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  • CLASSES

    Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs/NSAIDs

    BOXED WARNING

    Alcoholism, anticoagulant therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, GI bleeding, GI disease, GI perforation, peptic ulcer disease, tobacco smoking, ulcerative colitis

    Chronic use of piroxicam can result in gastritis, ulceration with or without GI perforation, and/or gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which can occur at any time, often without preceding symptoms. Therefore, piroxicam is relatively contraindicated in patients with a history of or active GI disease including peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Older patients seem to have a higher risk for GI ulceration or bleeding than younger adult patients; most fatal GI events occur in elderly or debilitated patients. Patients at increased risk for NSAID-induced GI bleeding include those receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, anticoagulant therapy, tobacco smoking patients, elderly patients, and patients with alcoholism. It is recommended not to initiate therapy with maximum doses in these patients due to the likely increased frequency of adverse reactions. All patients receiving prolonged treatment should be routinely monitored for potential GI ulceration and bleeding. Consider alternative therapies to NSAIDs for high risk patients.

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or stroke, peripheral vascular disease, tachycardia

    Piroxicam, like all NSAIDs, may exacerbate hypertension and congestive heart failure and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. The FDA has warned that the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke can occur as early as the first weeks of using a NSAID, and risk may increase with higher doses and longer duration of use. Data demonstrate that patients treated with NSAIDs were more likely to die in the first year following a myocardial infarction compared to those not treated with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may increase the risk of a cardiovascular thrombotic event in patients with or without underlying heart disease or risk factors for heart disease. Patients with known heart disease or risk factors appear to have a greater likelihood of an event following NSAID use, likely due to a higher baseline risk. Current evidence is insufficient to determine if the risk of an event is higher or lower for any particular NSAID compared to other NSAIDs. There is an increased risk of heart failure with NSAID use. Caution is recommended when administering piroxicam to patients with cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., tachycardia), significant coronary artery disease (including acute myocardial infarction, angina, or history of myocardial infarction), peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), hypertension, pre-existing renal disease, or fluid retention. Congestive heart failure, hypertension, syncope, and tachycardia have been reported with piroxicam administration. In addition, clinical practice guidelines state NSAIDs should not be administered to patients presenting with and hospitalized for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to increased risk of mortality, reinfarction, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial rupture associated with their use. Closely monitor blood pressure during piroxicam receipt. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible to minimize the potential risk for an adverse cardiovascular event. Inform patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any signs or symptoms of a cardiovascular thrombotic event.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    NSAID of the enolic acid class; given once daily; similar anti-inflammatory activity to indomethacin; used for OA and RA; causes an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse effects; may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular events; use lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Feldene

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Feldene/Piroxicam Oral Cap: 10mg, 20mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    20 mg PO once daily. Adjust dose, as needed. The daily dose may be divided in 2 doses, if desired. NOTE: Upward dose titration needs to be in 2-week intervals.

    Geriatric

    Initially, 10 mg PO once daily. Adjust dose, as needed, up to 20 mg/day. The daily dose may be divided in 2 doses, if desired. NOTE: Upward dose titration needs to be in 2-week intervals.

    For the treatment of headache†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    20 mg PO once daily. 

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    20 mg/day PO.

    Elderly

    20 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Although specific guidelines are not available, dosage reduction may be necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.

    Renal Impairment

    Patients with mild to moderate renal impairment do not appear to require dosage adjustments. Piroxicam is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Piroxicam may be administered orally with food to minimize GI irritation.

    STORAGE

    Feldene:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Acute bronchospasm, asthma, nasal polyps, NSAID hypersensitivity, salicylate hypersensitivity, urticaria

    Piroxicam is contraindicated in patients with salicylate hypersensitivity or NSAID hypersensitivity who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactoid reactions to piroxicam have been reported in such patients. Piroxicam should not be used in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma or the aspirin triad because of the approximate 5% cross-sensitivity that occurs between aspirin and NSAIDs. The triad typically occurs in patients with asthma who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who experience severe, potentially fatal, acute bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. The use of NSAIDs, including piroxicam, may cause serious and potentially fatal skin reactions including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Patients should be instructed to discontinue the medication and contact their health care provider if erythema, rash, blisters, or related skin reactions develop.

    Alcoholism, anticoagulant therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, GI bleeding, GI disease, GI perforation, peptic ulcer disease, tobacco smoking, ulcerative colitis

    Chronic use of piroxicam can result in gastritis, ulceration with or without GI perforation, and/or gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which can occur at any time, often without preceding symptoms. Therefore, piroxicam is relatively contraindicated in patients with a history of or active GI disease including peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Older patients seem to have a higher risk for GI ulceration or bleeding than younger adult patients; most fatal GI events occur in elderly or debilitated patients. Patients at increased risk for NSAID-induced GI bleeding include those receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, anticoagulant therapy, tobacco smoking patients, elderly patients, and patients with alcoholism. It is recommended not to initiate therapy with maximum doses in these patients due to the likely increased frequency of adverse reactions. All patients receiving prolonged treatment should be routinely monitored for potential GI ulceration and bleeding. Consider alternative therapies to NSAIDs for high risk patients.

    Hepatic disease, jaundice

    Piroxicam should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease. Severe hepatic reactions have occurred during treatment with piroxicam, and patients with hepatic impairment are at an increased risk for developing these complications. Elevations in liver-function tests also can occur. Piroxicam should be discontinued if elevated hepatic enzymes persist or worsen, if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash), or if signs or symptoms of hepatic disease, such as jaundice, develop (see Adverse Reactions).

    Lactase deficiency

    Generic piroxicam capsules may contain lactose; patients with lactase deficiency should take appropriate precautions with use.

    Dehydration, diabetes mellitus, edema, heart failure, hypertension, hypovolemia, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    Piroxicam causes a dose-dependent decrease in prostaglandin synthesis and thus, renal blood flow in patients that utilize prostaglandins to support renal blood flow. Due to the role of prostaglandins in renal function and hemodynamics, patients with renal disease should be closely observed during therapy with piroxicam due to an increased risk for reduced renal blood flow or volume. Piroxicam is not recommended for use by patients with advanced renal disease. Piroxicam and its metabolites are renally excreted. Accumulation of parent drug and metabolites can occur in patients with renal disease, renal impairment or renal failure, increasing the risk of potential toxicity. Close monitoring of renal function is recommended; dosage adjustment may be necessary (see Dosage). Conditions such as congestive heart failure, edema, or hypertension can be exacerbated by the fluid retention cause by suboptimal renal perfusion. Piroxicam should be used cautiously in patients with any of these conditions or other diseases that predispose to fluid retention. Meta-analysis have demonstrated that the effect of NSAIDs on blood pressure is the greatest in hypertensive individuals receiving antihypertensive medication. In addition, normotensive patients receiving antihypertensive therapy had higher increases in blood pressure than subjects with uncontrolled hypertension or normotensive subjects receiving no hypertensive therapy. Patients with renal impairment, renal failure, hepatic disease, diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, edema, extracellular volume depletion (i.e., hypovolemia or dehydration), sepsis; those taking diuretics or nephrotoxic drugs; and the elderly are at the highest risk for developing complications related to suboptimal renal perfusion.

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or stroke, peripheral vascular disease, tachycardia

    Piroxicam, like all NSAIDs, may exacerbate hypertension and congestive heart failure and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. The FDA has warned that the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke can occur as early as the first weeks of using a NSAID, and risk may increase with higher doses and longer duration of use. Data demonstrate that patients treated with NSAIDs were more likely to die in the first year following a myocardial infarction compared to those not treated with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may increase the risk of a cardiovascular thrombotic event in patients with or without underlying heart disease or risk factors for heart disease. Patients with known heart disease or risk factors appear to have a greater likelihood of an event following NSAID use, likely due to a higher baseline risk. Current evidence is insufficient to determine if the risk of an event is higher or lower for any particular NSAID compared to other NSAIDs. There is an increased risk of heart failure with NSAID use. Caution is recommended when administering piroxicam to patients with cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., tachycardia), significant coronary artery disease (including acute myocardial infarction, angina, or history of myocardial infarction), peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), hypertension, pre-existing renal disease, or fluid retention. Congestive heart failure, hypertension, syncope, and tachycardia have been reported with piroxicam administration. In addition, clinical practice guidelines state NSAIDs should not be administered to patients presenting with and hospitalized for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to increased risk of mortality, reinfarction, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial rupture associated with their use. Closely monitor blood pressure during piroxicam receipt. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible to minimize the potential risk for an adverse cardiovascular event. Inform patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any signs or symptoms of a cardiovascular thrombotic event.

    Bone marrow suppression, coagulopathy, hematological disease, hemophilia, immunosuppression, neutropenia, surgery, thrombocytopenia

    Piroxicam should be used cautiously in patients with preexisting hematological disease (e.g., coagulopathy or hemophilia) or thrombocytopenia due to the effect of the drug on platelet function and vascular response to bleeding. Piroxicam should also be used with caution in patients undergoing surgery when a high degree of hemostasis is required. NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients with immunosuppression or neutropenia. NSAIDs may mask the signs of infection such as fever or pain in patients with bone marrow suppression.

    Anemia

    Anemia may be exacerbated with the use of systemic NSAIDs (such as piroxicam). This may be due to fluid retention, GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythrogenesis. Patients who have initial hemoglobin values of 10 g/dl or less and who are to receive long-term NSAID therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.

    Intramuscular injections

    Intramuscular injections should be administered cautiously to patients receiving piroxicam. The risk of bleeding, bruising, or hematomas from IM injections may be increased due to the platelet effects of piroxicam therapy.

    Dental disease, dental work

    Use of piroxicam may cause increased bleeding in patients with dental disease. Patients should inform their dentist they are taking piroxicam prior to any dental work due to a potential increased risk of bleeding. Patients should be instructed on proper oral hygiene.

    Children

    The safety and effectiveness of piroxicam in children have not been established.

    Labor, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of piroxicam in pregnant women. Observational data regarding embryofetal risks of NSAID use during the first and second trimesters is inconclusive. Avoid piroxicam use starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) because use during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. In utero ductus arteriosus constriction by NSAIDs can lead to the development of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). In a case control study of 40 infants born with PPHN, 87.5% had the presence of an NSAID in their meconium vs. 24.6% of 61 healthy controls. The presence of at least 1 NSAID (aspirin, indomethacin, ibuprofen, or naproxen) was significantly associated with PPHN (OR 21.74; 95% CI 7.12 to 64.71; p = 0.001). Naproxen alone was detected in the meconium of 30% of infants with PPHN vs. 11.47% of controls and was significantly associated with PPHN (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.17 to 9.33; p = 0.02). A patent ductus arteriosus was absent in 18 of the 40 infants with PPHN, suggesting in utero ductal constriction by NSAID in the pathogenesis of PPHN. During animal reproduction studies in rats given piroxicam 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day during organogenesis, postimplantation loss was observed with 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, which are equivalent to exposures of 2 and 5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg based on body surface area. No drug-related developmental abnormalities were observed in rat offspring. Similarly, no drug-related abnormalities were noted in the offspring of pregnant rabbits administered 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day during organogenesis (up to 10 times the MRHD). In a pre-and postnatal study during which pregnant rabbits received piroxicam 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day on gestation day 15 through delivery and weaning, reduced weight gain and death were observed in dams at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the MRHD) starting on day 20. Treated dams revealed peritonitis, adhesions, gastric bleeding, hemorrhagic enteritis, and dead fetuses in utero. There are no studies on the effects of piroxicam during labor and obstetric delivery; however, in animal studies, NSAIDs, including piroxicam, have been associated with delayed parturition and an increased incidence of stillbirth. When given to delay parturition, NSAIDs have been associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension, renal dysfunction, and abnormal prostaglandin E concentrations in preterm infants. There may be an increased risk of neonatal complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and intracranial hemorrhage when prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors are used to delay preterm labor.

    Breast-feeding

    Piroxicam is excreted into breast milk in concentrations approximately equivalent to 1% to 3% of the maternal plasma concentrations. Previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations considered piroxicam as usually compatible with breast-feeding. Other alternative analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding by the AAP include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding along with the mother's need for piroxicam and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from piroxicam or the underlying maternal condition.

    Infertility, reproductive risk

    NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, may pose a reproductive risk by delaying or preventing prostaglandin-mediated rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility. Small studies of women treated with NSAIDs demonstrated a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing infertility evaluation.

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)

    Piroxicam is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke was found through analysis of data regarding the use of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10—14 days after CABG surgery.

    Poor metabolizers

    Use piroxicam with caution in patients who are known or suspected poor metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates based on the genotype of CYP2C9 isoenzyme that the patient carries or on previous history with other CYP2C9 substrates (e.g., warfarin and phenytoin). Patients with impaired CYP2C9 activity may have increased piroxicam plasma concentrations and systemic exposure due to reduced metabolic clearance of piroxicam to the inert 5'-hydroxy-piroxicam. Specific CYP2C9 genotypes are associated with altered CYP2C9 activity. Carriers of the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype are normal metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates, while CYP2C9 activity is reduced in individuals with other polymorphisms. Limited data from 2 published reports, which included subjects with heterozygous CYP2C9*1/*2 (n = 9), heterozygous CYP2C9*1/*3 (n = 9), and homozygous CYP2C9*3/*3 (n = 1) genotypes, have shown the systemic exposure of piroxicam to be 1.7-, 1.7-, and 5.3-fold higher, respectively, than that of subjects with the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype (n = 17, normal metabolizer group). The mean elimination half-life of piroxicam for subjects with CYP2C9*1/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes was 1.7- and 8.8-fold higher than subjects with CYP2C9*1/*1. The pharmacokinetics of piroxicam have not been evaluated in subjects with other CYP2C9 polymorphisms, such as *5, *6, *9 and *11. It is estimated that the frequency of the homozygous *3/*3 genotype is 0.—1% in the population at large; however, frequencies as high as 5.7% have been reported in certain (unidentified) ethnic groups.

    Geriatric

    As with any systemic NSAID, use of piroxicam in the geriatric patient should be approached with caution. The elderly and debilitated are typically at the highest risk for developing complications related to NSAID therapy, such as GI ulceration, fluid retention, and reduced renal perfusion. According to the Beers Criteria, NSAIDs are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for use in geriatric patients. NSAIDs may cause new or worsening gastric and duodenal ulcers, and there is an increased risk of GI bleeding and peptic ulcer disease in high risk groups including those above 75 years of age, or those taking oral or parenteral corticosteroids, anticoagulants, or antiplatelet medications. Therefore, the Beers expert panel recommends avoiding chronic use of systemic NSAIDs in high risk geriatric patients, unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastro-protective agent. In addition, NSAIDs should be avoided in patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers, unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastro-protective agent. It should be noted that the use of a gastro-protective agent, like a proton pump inhibitor or misoprostol reduces, but does not eliminate, GI risks. The Panel also recommends avoiding NSAIDs in geriatric patients with the following disease states or symptoms due to the potential for exacerbation of the condition or increased risk of adverse effects: heart failure (potential to promote fluid retention and exacerbate the condition) or chronic kidney disease Stage IV or less (CrCl less than 30 mL/minute) (may increase the risk of acute kidney injury and cause a further decline of renal function). The risk of ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation is cumulative with continued use (i.e., 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months and 2% to 4% of patients treated for 1 year); these trends continue with a longer duration of use. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, NSAIDs should be reserved for symptoms and/or inflammatory conditions for which lower risk analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen) have either failed, or are not clinically indicated. NSAIDs may cause GI bleeding in patients with a prior history of, or with increased risk for, GI bleeding, or may cause or worsen renal failure, increase blood pressure, or exacerbate heart failure. In addition, prolonged use of piroxicam should be avoided because of central nervous system side effects, such as headache, dizziness, somnolence, and confusion.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    GI perforation / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    peptic ulcer / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    GI bleeding / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    hepatic failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    aplastic anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pancytopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    coma / Early / 0-1.0
    seizures / Delayed / 0-1.0
    aseptic meningitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hearing loss / Delayed / 0-1.0
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / 0-1.0
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vasculitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    angioedema / Rapid / 0-1.0
    erythema multiforme / Delayed / 0-1.0
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / 0-1.0
    exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hematemesis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    odynophagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal stricture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    oliguria / Early / Incidence not known
    nephrotic syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperkalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    glomerulonephritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    proteinuria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    interstitial nephritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal papillary necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    visual impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    serum sickness / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    anemia / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    edema / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    hypoglycemia / Early / 0-1.0
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    lymphadenopathy / Delayed / 0-1.0
    akathisia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hallucinations / Early / 0-1.0
    conjunctivitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    angina / Early / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-1.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 0-1.0
    respiratory depression / Rapid / 0-1.0
    colic / Delayed / 0-1.0
    bullous rash / Early / 0-1.0
    melena / Delayed / Incidence not known
    gastritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    glossitis / Early / Incidence not known
    stomatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophagitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    jaundice / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    eosinophilia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    platelet dysfunction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fluid retention / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cystitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysuria / Early / Incidence not known
    hematuria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    photophobia / Early / Incidence not known
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    erythema / Early / Incidence not known
    infertility / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-10.0
    pyrosis (heartburn) / Early / 1.0-10.0
    vomiting / Early / 1.0-10.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.0-10.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    flatulence / Early / 1.0-10.0
    nausea / Early / 1.0-10.0
    dizziness / Early / 1.0-10.0
    headache / Early / 1.0-10.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 1.0-10.0
    rash (unspecified) / Early / 1.0-10.0
    eructation / Early / 0-1.0
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    onycholysis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    xerostomia / Early / Incidence not known
    weight loss / Delayed / Incidence not known
    weight gain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    epistaxis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ecchymosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    petechiae / Delayed / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known
    polyuria / Early / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tremor / Early / Incidence not known
    drowsiness / Early / Incidence not known
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    insomnia / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    infection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    alopecia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diaphoresis / Early / Incidence not known
    photosensitivity / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetohexamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Adefovir: (Moderate) Chronic coadministration of adefovir with nephrotoxic drugs, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity even in patients who have normal renal function. The use of adefovir with NSAIDs may be done cautiously. As stated in the current adefovir prescribing information, 'Ibuprofen (800 mg PO three times daily), when given concomitantly with adefovir dipivoxil, increased the adefovir Cmax by 33% and AUC by 23%, as well as urinary recovery. The increase appears to be due to higher oral bioavailability, not a reduction in renal clearance of adefovir.' In an in vitro investigation, the antiviral effect of adefovir was unaltered and the renal proximal tubule accumulation of adefovir was inhibited by the presence of a NSAID. Adefovir is efficiently transported by the human renal organic anion transporter 1, and the presence of this transporter appears to mediate the accumulation of the drug in renal proximal tubules. The in vitro study suggests that the use of a NSAID with adefovir may potentially reduce the nephrotoxic potential of adefovir. Of course, NSAIDs are associated with nephrotoxicity of their own; therefore, further data on the interaction between NSAIDs and adefovir in humans are needed.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Major) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may cause nephrotoxicity. Concurrent administration of drugs possessing nephrotoxic effects, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), with Aldesleukin, IL-2 may increase the risk of kidney dysfunction. In addition, reduced kidney function secondary to Aldesleukin, IL-2 treatment may delay elimination of concomitant medications and increase the risk of adverse events from those drugs.
    Aliskiren: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Alpha-blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Alteplase, tPA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Altretamine: (Major) Altretamine causes mild to moderate dose-related myelosuppression. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of altretamine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Amikacin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as amikacin.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Amiodarone: (Minor) Amiodarone inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9. Caution is recommended when administering amiodarone with other CYP2C9 substrates including piroxicam.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B: (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Antithymocyte Globulin: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as antithymocyte globulin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Apixaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Minor) Use caution if piroxicam and aprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for a possible decrease in the efficacy of piroxicam. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares the same drug interactions. Piroxicam is a CYP2C9 substrate and aprepitant is a CYP2C9 inducer. Administration of a CYP2C9 substrate, tolbutamide, on days 1, 4, 8, and 15 with a 3-day regimen of oral aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) decreased the tolbutamide AUC by 23% on day 4, 28% on day 8, and 15% on day 15. The AUC of tolbutamide was decreased by 8% on day 2, 16% on day 4, 15% on day 8, and 10% on day 15 when given prior to oral administration of aprepitant 40 mg on day 1, and on days 2, 4, 8, and 15. The effects of aprepitant on tolbutamide were not considered significant. When a 3-day regimen of aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) given to healthy patients on stabilized chronic warfarin therapy (another CYP2C9 substrate), a 34% decrease in S-warfarin trough concentrations was noted, accompanied by a 14% decrease in the INR at five days after completion of aprepitant.
    Aprotinin: (Moderate) The manufacturer recommends using aprotinin cautiously in patients that are receiving drugs that can affect renal function, such as NSAIDs, as the risk of renal impairment may be increased.
    Argatroban: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Notable interactions may occur with myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Patients receiving piroxicam concurrently with antineoplastic agents should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity. (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Azathioprine: (Moderate) NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressives as they may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Bacitracin: (Minor) Due to the inhibition of renal prostaglandins by piroxicam, concurrent use with other nephrotoxic agents, like systemic bacitracin, may lead to additive nephrotoxicity.
    Basiliximab: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents, Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Bendamustine: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Notable interactions may occur with myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Patients receiving piroxicam concurrently with antineoplastic agents should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Betrixaban: (Major) Monitor patients closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of bleeding if betrixaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used concomitantly. Coadministration of betrixaban and NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding.
    Bevacizumab: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Notable interactions may occur with myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Patients receiving piroxicam concurrently with antineoplastic agents should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Bexarotene: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Bisphosphonates: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Bivalirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Bleomycin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Busulfan: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of busulfan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Calcium Phosphate, Supersaturated: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Calcium-channel blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Capecitabine: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of capecitabine with piroxicam is necessary, and monitor for an increase in piroxicam-related adverse reactions. Piroxicam is a CYP2C9 substrate; capecitabine and/or its metabolites are thought to be inhibitors of CYP2C9. In a drug interaction study, the mean AUC of another CYP2C9 substrate, S-warfarin (single dose), significantly increased after coadministration with capecitabine; the maximum observed INR value also increased by 91%.
    Capreomycin: (Major) Because capreomycin is primarily eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase serum concentrations of either drug. Theoretically, the chronic coadministration of these drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered.
    Captopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Carmustine, BCNU: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of carmustine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. These additive effects may not occur for at least 6 weeks after the administration of carmustine due to the delayed myelosuppressive effects of carmustine.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Cefotaxime: (Minor) Cefotaxime's product label states that cephalosporins may potentiate the adverse renal effects of nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and loop diuretics. Carefully monitor renal function, especially during prolonged therapy or use of high aminoglycoside doses. The majority of reported cases involve the combination of aminoglycosides and cephalothin or cephaloridine, which are associated with dose-related nephrotoxicity as singular agents. Limited but conflicting data with other cephalosporins have been noted.
    Celecoxib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of celecoxib with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Chlorambucil: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of chlorambucil, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Chlorpropamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Cholestyramine: (Moderate) Cholestyramine has been shown to enhance the oral clearance and decrease the half-life of piroxicam. The clinical implications of this pharmacokinetic interaction are uncertain. To minimize this interaction, it is prudent to administer piroxicam at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after cholestyramine.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Cholinesterase inhibitors: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Chondroitin; Glucosamine: (Moderate) Patients taking methylsulfonylmethane, MSM have reported increased bruising or blood in the stool. These effects have not been confirmed in published medical literature or during clinical studies. Use methylsulfonylmethane, MSM with caution in patients who are taking drugs with the potential for additive bleeding, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). During an available, published clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis, patients with bleeding disorders or using anticoagulants or platelet inhibiting drugs were excluded from enrollment. Patients who choose to consume methylsulfonylmethane, MSM while receiving NSAIDs should be observed for potential bleeding.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cidofovir: (Severe) The concomitant administration of cidofovir and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is contraindicated due to the potential for increased nephrotoxicity. NSAIDs should be discontinued 7 days prior to beginning cidofovir.
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Cisplatin: (Moderate) Although the thrombocytopenic effects of cisplatin are limited, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant therapy with non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Also, cisplatin may cause nephrotoxicity, and NSAIDs can be drugs with nephrotoxic potential. Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal injury. Patients at greatest risk are the elderly, taking other nephrotoxic drugs, and those patients with renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, or heart failure. Concurrent use can be acceptable, but monitor renal function closely and be alert for signs of bleeding.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Cladribine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of cladribine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Clofarabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of clofarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Clonidine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Colistimethate, Colistin, Polymyxin E: (Major) The administration of colistimethate sodium may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since colistimethate sodium is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Corticotropin, ACTH: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Additive decreases in renal function have been reported between cyclosporine and NSAIDs. Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of cyclosporine toxicity and infection, as NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, or swelling.
    Cytarabine, ARA-C: (Major) The main toxic effect of cytarabine, ARA-C is bone marrow suppression with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of cytarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Dipyridamole can block membrane transport of cytarabine in tumor cells, therefore decreasing its antineoplastic activity.
    Dabigatran: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Dacarbazine, DTIC: (Major) Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common toxicities of dacarbazine, DTIC. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of dacarbazine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Dactinomycin, Actinomycin D: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Dalteparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Danaparoid: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Dasatinib: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic and possible platelet inhibiting effects of dasatinib, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Caution should be exercised if patients are required to take medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants concomitantly with dasatinib.
    Daunorubicin Liposomal: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Patients should be monitored closely for bleeding during concurrent use.
    Daunorubicin Liposomal; Cytarabine Liposomal: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Patients should be monitored closely for bleeding during concurrent use.
    Daunorubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Decitabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of decitabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Because gastric ulceration and GI bleeding have been reported in patients taking deferasirox, use caution when coadministering with other drugs known to increase the risk of peptic ulcers or gastric hemorrhage including NSAIDs. In addition, coadministration of deferasirox with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including NSAIDs, may increase the acute renal failure. Monitor serum creatinine and/or creatinine clearance in patients who are receiving deferasirox and nephrotoxic drugs concomitantly
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Denileukin Diftitox: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Desirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Desmopressin: (Major) Additive hyponatremic effects may be seen in patients treated with desmopressin and drugs associated with hyponatremia including NSAIDs. Use combination with caution, and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia. A woman who took both desmopressin and ibuprofen was found in a comatose state. As her serum sodium concentration was 121 mmol/L, and her plasma osmolality was low in the presence of a high-normal urine osmolality and normal sodium excretion, she was treated with fluid restriction. Her serum sodium concentration was 124 mmol/L within a day and was 135 mmol/L by the second day. The woman had previously received desmopressin without the development of clinical symptoms of hyponatremia
    Desvenlafaxine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by desvenlafaxine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking desvenlafaxine with NSAIDs.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diclofenac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diclofenac with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diclofenac with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diflunisal: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diflunisal with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with digoxin may result in increased serum concentrations of digoxin. NSAIDs may cause a significant deterioration in renal function. A decline in glomerular filtration or tubular secretion may impair the excretion of digoxin. Monitor patients during concomitant treatment for possible digoxin toxicity and reduce digoxin dose as necessary.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of naproxen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Dipyridamole: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Docetaxel: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of docetaxel, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Doxazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Doxorubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of doxorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drotrecogin Alfa: (Moderate) Caution should be used when drotrecogin alfa is used with any other drugs that affect hemostasis, including NSAIDs. These patients are at increased risk of bleeding during drotrecogin alfa therapy.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
    Edoxaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Edrophonium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Efavirenz inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and may inhibit the metabolism of piroxicam, a substrate for CYP2C9.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Efavirenz inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and may inhibit the metabolism of piroxicam, a substrate for CYP2C9.
    Eltrombopag: (Moderate) Eltrombopag is a UDP-glucuronyltransferase inhibitor. NSAIDs are a substrate of UDP-glucuronyltransferases. The significance or effect of this interaction is not known; however, elevated concentrations of the NSAID are possible. Monitor patients for adverse reactions if eltrombopag is administered with an NSAID.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Emtricitabine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Enoxaparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Entecavir: (Moderate) The manufacturer of entecavir recommends monitoring for adverse effects when coadministered with NSAIDs. Entecavir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys; NSAIDs can affect renal function. Concurrent administration may increase the serum concentrations of entecavir and adverse events.
    Epirubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of epirubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Eplerenone: (Major) Monitor serum potassium and serum creatinine concentrations within 3 to 7 days of initiating coadministration of eplerenone and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and monitor blood pressure. The concomitant use of other potassium-sparing antihypertensives with NSAIDs has been shown to reduce the antihypertensive effect in some patients and result in severe hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function. Patients who develop hyperkalemia may continue eplerenone with proper dose adjustment; eplerenone dose reduction decreases potassium concentrations.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Eptifibatide: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Eribulin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Erlotinib: (Moderate) Use caution if erlotinib is administered with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as these patients may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation. Gastrointestinal perforation, including fatal cases, has been reported in 0.2% to 0.4% of patients treated with erlotinib in clinical trials compared with 0.1% or less in control arms.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Esmolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of naproxen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Estramustine: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Ethanol: (Major) Concomitant ingestion of ethanol with NSAIDs increases the risk of developing gastric irritation and GI mucosal bleeding. Ethanol is a mucosal irritant and NSAIDs decrease platelet aggregation. Routine ingestion of ethanol and NSAIDs can cause significant GI bleeding, which may or may not be overt. Even occasional concomitant use of NSAIDs and ethanol should be avoided. Chronic alcoholism is often associated with hypoprothrombinemia and this condition increases the risk of bleeding. Systemic exposure of NSAIDs that are primary substrates for CYP2C9, such as diclofenac, may be increased during use of ethanol, which is a dose-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C9. The effects of ethanol may also be substrate-dependent, since in vitro data have shown varying inhibitory effects on 2C9 substrates.The manufacturer of diclofenac; misoprostol recommends that the total daily dose of diclofenac not exceed 100 mg in patients receiving a CYP2C9 inhibitor. Patients should be warned regarding the potential for increased risk of GI bleeding if alcohol-containing beverages are taken concurrently with NSAIDs.
    Etodolac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of etodolac with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Minor) At therapeutic concentrations, fenofibric acid is a mild-to-moderate inhibitor of CYP2C9. Concomitant use of fenofibric acid with CYP2C9 substrates, such as piroxicam, has not been formally studied. Fenofibric acid may theoretically increase plasma concentrations of CYP2C9 substrates and could lead to toxicity for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Monitor the therapeutic effect of piroxicam during coadministration with fenofibric acid.
    Fenoldopam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fenoprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of fenoprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Flavocoxid, Flavocoxid; Citrated Zinc Bisglycinate: (Major) Flavocoxid exerts similar pharmacologic characteristics to other systemic NSAIDs. Additive pharmacodynamic effects, including a potential for additive adverse cardiac and GI effects, may be seen if flavocoxid is used with NSAIDs. In general, the concurrent use of flavocoxid and NSAIDs should be avoided.
    Floxuridine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of floxuridine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fludarabine: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluorouracil, 5-FU: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of fluorouracil, 5-FU, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Flurbiprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Fondaparinux: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Food: (Moderate) Administering nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with marijuana may limit some of marijuana's pharmacologic activities. Certain actions of marijuana require prostaglandin-mediated processes to occur; NSAIDs may interfere with these processes thereby decreasing marijuana's effect. Coadministration of indomethacin with marijuana has been shown to significantly decrease euphoria, tachycardia, and the intraocular pressure lowering activity of marijuana.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Foscarnet: (Minor) The risk of renal toxicity may be increased if foscarnet is used in conjuction with other nephrotoxic agents, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Gadoterate meglumine: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Gallium Ga 68 Dotatate: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Ganciclovir: (Minor) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents, such as NSAIDs, with ganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function carefully if concomitant therapy is required.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Minor) Garlic, Allium sativum may produce clinically-significant antiplatelet effects; until more data are available, garlic should be used cautiously in patients receiving drugs with a potential risk for bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Gefitinib: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as gentamicin.
    Ginger, Zingiber officinale: (Minor) Patients receiving regular therapy with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should use ginger with caution, due to a theoretical risk of bleeding resulting from additive pharmacology related to the COX enzymes. However, clinical documentation of interactions is lacking. Several pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale) are reported to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) induced platelet activation in human whole blood. The constituent (8)-paradol is the most potent inhibitor of COX-1 and exhibits the greatest anti-platelet activity versus other gingerol analogues. The mechanism of ginger-associated platelet inhibition may be related to decreased COX-1/Thomboxane synthase enzymatic activity.
    Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba: (Moderate) Ginkgo is reported to inhibit platelet aggregation and several case reports describe bleeding complications with Ginkgo biloba, with or without concomitant drug therapy. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in patients receiving drugs that inhibit platelet aggregation or pose a risk for bleeding, such as NSAIDs. A case of fatal intracerebral bleeding has been reported with the combination of Ginkgo and the NSAID ibuprofen. A 71 year-old male had been taking a concentrated Ginkgo biloba extract (Gingium, Germany) 40 mg PO twice daily for a few years; 4 weeks prior to his death, he had started taking ibuprofen (600 mg daily) for osteoarthritic hip pain. The man was found comatose and CT scan revealed a massive intracerebral bleed; no other causative factors were identified.
    Glimepiride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glimepiride; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glipizide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glyburide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Gold: (Moderate) Due to the inhibition of renal prostaglandins by NSAIDs, concurrent use with other nephrotoxic agents, such as gold compounds, may lead to additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Heparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin: (Moderate) Immune Globulin (IG) products have been reported to be associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death. Patients predisposed to acute renal failure include patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates. Coadminister IG products at the minimum concentration available and the minimum rate of infusion practicable. Also, closely monitor renal function.
    Hydralazine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Hydroxyurea: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Major) Prolonged cytopenias, including thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, are frequently associated with the ibritumomab tiuxetan therapeutic regimen. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. The potential for bleeding should be considered in the concomitant use of such medications during the ibritumomab tiuxetan therapeutic regimen. Frequent laboratory monitoring of patients who must receive these therapies is recommended, with modification of clinical approaches to transfusion and other therapies if bleeding occurs due to the additive mechanisms and risks.
    Ibuprofen lysine: (Major) Because ibuprofen lysine exerts similar pharmacologic characteristics to other systemic NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors, additive pharmacodynamic effects, including a potential increase for additive adverse GI effects, may be seen if ibuprofen lysine is used with other NSAIDs. In general, concurrent use of ibuprofen lysine and another NSAID should be avoided.
    Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Idarubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of idarubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ifosfamide: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of ifosfamide, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Immune Globulin IV, IVIG, IGIV: (Moderate) Immune Globulin (IG) products have been reported to be associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death. Patients predisposed to acute renal failure include patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates. Coadminister IG products at the minimum concentration available and the minimum rate of infusion practicable. Also, closely monitor renal function.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Indomethacin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of indomethacin with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Interferon Alfa-2a: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Interferon Alfa-2b: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Iodipamide Meglumine: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iohexol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iopamidol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iopromide: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ioversol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ioxaglate Meglumine; Ioxaglate Sodium: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Irinotecan: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of irinotecan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Isosulfan Blue: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as piroxicam. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Ixabepilone: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Kanamycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as kanamycin.
    Ketoprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ketoprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ketorolac: (Severe) Concomitant use of ketorolac with another NSAID is contraindicated. Increased adverse gastrointestinal effects are possible if ketorolac is used with other systemic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including COX-2 inhibitors.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of naproxen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Lapatinib: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Leflunomide: (Moderate) In vitro studies indicate that the M1 metabolite of leflunomide inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many NSAIDs. Leflunomide altered protein binding and thus, increased the free fraction of ibuprofen by 13% to 50%. The clinical significance of the interactions with NSAIDs is unknown. There was extensive concomitant use of NSAIDs in phase III clinical studies of leflunomide in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and no clinical differential effects were observed. However, because some NSAIDs have been reported to cause hepatotoxic effects, some caution may be warranted in their use with leflunomide.
    Lepirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SNRIs such as levomilnacipran due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding in patients taking levomilnacipran and NSAIDs.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Lithium levels should be monitored when patients initiate or discontinue nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. In some cases, lithium toxicity has resulted from interactions between an NSAID and lithium. Indomethacin and piroxicam have been reported to significantly increase steady-state plasma lithium concentrations. There is also evidence that other NSAIDs, including the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, have the same effect. In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 twice daily with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone. It is thought that prostaglandins are involved in the renal clearance of lithium and that NSAIDs interfere with lithium excretion. Typically, increased lithium levels develop over 5 to 10 days after adding a NSAID and return to pretreatment levels within 7 days of stopping the NSAID.
    Lomustine, CCNU: (Major) Due to the bone marrow suppressive and thrombocytopenic effects of lomustine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Although the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown, concurrent use of piroxicam and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter piroxicam exposure; caution and monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together. Piroxicam is a substrate of CYP2C9. In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce and/or inhibit CYP2C9. The net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on CYP2C9-mediated metabolism is not clear, but CYP2C9 substrate exposure may be affected leading to decreased efficacy or increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as piroxicam. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Magnesium Salts: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Mannitol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Mechlorethamine, Nitrogen Mustard: (Major) Mechlorethamine, nitrogen mustard is highly toxic and is associated with lymphocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mechlorethamine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of meclofenamate sodium with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of mefenamic acid with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Meloxicam: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of meloxicam with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Melphalan: (Major) Bone marrow suppression is the most significant toxicity associated with melphalan in most patients, and includes thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of melphalan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mercaptopurine, 6-MP: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mercaptopurine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mesalamine, 5-ASA: (Minor) The concurrent use of mesalamine with known nephrotoxic agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity.
    Methotrexate: (Major) In general, NSAID therapy can decrease the clearance of methotrexate, resulting in elevated and prolonged serum methotrexate levels. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should not be administered prior to, concomitantly, or following intermediate or high doses of methotrexate. Concomitant administration of NSAIDs with high dose methotrexate therapy has been reported to elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate resulting in deaths from severe hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concurrently with lower doses of methotrexate. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate has been given concurrently with NSAIDs without apparent problems. It should be noted that the doses of methotrexate used in rheumatoid arthritis are lower than those used in psoriasis or malignant disease; higher methotrexate doses may lead to unexpected toxicity in combination with NSAIDs. Concurrent use of NSAIDs may increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients with methotrexate-induced myelosuppression or mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Methoxsalen: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as piroxicam could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of piroxicam before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Methylsulfonylmethane, MSM: (Moderate) Patients taking methylsulfonylmethane, MSM have reported increased bruising or blood in the stool. These effects have not been confirmed in published medical literature or during clinical studies. Use methylsulfonylmethane, MSM with caution in patients who are taking drugs with the potential for additive bleeding, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). During an available, published clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis, patients with bleeding disorders or using anticoagulants or platelet inhibiting drugs were excluded from enrollment. Patients who choose to consume methylsulfonylmethane, MSM while receiving NSAIDs should be observed for potential bleeding.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mifepristone, RU-486: (Moderate) Mifepristone RU-486, significantly increased exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2C8/2C9 in interaction studies. Therefore, when mifepristone is used in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome and coadministered with other CYP2C8/2C9 substrates, including NSAIDs, the lowest does of the substrate should be used and patients monitored closely for adverse reactions.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by milnacipran due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding in patients taking milnacipran and NSAIDs.
    Minoxidil: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mitomycin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mitomycin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mitoxantrone: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mitoxantrone, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Nabumetone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of naproxen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of naproxen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of naproxen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Nelarabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of nelarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Neomycin: (Minor) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive NSAIDs concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides.
    Neostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Omacetaxine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of omacetaxine and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when the platelet count is less than 50,000 cells/microliter due to an increased risk of bleeding.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Piroxicam is metabolized by CYP2C9; oritavancin is a weak CYP2C9 inhibitor. Coadministration may result in elevated piroxicam plasma concentrations. If these drugs are administered concurrently, monitor patients for NSAID-induced toxicity, such as nausea, GI bleeding, or renal dysfunction.
    Oxaprozin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxaprozin with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Paclitaxel: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of paclitaxel, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Pegaspargase: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of pegaspargase, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Additive nephrotoxicity may be seen with the combination of pentamidine and other agents that cause nephrotoxicity, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Pentosan: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Pentostatin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of pentostatin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Phenoxybenzamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Concurrent use of topiramate and drugs that affect platelet function such as NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding. In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, bleeding was more frequently reported in patients receiving topiramate (4.5%) compared to placebo (2 to 3%). In those with severe bleeding events, patients were often taking drugs that cause thrombocytopenia or affect platelet function or coagulation.
    Phentolamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Physostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Platelet Inhibitors: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Pneumococcal Vaccine, Polyvalent: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of antipyretics, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), may decrease an individual's immunological response to the pneumococcal vaccine. A post-marketing study conducted in Poland using a non-US vaccination schedule (2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age) evaluated the impact of prophylactic oral acetaminophen on antibody responses to Prevnar 13. Data show that acetaminophen, given at the time of vaccination and then dosed at 6 to 8 hour intervals for 3 doses on a scheduled basis, reduced the antibody response to some serotypes after the third dose of Prevnar 13 when compared to the antibody responses of infants who only received antipyretics 'as needed' for treatment. However, reduced antibody responses were not observed after the fourth dose of Prevnar 13 with prophylactic acetaminophen.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Polymyxin B: (Major) The chronic coadministration of systemic polymyxins may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since Polymyxin B is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Polymyxins: (Major) The administration of colistimethate sodium may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since colistimethate sodium is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Porfimer: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as piroxicam could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of piroxicam before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Pralatrexate: (Major) Renal elimination accounts for approximately 34% of the overall clearance of pralatrexate. Concomitant administration of drugs that undergo substantial renal clearance, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may result in delayed clearance of pralatrexate.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Prazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Probenecid: (Major) Probenecid can decrease the renal clearance of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Reduction of the NSAID dose may be necessary when it is used together with probenecid.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of procarbazine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Pyridostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of quinolones and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs has been reported to increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures. Patients with CNS disorders or other risk factors that may predispose them to seizure development or patients taking drugs that lower the seizure threshold may not be appropriate candidates for NSAID usage if they are also taking a quinolone. Use a quinolone with caution in individuals who take a NSAID concomitantly.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Reteplase, r-PA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Rivaroxaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Romidepsin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Salicylates: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Salsalate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Sertraline: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Sodium Hyaluronate, Hyaluronic Acid: (Moderate) Increased bruising or bleeding at the injection site may occur when using hyaluronate sodium with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sotalol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Streptokinase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Streptomycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as streptomycin.
    Streptozocin: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Sulfinpyrazone: (Moderate) Sulfinpyrazone is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and may lead to increased plasma levels of NSAIDs. During concurrent therapy, monitor for potential NSAID-induced toxicity, such as GI irritation or bleeding.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Sulindac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of piroxicam with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Tacrine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Telavancin: (Minor) Concurrent or sequential use of telavancin with drugs that inhibit renal prostaglandins such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may lead to additive nephrotoxicity. Closely monitor renal function and adjust telavancin doses based on calculated creatinine clearance.
    Telbivudine: (Moderate) Drugs that alter renal function such as NSAIDs may alter telbivudine plasma concentrations because telbivudine is eliminated primarily by renal excretion. Monitor renal function before and during telbivudine treatment.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Temozolomide: (Major) Myelosuppression, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, is the dose-limiting toxicity of temozolomide. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of temozolomide, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Tenecteplase, TNK-tPA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Teniposide: (Major) Dose-limiting bone marrow suppression is the most significant toxicity associated with teniposide, and may include thrombocytopenia. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Salicylates also displace protein-bound teniposide in fresh human serum to a small but significant extent. Because of the extremely high binding of teniposide to plasma proteins, these small decreases in binding could cause substantial increases in plasma free drug concentrations that could result in potentiation of teniposide toxicity, including bone marrow suppression.
    Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Tenofovir, PMPA: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Terazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Thioguanine, 6-TG: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of thioguanine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Thiotepa: (Major) Thiotepa is highly toxic to the hematopoietic system, and causes thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and anemia. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Thrombolytic Agents: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Ticlopidine: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Timolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Tinzaparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Tirofiban: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Tobacco: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with tobacco smoking may enhance the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Tobacco smoking may independently increase the risk of peptic ulcer and GI bleeding, and thus may increase the risk with NSAID usage. Patients using tobacco and NSAIDs concurrently should be monitored closely for GI adverse reactions.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as tobramycin.
    Tolazamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Tolbutamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Tolmetin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of piroxicam with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Concurrent use of topiramate and drugs that affect platelet function such as NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding. In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, bleeding was more frequently reported in patients receiving topiramate (4.5%) compared to placebo (2 to 3%). In those with severe bleeding events, patients were often taking drugs that cause thrombocytopenia or affect platelet function or coagulation.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Tositumomab: (Major) The tositumomab therapeutic regimen frequently causes severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. The potential benefits of medications that interfere with platelet function and/or anticoagulation should be weighed against the potential increased risk of bleeding and hemorrhage. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Trastuzumab: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by trazodone due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking trazodone concurrently with medications that impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Tretinoin, ATRA: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Urea: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Urokinase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Valganciclovir: (Minor) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents, such as NSAIDs, with valganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Due to the high protein binding of NSAIDs, they could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as valproic acid, divalproex sodium from albumin binding sites in the blood leading to an increase in valproic acid free drug concentrations. In such cases, a patient may experience valproic acid toxicity even if the total drug concentration is within the therapeutic range.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Vancomycin: (Minor) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive NSAIDs concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, including vancomycin.
    Vasodilators: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Vemurafenib: (Minor) Concomitant use of vemurafenib and piroxicam may result in increased piroxicam concentrations. Vemurafenib is a CYP2C9 inhibitor and piroxicam is a CYP2C9 substrate. Patients should be monitored for toxicity.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by venlafaxine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding when coadministering venlafaxine with NSAIDs.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by vilazodone due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking vilazodone concurrently with NSAIDs and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Vinblastine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of vinblastine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Vincristine Liposomal: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Vincristine: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as piroxicam, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Vinorelbine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of vinorelbine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) The hepatic isoenzyme CYP2C9 is responsible for the metabolism of many NSAIDs. Voriconazole is known to be an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and may lead to increased plasma levels of some NSAIDs, such as piroxicam. The clinical significance of this potential interaction is unknown. Monitor for NSAID-related side-effects, such as fluid retention or GI irritation, and adjust the dose of the NSAID, if needed.
    Vorinostat: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Vortioxetine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by vortioxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Bleeding events related to drugs that inhibit serotonin reuptake have ranged from ecchymosis to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking vortioxetine concurrently with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of bleeding during concurrent use of warfarin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).To minimize the potential for GI bleeding, use the lowest effective NSAID dose for the shortest possible duration. If signs or symptoms of bleeding occur, promptly evaluate and treat. Systemic hematological effects may also occur with the use of topical NSAIDs. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and may prolong bleeding time in some patients.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) Zafirlukast inhibits the CYP2C9 isoenzymes and should be used cautiously in patients stabilized on drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, such as piroxicam.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Piroxicam is excreted into breast milk in concentrations approximately equivalent to 1% to 3% of the maternal plasma concentrations. Previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations considered piroxicam as usually compatible with breast-feeding. Other alternative analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding by the AAP include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding along with the mother's need for piroxicam and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from piroxicam or the underlying maternal condition.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action: Piroxicam competitively inhibits both cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, by blocking arachidonate binding resulting in analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory pharmacologic effects. The enzymes COX-1 and COX-2 catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), the first step of the synthesis prostaglandins and thromboxanes that are involved in rapid physiological responses. COX isoenzymes are also responsible for a peroxidase reaction, which is not affected by NSAIDs. In addition, NSAIDs do not suppress leukotriene synthesis by lipoxygenase pathways. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in almost all tissues, while COX-2 appears to only be constitutively expressed in the brain, kidney, bones, reproductive organs, and some neoplasms (e.g., colon and prostate cancers). COX-1 is responsible for prostaglandin synthesis in response to stimulation by circulating hormones, as well as maintenance of normal renal function, gastric mucosal integrity, and hemostasis. However, COX-2 is inducible in many cells in response to certain mediators of inflammation (e.g., interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, lipopolysaccharide, mitogens, and reactive oxygen intermediates).•Anti-inflammatory Activity: The anti-inflammatory mechanism of piroxicam is due to decreased prostaglandin synthesis via inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. It appears that the anti-inflammatory effects may be primarily due to inhibition of the COX-2 isoenzyme. However, COX-1 is expressed at some sites of inflammation. COX-1 is expressed in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis patients, especially the synovial lining, and it is the primary enzyme of prostaglandin synthesis in human bursitis. Piroxicam is considered a non-selective NSAID; however, it is more selective for the COX-1 isoenzyme.•Analgesic Activity: Piroxicam is effective in cases where inflammation has caused sensitivity of pain receptors (hyperalgesia). It appears prostaglandins, specifically prostaglandins E and F, are responsible for sensitizing the pain receptors; therefore, piroxicam has an indirect analgesic effect by inhibiting the production of further prostaglandins and does not directly affect hyperalgesia or the pain threshold.•Antipyretic Activity: Piroxicam promotes a return to a normal body temperature set point in the hypothalamus by suppressing the synthesis of prostaglandins, specifically PGE2, in circumventricular organs in and near the hypothalamus. Piroxicam may mask fever in some patients, especially with high or chronic dosing.•GI Effects: Gastrointestinal side effects of piroxicam are primarily contributed to COX-1 inhibition; however, potential role of COX-2 inhibition in the GI tract has not been fully elucidated.•Platelet Effects: The inhibition of platelet aggregation seen with piroxicam is due to dose-dependent inhibition of COX-1 in platelets leading to decreased levels of platelet thromboxane A2 and an increase in bleeding time (see Adverse Reactions). The inhibition of platelet aggregation is reversible within 24 hours of discontinuation of piroxicam. This differs from aspirin, which irreversibly binds to COX-1 in platelets inhibiting this enzyme for the life of the cell.•Renal Effects: In the kidney, prostaglandins, produced by both COX-1 and COX-2, are important regulators of sodium and water reabsorption through PGE2 and of renal function and hemodynamics via PGI2 in response to vasoconstrictive factors (e.g., endothelin-1, a factor that increases peripheral vascular resistance) and through effects on the renin-angiotensin system. In conditions where renal blood flow is dependent upon prostaglandin synthesis, administration of NSAIDs can result in significant decreases in renal blood flow leading to acute renal failure. In addition, alterations in sodium and water reabsorption may worsen increased blood pressure, which can be significant in selected individuals.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Piroxicam is administered orally. Onset of pain relief can be within 1—2 days, although progressive pain relief may occur over 8—12 weeks. Repeated daily dosage leads to drug accumulation, possibly in cartilage as well. Steady-state plasma concentrations are achieved after 7—12 days. Piroxicam is 99% bound to plasma proteins. Its distribution has not been fully elucidated, but concentrations in synovial fluid are roughly 40% of plasma concentrations. Concentrations in breast milk are 1—3% of maternal plasma concentrations. It is unknown whether piroxicam crosses the placenta. Hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites is extensive; only 5% of a dose is excreted as unchanged piroxicam. Piroxicam undergoes enterohepatic circulation and has a half-life of approximately 50 hours. Urinary excretion of piroxicam and its metabolites is twice that of fecal excretion.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP2C9
    Piroxicam is metabolized by CYP2C9, which is polymorphic. CYP2C9*1 is the wild-type, and CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 are the most common variants. As compared with data from patients homozygous for the CYP2C9*1 genotype, the systemic exposure of piroxicam was significantly increased (about 70% higher) among patients with either CYP2C9*1/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 genotypes.

    Oral Route

    Absorption of piroxicam from the GI tract is rapid. Onset of pain relief can be within 1—2 days, although progressive pain relief may occur over 8—12 weeks. The rate of absorption, but not the extent, is delayed when taken with food. Peak plasma concentrations are achieved in 3—5 hours.