purine or pyrimidine bases, thiols and amines. Daunorubicin cytotoxicity is cell cycle nonspecific, but the majority occurs in the S-phase.
     
    Resistance to daunorubicin may occur through several mechanisms. One of the most important mechanisms of resistance is multidrug resistance (MDR) which is mediated through an overexpression of a P170-glycoprotein. This membrane protein functions as an energy-dependent drug efflux pump in resistance cells. Several compounds including cyclosporine, cyclosporine analogs and verapamil may block this protein and can reverse resistance. Other mechanisms of resistance include changes in topoisomerase II and glutathione activity.
     
    Daunorubicin-induced free radical formation also contributes to its cardiotoxicity. Once daunorubicin enters cardiac cells, it is reduced to an anthracycline free radical that is rapidly oxidized with oxygen to form the original drug and superoxide anions. Normally, these superoxide radicals are converted back to oxygen via glutathione peroxidase (GP); however, the heart is essentially devoid of this enzyme. Consequently, H2O2 is forced to react with ferrous ions (Fe2+) to form the highly toxic superhydroxide free radical that causes severe lipid peroxidation leading to extensive mitochondrial destruction. Both cardiac and malignant cells are rich in mitochondria. Additionally, these free radicals crosslink sulfhydryl groups of calcium-release channels and inhibit Ca-ATPase which leads to extensive depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium stores and prevention of restoration of calcium stores in the SR, respectively.
     
    Daunorubicin also has antibacterial and immunosuppressive effects.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Daunorubicin is administered intravenously. Initially, the drug rapidly distributes throughout the body tissues, concentrating in the liver, lymph nodes, muscle, kidney, and heart, but it does not appear to cross the blood-brain barrier. Daunorubicin has similar volume of distribution and protein binding as doxorubicin. Daunorubicin crosses the placenta; however it is not known if it is expressed in breast milk.
     
    Daunorubicin is extensively metabolized in the liver. It has an initial alpha half-life of 40 minutes and a terminal half-life of 45—55 hours. The primary metabolite, daunorubicinol has 1/10th the cytotoxic properties as daunorubicin. One hour following administration, the predominant plasma species is daunorubicinol. The elimination half-life of daunorubicinol is 23—40 hours. Daunorubicinol may be a more potent cardiotoxin, and its clearance from the blood decreases as the dose of daunorubicin increases. The unchanged drug and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the bile, with a small amount excreted in the urine (10—15%).
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporter: P-gp
    Daunorubicin is a substrate for the multi-drug resistance protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp).