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  • CLASSES

    Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs/NSAIDs
    Ophthalmological Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatories

    BOXED WARNING

    Alcoholism, anticoagulant therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, GI bleeding, GI disease, GI perforation, peptic ulcer disease, tobacco smoking, ulcerative colitis

    Chronic use of oral flurbiprofen can result in gastritis, ulceration with or without GI perforation, and/or GI bleeding, which can occur at any time, often without preceding symptoms. Therefore, oral flurbiprofen should be avoided if possible in patients with a history of or active GI disease including peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. It is recommended not to initiate therapy with maximum doses in these patients due to the likely increase frequency of adverse reactions. Patients at increased risk for NSAID-induced GI bleeding include those receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, or anticoagulant therapy, tobacco smoking patients, the elderly, and patients with alcoholism. All patients receiving prolonged treatment should be routinely monitored for potential GI ulceration and bleeding. Consider therapies besides NSAIDs for high risk patients.

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, edema, heart failure, hypertension, myocardial infarction or stroke, peripheral vascular disease

    Systemic use of flurbiprofen, like all NSAIDs, may exacerbate or lead to new-onset hypertension and may exacerbate congestive heart failure and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. The FDA has warned that the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke can occur as early as the first weeks of using a NSAID, and risk may increase with higher doses and longer duration of use. Data demonstrate that patients treated with NSAIDs were more likely to die in the first year following a myocardial infarction compared to those not treated with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may increase the risk of a cardiovascular thrombotic event in patients with or without underlying heart disease or risk factors for heart disease. Patients with known heart disease or risk factors appear to have a greater likelihood of an event following NSAID use, likely due to a higher baseline risk. Current evidence is insufficient to determine if the risk of an event is higher or lower for any particular NSAID compared to other NSAIDs. There is an increased risk of heart failure with NSAID use. Caution is recommended when administering flurbiprofen to patients with cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, significant coronary artery disease (including angina, history of myocardial infarction), cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, pre-existing renal disease, or fluid retention. Both fluid retention and edema have been reported in patients receiving flurbiprofen. In addition, clinical practice guidelines state NSAIDs should not be administered to patients presenting with and hospitalized for ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to increased risk of mortality, reinfarction, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial rupture associated with their use. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. Closely monitor blood pressure during flurbiprofen initiation and during the course of therapy. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible to minimize the potential risk for an adverse cardiovascular event. Healthcare professionals should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous cardiovascular symptoms. Inform patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any signs or symptoms of a cardiovascular event.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Propionic acid NSAID; longer half-life allows for twice daily dosing; oral formulation used for RA, OA, dysmenorrhea; ophthalmic form used for inhibition of intraoperative miosis. Oral administration causes an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse effects and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular events; use lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Ansaid, Ocufen

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Ansaid/Flurbiprofen Oral Tab: 50mg, 100mg
    Flurbiprofen/Flurbiprofen Sodium/Ocufen Ophthalmic Sol: 0.03%

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    200—300 mg/day PO in 2—4 divided doses; do not exceed 100 mg/dose PO. Most experience with rheumatoid arthritis has been with doses divided 3 or 4 times per day.

    For the treatment of osteoarthritis.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    200—300 mg/day PO in 2—4 divided doses; do not exceed 100 mg/dose PO.

    For intraoperative miosis inhibition.
    Ophthalmic dosage
    Adults

    A total of 4 drops should be administered by instilling 1 drop into the affected eye every 30 minutes beginning 2 hours before surgery.

    For the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    50 mg PO 4 times per day or 100 mg PO twice daily. Adjust dosage according to individual response up to a maximum of 300 mg/day PO in divided doses.

    For the treatment of dysmenorrhea†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Doses of 50 mg PO 4 times per day or 100 mg PO twice daily have been studied.

    For the acute treatment of migraine† headache.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Doses of 100 mg PO 1—3 times per day have been used. Do not exceed 300 mg PO in any 24 hour period.

    For migraine prophylaxis†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    100 mg PO twice daily. Clinical practice guidelines classify flurbiprofen as possibly effective for migraine prophylaxis.

    For the preservation of bone around dental implants†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    100 mg PO twice daily for 3 months has been used to preserve bone around dental implants.

    For the treatment of mild pain and moderate pain including arthralgia, myalgia, bone pain†, and dental pain†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    50 mg PO 4 times per day or 100 mg PO twice daily. Single doses of 50—100 mg PO have been effective when used after dental surgery. Do not exceed 300 mg/day.

    For the treatment of postoperative ocular inflammation†.
    Ophthalmic dosage
    Adults

    1 drop into the affected eye every 4 hours for 1—3 weeks.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    300 mg/day PO; not to exceed 100 mg/dose PO.

    Elderly

    300 mg/day PO; not to exceed 100 mg/dose PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Although specific guidelines are not available, oral dosage reduction may be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl < 10 mL/min: A reduction in oral dosage may be required to avoid accumulation of flurbiprofen metabolites.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Flurbiprofen tablets should be administered with food to decrease gastrointestinal side effects.

    Ophthalmic Administration

    Apply topically to the eye.
    Do not touch the tip of the dropper to the eye, fingertips, or other surface.
    Patients having bilateral ocular surgery who are using flurbiprofen solution for intraoperative miosis inhibition should use 1 bottle for each eye to avoid the potential for cross-contamination.

    STORAGE

    Ansaid:
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Ocufen:
    - Store between 59 to 77 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Acute bronchospasm, asthma, nasal polyps, NSAID hypersensitivity, salicylate hypersensitivity, urticaria

    Flurbiprofen is contraindicated in patients with salicylate hypersensitivity or NSAID hypersensitivity who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactoid reactions to flurbiprofen have been reported in such patients. Flurbiprofen should not be used in asthma patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma or the aspirin triad because of the approximate 5% cross-sensitivity that occurs between aspirin and NSAIDs. The triad typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who experience severe, potentially fatal, acute bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. The use of NSAIDs, including flurbiprofen, may cause serious and potentially fatal skin reactions including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Patients should be instructed to discontinue the medication and contact their health care provider if erythema, rash, blisters, or related skin reactions develop.

    Alcoholism, anticoagulant therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, GI bleeding, GI disease, GI perforation, peptic ulcer disease, tobacco smoking, ulcerative colitis

    Chronic use of oral flurbiprofen can result in gastritis, ulceration with or without GI perforation, and/or GI bleeding, which can occur at any time, often without preceding symptoms. Therefore, oral flurbiprofen should be avoided if possible in patients with a history of or active GI disease including peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. It is recommended not to initiate therapy with maximum doses in these patients due to the likely increase frequency of adverse reactions. Patients at increased risk for NSAID-induced GI bleeding include those receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, or anticoagulant therapy, tobacco smoking patients, the elderly, and patients with alcoholism. All patients receiving prolonged treatment should be routinely monitored for potential GI ulceration and bleeding. Consider therapies besides NSAIDs for high risk patients.

    Bone marrow suppression, coagulopathy, hemophilia, immunosuppression, neutropenia, ocular surgery, surgery, thrombocytopenia

    Flurbiprofen, like other NSAIDs, inhibits platelet aggregation and has been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, the effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving flurbiprofen who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders (e.g., coagulopathy, hemophilia), thrombocytopenia, or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored. Flurbiprofen should also be used with caution in patients undergoing surgery when a high degree of hemostasis is required. NSAIDs should also be used with caution in patients with immunosuppression or neutropenia as NSAID use may mask the signs of infection such as fever or pain in patients with bone marrow suppression. There have been reports that ophthalmic administration of flurbiprofen may cause increased bleeding of ocular tissues (including hyphema) in conjunction with ocular surgery. Therefore, flurbiprofen ophthalmic solution should be used with caution in ocular surgery patients with known bleeding tendencies or who are receiving other medications which may prolong bleeding time.

    Anemia

    Anemia may be exacerbated with the use of oral NSAIDs (such as flurbiprofen). This may be due to fluid retention, GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythrogenesis. Patients who have initial hemoglobin values of 10 g/dL or less and who are to receive long-term NSAID therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.

    Dental disease, dental work

    Use of flurbiprofen may cause increased bleeding in patients with dental disease. Patients should inform their dentist they are taking flurbiprofen prior to any dental work due to a potential increased risk of bleeding. Patients should be instructed on proper oral hygiene.

    Hepatic disease, jaundice

    Flurbiprofen should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing hepatic disease as drug accumulation and/or increased drug exposure may be possible, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity has been reported. Hepatic metabolism is thought to account for more than 90% of flurbiprofen elimination; patients with hepatic impairment may require a lower dosage. Plasma protein binding may also be decreased in patients with liver disease and a serum albumin concentration of less than 3.1 g/dL, thus increasing the availability of free drug. Severe hepatic reactions have occurred during treatment with flurbiprofen, and patients with hepatic impairment are at an increased risk for developing these complications. Elevations in liver-function tests have been reported in up to 15% of patients receiving NSAID therapy. Flurbiprofen should be discontinued if elevated hepatic enzymes persist or worsen, or if signs or symptoms of hepatic disease, such as jaundice, develop.

    Diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis

    Ocular flurbiprofen should be used with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus, corneal denervation, corneal epithelial defects, xerophthalmia, rheumatoid arthritis, or repeat ocular surgery within a short time period, as these patients may be at greater risk for corneal adverse events. Some ocular adverse effects of flurbiprofen may be sight-threatening.

    Renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Due to the role of prostaglandins in renal function and hemodynamics, patients with renal disease should be closely observed during therapy with flurbiprofen due to an increased risk for adverse reactions during treatment. In clinical studies, the elimination half-life of flurbiprofen was unchanged in patients with renal impairment; however, elimination of the metabolite, 4'- hydroxy-flurbiprofen was reduced in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Treatment with systemic flurbiprofen tablet is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease or renal failure. If systemic flurbiprofen must be initiated, close monitoring of the patients renal function is advisable. Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of renal decompensation are those with impaired renal function, cardiac failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or nephrotoxic drugs, those with extracellular volume depletion (i.e., hypovolemia or dehydration), and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, edema, heart failure, hypertension, myocardial infarction or stroke, peripheral vascular disease

    Systemic use of flurbiprofen, like all NSAIDs, may exacerbate or lead to new-onset hypertension and may exacerbate congestive heart failure and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. The FDA has warned that the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke can occur as early as the first weeks of using a NSAID, and risk may increase with higher doses and longer duration of use. Data demonstrate that patients treated with NSAIDs were more likely to die in the first year following a myocardial infarction compared to those not treated with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may increase the risk of a cardiovascular thrombotic event in patients with or without underlying heart disease or risk factors for heart disease. Patients with known heart disease or risk factors appear to have a greater likelihood of an event following NSAID use, likely due to a higher baseline risk. Current evidence is insufficient to determine if the risk of an event is higher or lower for any particular NSAID compared to other NSAIDs. There is an increased risk of heart failure with NSAID use. Caution is recommended when administering flurbiprofen to patients with cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, significant coronary artery disease (including angina, history of myocardial infarction), cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, pre-existing renal disease, or fluid retention. Both fluid retention and edema have been reported in patients receiving flurbiprofen. In addition, clinical practice guidelines state NSAIDs should not be administered to patients presenting with and hospitalized for ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to increased risk of mortality, reinfarction, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial rupture associated with their use. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. Closely monitor blood pressure during flurbiprofen initiation and during the course of therapy. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible to minimize the potential risk for an adverse cardiovascular event. Healthcare professionals should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous cardiovascular symptoms. Inform patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any signs or symptoms of a cardiovascular event.

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)

    Systemic flurbiprofen is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke was found through analysis of data regarding the use of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days after CABG surgery.

    Geriatric

    Geriatric patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal (GI) events from systemic NSAID use. Clinical experience with flurbiprofen suggests that geriatric patients may have a higher incidence of GI complaints than younger adult patients, including GI ulceration, bleeding, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain. To minimize the potential risk for GI events, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Likewise, geriatric patients are at greater risk of developing renal decompensation secondary to NSAID use; discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state if renal decompensation occurs. According to the Beers Criteria, NSAIDs are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for use in geriatric patients. NSAIDs may cause new or worsening gastric and duodenal ulcers, and there is an increased risk of GI bleeding and peptic ulcer disease in high risk groups including those above 75 years of age, or those taking oral or parenteral corticosteroids, anticoagulants, or antiplatelet medications. Therefore, the Beers expert panel recommends avoiding chronic use of NSAIDs in high risk patients, unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastro-protective agent. In addition, NSAIDs should be avoided in patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers, unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastro-protective agent. It should be noted that the use of a gastro-protective agent, like a proton pump inhibitor or misoprostol reduces, but does not eliminate, GI risks. The Panel also recommends avoiding NSAIDs in geriatric patients with the following disease states or symptoms due to the potential for exacerbation of the condition or increased risk of adverse effects: heart failure (potential to promote fluid retention and exacerbate the condition) or chronic kidney disease Stage IV or less (CrCl less than 30 mL/minute) (may increase the risk of acute kidney injury and cause a further decline of renal function). The risk of GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation is cumulative with continued use (i.e., 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months and 2% to 4% of patients treated for 1 year); these trends continue with a longer duration of use. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, NSAIDs should be reserved for symptoms and/or inflammatory conditions for which lower risk analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen) have either failed, or are not clinically indicated. NSAIDs may cause GI bleeding in patients with a prior history of, or with increased risk for, GI bleeding. In addition, NSAIDs may cause or worsen renal failure, increase blood pressure, or exacerbate heart failure.

    Labor, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Systemic flurbiprofen is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category C throughout most of gestation. Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. Use of flurbiprofen should be avoided unless the potential therapeutic benefits justify its use during pregnancy. There are some published observational data to suggest that prescription NSAIDs may increase the risk of miscarriage in the first half of pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation; however, based on the FDA evaluation of the quality of evidence available, there is inclusive evidence regarding a possible connection between NSAID use and miscarriage. The FDA recommends caution and adherence to recommendations in product labels regarding pregnancy. Because of the known effects of NSAIDs on the fetal cardiovascular system (premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus in utero), use during late pregnancy should be avoided (FDA pregnancy risk category D). Of 40 babies born with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), 87.5% had the presence of an NSAID in their meconium versus 24.6% of 61 children born without PPHN; the presence of only 4 NSAIDs was examined. In addition to meconium aspiration, asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, and group B streptococcal pneumonia, ductus arteriosus constriction by an NSAID appears to be another predisposing factor for PPHN development, as a patent ductus arteriosus was absent in 18 of the 40 infants. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors also have the potential to prolong pregnancy and inhibit labor if taken during the third trimester. There may be an increased risk of neonatal complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and intracranial hemorrhage when prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors are used to delay preterm labor. Flurbiprofen use should be avoided in labor and obstetric delivery due to the potential to adversely affect fetal circulation and also to inhibit uterine contractions, thereby increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage. Prostaglandin inhibitors may impair fertility and are not recommended in women attempting to conceive.

    Breast-feeding

    Concentrations of flurbiprofen in breast milk and plasma of nursing mothers suggest that a nursing infant could receive approximately 0.10 mg flurbiprofen per day in the established milk of a woman taking flurbiprofen 200 mg/day PO. Because of possible adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates, the manufacturer states that a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Because of the low levels of flurbiprofen in human breast milk and its short half-life, experts state that flurbiprofen use by the mother is unlikely to adversely affect the breast-feeding infant, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Use of ophthalmic flurbiprofen during breast-feeding has not been evaluated, however, the ophthalmic formulation does not pose concern for use during lactation. At maternal doses of 150 mg/day orally for 3 days, breast milk flurbiprofen concentrations were reported as undetectable (less than 0.05 mcg/mL) in all samples from 11 of the 12 patients studied; breast milk flurbiprofen concentrations were 0.06 mcg/mL after the first dose and 0.07 mcg/mL immediately before the second dose in milk samples from the final patient. Maternal plasma concentrations of flurbiprofen were as expected and ranged from 1.93 +/- 0.44 mcg/mL to 5.28 +/- 1.06 mcg/mL at various time points over the 3 days. Alternative analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Visual disturbance

    Blurred and/or diminished vision has been reported with the use of systemic flurbiprofen and other systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients experiencing eye complaints or visual disturbance should have ophthalmologic examinations.

    Poor metabolizers

    Use systemic flurbiprofen with caution in patients who are known or suspected poor metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates based on previous history with other CYP2C9 substrates (e.g., warfarin and phenytoin). Patients with impaired CYP2C9 activity may have increased flurbiprofen plasma concentrations due to reduced metabolic clearance; hepatic metabolism is estimated to account for more than 90% of flurbiprofen elimination, in which the isoenzyme CYP2C9 plays an important part.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    peptic ulcer / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hematemesis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    cholecystitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hepatic failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pancreatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    coma / Early / 0-1.0
    hearing loss / Delayed / 0-1.0
    seizures / Delayed / 0-1.0
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperkalemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    oliguria / Early / 0-1.0
    heart failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    stroke / Early / 0-1.0
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / 0-1.0
    interstitial nephritis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / 0-1.0
    vasculitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pancytopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    aplastic anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    angioedema / Rapid / 0-1.0
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    erythema multiforme / Delayed / 0-1.0
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    retinal hemorrhage / Delayed / 0-1.0
    optic neuritis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    corneal opacification / Delayed / 0-1.0
    aseptic meningitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pulmonary embolism / Delayed / 0-1.0
    prostatic hypertrophy / Delayed / 0-1.0
    GI bleeding / Delayed / 1.0
    GI perforation / Delayed / 1.0
    esophageal stricture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    odynophagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nephrotic syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal papillary necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    gastritis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    colitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    stomatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    glossitis / Early / 0-1.0
    cholestasis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    jaundice / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hepatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hallucinations / Early / 0-1.0
    confusion / Early / 0-1.0
    ataxia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    myasthenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hypertonia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    meningitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 0-1.0
    angina / Early / 0-1.0
    hematuria / Delayed / 0-1.0
    peripheral vasodilation / Rapid / 0-1.0
    dysuria / Early / 0-1.0
    hypertension / Early / 0-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    hyperuricemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-1.0
    proteinuria / Delayed / 0-1.0
    eosinophilia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    lymphadenopathy / Delayed / 0-1.0
    leukopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vaginal bleeding / Delayed / 0-1.0
    melena / Delayed / 0-1.0
    conjunctivitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    respiratory depression / Rapid / 0-1.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-1.0
    prostatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vaginitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    constipation / Delayed / 1.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 1.0
    hyperreflexia / Delayed / 1.0
    amnesia / Delayed / 1.0
    blurred vision / Early / 1.0
    depression / Delayed / 1.0
    edema / Delayed / 1.0
    cystitis / Delayed / 1.0
    anemia / Delayed / 1.0
    prolonged bleeding time / Delayed / 1.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophagitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    platelet dysfunction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    photophobia / Early / Incidence not known
    hyphema / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    anorexia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    eructation / Early / 0-1.0
    xerostomia / Early / 0-1.0
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    parosmia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    drowsiness / Early / 0-1.0
    dysgeusia / Early / 0-1.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 0-1.0
    malaise / Early / 0-1.0
    emotional lability / Early / 0-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-1.0
    polyuria / Early / 0-1.0
    fever / Early / 0-1.0
    chills / Rapid / 0-1.0
    infection / Delayed / 0-1.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 0-1.0
    alopecia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    photosensitivity / Delayed / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-1.0
    ecchymosis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    purpura / Delayed / 0-1.0
    laryngitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperventilation / Early / 0-1.0
    menstrual irregularity / Delayed / 0-1.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.0
    vomiting / Early / 1.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0
    pyrosis (heartburn) / Early / 1.0
    flatulence / Early / 1.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 1.0
    nausea / Early / 1.0
    vertigo / Early / 1.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 1.0
    tremor / Early / 1.0
    headache / Early / 1.0
    dizziness / Early / 1.0
    insomnia / Early / 1.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 1.0
    weight gain / Delayed / 1.0
    rhinitis / Early / 1.0
    rash (unspecified) / Early / 1.0
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ocular pain / Early / Incidence not known
    ocular irritation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    mydriasis / Early / Incidence not known
    foreign body sensation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    miosis / Early / Incidence not known
    xerophthalmia / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetohexamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Adefovir: (Moderate) Chronic coadministration of adefovir with nephrotoxic drugs, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity even in patients who have normal renal function. The use of adefovir with NSAIDs may be done cautiously. As stated in the current adefovir prescribing information, 'Ibuprofen (800 mg PO three times daily), when given concomitantly with adefovir dipivoxil, increased the adefovir Cmax by 33% and AUC by 23%, as well as urinary recovery. The increase appears to be due to higher oral bioavailability, not a reduction in renal clearance of adefovir.' In an in vitro investigation, the antiviral effect of adefovir was unaltered and the renal proximal tubule accumulation of adefovir was inhibited by the presence of a NSAID. Adefovir is efficiently transported by the human renal organic anion transporter 1, and the presence of this transporter appears to mediate the accumulation of the drug in renal proximal tubules. The in vitro study suggests that the use of a NSAID with adefovir may potentially reduce the nephrotoxic potential of adefovir. Of course, NSAIDs are associated with nephrotoxicity of their own; therefore, further data on the interaction between NSAIDs and adefovir in humans are needed.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Major) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may cause nephrotoxicity. Concurrent administration of drugs possessing nephrotoxic effects, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), with Aldesleukin, IL-2 may increase the risk of kidney dysfunction. In addition, reduced kidney function secondary to Aldesleukin, IL-2 treatment may delay elimination of concomitant medications and increase the risk of adverse events from those drugs.
    Aliskiren: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Alpha-blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Alteplase, tPA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Altretamine: (Major) Altretamine causes mild to moderate dose-related myelosuppression. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of altretamine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Amikacin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as amikacin.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Amiodarone: (Minor) Amiodarone inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9. Caution is recommended when administering amiodarone with other CYP2C9 substrates, such as flurbiprofen, that have a narrow therapeutic range or where large increase in concentrations may be associated with adverse reactions.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B: (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Antithymocyte Globulin: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as antithymocyte globulin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Apixaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Minor) Use caution if flurbiprofen and aprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for a possible decrease in the efficacy of flurbiprofen. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares the same drug interactions. Flurbiprofen is a CYP2C9 substrate and aprepitant is a CYP2C9 inducer. Administration of a CYP2C9 substrate, tolbutamide, on days 1, 4, 8, and 15 with a 3-day regimen of oral aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) decreased the tolbutamide AUC by 23% on day 4, 28% on day 8, and 15% on day 15. The AUC of tolbutamide was decreased by 8% on day 2, 16% on day 4, 15% on day 8, and 10% on day 15 when given prior to oral administration of aprepitant 40 mg on day 1, and on days 2, 4, 8, and 15. The effects of aprepitant on tolbutamide were not considered significant. When a 3-day regimen of aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) given to healthy patients on stabilized chronic warfarin therapy (another CYP2C9 substrate), a 34% decrease in S-warfarin trough concentrations was noted, accompanied by a 14% decrease in the INR at five days after completion of aprepitant.
    Aprotinin: (Moderate) The manufacturer recommends using aprotinin cautiously in patients that are receiving drugs that can affect renal function, such as NSAIDs, as the risk of renal impairment may be increased.
    Argatroban: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Notable interactions may occur with myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Patients receiving flurbiprofen concurrently with antineoplastic agents should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity. (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when atazanavir is administered with flurbiprofen as there is a potential for elevated flubriprofen concentrations. Flurbiprofen is a substrate of uridine glucoronyltransferase (UGT). Atazanavir is an UGT1A1 inhibitor.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when atazanavir is administered with flurbiprofen as there is a potential for elevated flubriprofen concentrations. Flurbiprofen is a substrate of uridine glucoronyltransferase (UGT). Atazanavir is an UGT1A1 inhibitor.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Azathioprine: (Moderate) NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressives as they may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Basiliximab: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents, Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Betrixaban: (Major) Monitor patients closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of bleeding if betrixaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used concomitantly. Coadministration of betrixaban and NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding.
    Bevacizumab: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Notable interactions may occur with myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Patients receiving flurbiprofen concurrently with antineoplastic agents should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Bexarotene: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Bisphosphonates: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Bivalirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Bleomycin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Busulfan: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of busulfan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Calcium Phosphate, Supersaturated: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Calcium-channel blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Capecitabine: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of capecitabine with flurbiprofen is necessary, and monitor for an increase in flurbiprofen-related adverse reactions. Flurbiprofen is a CYP2C9 substrate; capecitabine and/or its metabolites are thought to be inhibitors of CYP2C9. In a drug interaction study, the mean AUC of another CYP2C9 substrate, S-warfarin (single dose), significantly increased after coadministration with capecitabine; the maximum observed INR value also increased by 91%.
    Capreomycin: (Major) Because capreomycin is primarily eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase serum concentrations of either drug. Theoretically, the chronic coadministration of these drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered.
    Captopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Carmustine, BCNU: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of carmustine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. These additive effects may not occur for at least 6 weeks after the administration of carmustine due to the delayed myelosuppressive effects of carmustine.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Cefotaxime: (Minor) Cefotaxime's product label states that cephalosporins may potentiate the adverse renal effects of nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and loop diuretics. Carefully monitor renal function, especially during prolonged therapy or use of high aminoglycoside doses. The majority of reported cases involve the combination of aminoglycosides and cephalothin or cephaloridine, which are associated with dose-related nephrotoxicity as singular agents. Limited but conflicting data with other cephalosporins have been noted.
    Celecoxib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of celecoxib with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Chlorambucil: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of chlorambucil, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Chlorpropamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Cholinesterase inhibitors: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Chondroitin; Glucosamine: (Moderate) Patients taking methylsulfonylmethane, MSM have reported increased bruising or blood in the stool. These effects have not been confirmed in published medical literature or during clinical studies. Use methylsulfonylmethane, MSM with caution in patients who are taking drugs with the potential for additive bleeding, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). During an available, published clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis, patients with bleeding disorders or using anticoagulants or platelet inhibiting drugs were excluded from enrollment. Patients who choose to consume methylsulfonylmethane, MSM while receiving NSAIDs should be observed for potential bleeding.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cidofovir: (Severe) The concomitant administration of cidofovir and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is contraindicated due to the potential for increased nephrotoxicity. NSAIDs should be discontinued 7 days prior to beginning cidofovir.
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Cisplatin: (Moderate) Although the thrombocytopenic effects of cisplatin are limited, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant therapy with non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Also, cisplatin may cause nephrotoxicity, and NSAIDs can be drugs with nephrotoxic potential. Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal injury. Patients at greatest risk are the elderly, taking other nephrotoxic drugs, and those patients with renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, or heart failure. Concurrent use can be acceptable, but monitor renal function closely and be alert for signs of bleeding.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Cladribine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of cladribine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Clofarabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of clofarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Clonidine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of flurbiprofen may be decreased when administered concurrently with elvitegravir. Patients may experience decreased analgesic or anti-inflammatory effects when these drugs are coadministered. Elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer, while flurbiprofen is a CYP2C9 substrate.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of flurbiprofen may be decreased when administered concurrently with elvitegravir. Patients may experience decreased analgesic or anti-inflammatory effects when these drugs are coadministered. Elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer, while flurbiprofen is a CYP2C9 substrate.
    Colistimethate, Colistin, Polymyxin E: (Major) The administration of colistimethate sodium may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since colistimethate sodium is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Corticotropin, ACTH: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions have been reported between cyclosporine and NSAIDs, consisting of additive decreases in renal function with concomitant use. NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressives as they may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Cytarabine, ARA-C: (Major) The main toxic effect of cytarabine, ARA-C is bone marrow suppression with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of cytarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Dipyridamole can block membrane transport of cytarabine in tumor cells, therefore decreasing its antineoplastic activity.
    Dabigatran: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Dacarbazine, DTIC: (Major) Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common toxicities of dacarbazine, DTIC. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of dacarbazine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Dactinomycin, Actinomycin D: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Dalteparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Danaparoid: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Dasatinib: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic and possible platelet inhibiting effects of dasatinib, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Caution should be exercised if patients are required to take medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants concomitantly with dasatinib.
    Daunorubicin Liposomal: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Patients should be monitored closely for bleeding during concurrent use.
    Daunorubicin Liposomal; Cytarabine Liposomal: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia. Patients should be monitored closely for bleeding during concurrent use.
    Daunorubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of daunorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Decitabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of decitabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Because gastric ulceration and GI bleeding have been reported in patients taking deferasirox, use caution when coadministering with other drugs known to increase the risk of peptic ulcers or gastric hemorrhage including NSAIDs. In addition, coadministration of deferasirox with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including NSAIDs, may increase the acute renal failure. Monitor serum creatinine and/or creatinine clearance in patients who are receiving deferasirox and nephrotoxic drugs concomitantly
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Denileukin Diftitox: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Desirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Desmopressin: (Major) Additive hyponatremic effects may be seen in patients treated with desmopressin and drugs associated with hyponatremia including NSAIDs. Use combination with caution, and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia. A woman who took both desmopressin and ibuprofen was found in a comatose state. As her serum sodium concentration was 121 mmol/L, and her plasma osmolality was low in the presence of a high-normal urine osmolality and normal sodium excretion, she was treated with fluid restriction. Her serum sodium concentration was 124 mmol/L within a day and was 135 mmol/L by the second day. The woman had previously received desmopressin without the development of clinical symptoms of hyponatremia
    Desvenlafaxine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by desvenlafaxine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking desvenlafaxine with NSAIDs.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diclofenac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diclofenac with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diclofenac with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diflunisal: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diflunisal with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with digoxin may result in increased serum concentrations of digoxin. NSAIDs may cause a significant deterioration in renal function. A decline in glomerular filtration or tubular secretion may impair the excretion of digoxin. Monitor patients during concomitant treatment for possible digoxin toxicity and reduce digoxin dose as necessary.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Dipyridamole: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Docetaxel: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of docetaxel, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Doxazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Doxorubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of doxorubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drotrecogin Alfa: (Moderate) Caution should be used when drotrecogin alfa is used with any other drugs that affect hemostasis, including NSAIDs. These patients are at increased risk of bleeding during drotrecogin alfa therapy.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
    Edoxaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Edrophonium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Eltrombopag: (Moderate) Eltrombopag is a UDP-glucuronyltransferase inhibitor. NSAIDs are a substrate of UDP-glucuronyltransferases. The significance or effect of this interaction is not known; however, elevated concentrations of the NSAID are possible. Monitor patients for adverse reactions if eltrombopag is administered with an NSAID.
    Elvitegravir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of flurbiprofen may be decreased when administered concurrently with elvitegravir. Patients may experience decreased analgesic or anti-inflammatory effects when these drugs are coadministered. Elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer, while flurbiprofen is a CYP2C9 substrate.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Emtricitabine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Enoxaparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Entecavir: (Moderate) The manufacturer of entecavir recommends monitoring for adverse effects when coadministered with NSAIDs. Entecavir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys; NSAIDs can affect renal function. Concurrent administration may increase the serum concentrations of entecavir and adverse events.
    Epirubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of epirubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Eplerenone: (Major) Monitor serum potassium and serum creatinine concentrations within 3 to 7 days of initiating coadministration of eplerenone and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and monitor blood pressure. The concomitant use of other potassium-sparing antihypertensives with NSAIDs has been shown to reduce the antihypertensive effect in some patients and result in severe hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function. Patients who develop hyperkalemia may continue eplerenone with proper dose adjustment; eplerenone dose reduction decreases potassium concentrations.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Eptifibatide: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Eribulin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Erlotinib: (Moderate) Use caution if erlotinib is administered with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as these patients may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation. Gastrointestinal perforation, including fatal cases, has been reported in 0.2% to 0.4% of patients treated with erlotinib in clinical trials compared with 0.1% or less in control arms.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Esmolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Estramustine: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Ethanol: (Major) Concomitant ingestion of ethanol with NSAIDs increases the risk of developing gastric irritation and GI mucosal bleeding. Ethanol is a mucosal irritant and NSAIDs decrease platelet aggregation. Routine ingestion of ethanol and NSAIDs can cause significant GI bleeding, which may or may not be overt. Even occasional concomitant use of NSAIDs and ethanol should be avoided. Chronic alcoholism is often associated with hypoprothrombinemia and this condition increases the risk of bleeding. Systemic exposure of NSAIDs that are primary substrates for CYP2C9, such as diclofenac, may be increased during use of ethanol, which is a dose-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C9. The effects of ethanol may also be substrate-dependent, since in vitro data have shown varying inhibitory effects on 2C9 substrates.The manufacturer of diclofenac; misoprostol recommends that the total daily dose of diclofenac not exceed 100 mg in patients receiving a CYP2C9 inhibitor. Patients should be warned regarding the potential for increased risk of GI bleeding if alcohol-containing beverages are taken concurrently with NSAIDs.
    Etodolac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of etodolac with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Minor) As fenofibric acid is a mild-to-moderate inhibitor of CYP2C9; while flurbiprofen is a substrate of CYP2C9. Although not formally studied, co-administration may lead to increased fluriprofen plasma concentrations and toxicity. Monitor the therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen during coadministration with fenofibric acid.
    Fenoldopam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fenoprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of fenoprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Flavocoxid, Flavocoxid; Citrated Zinc Bisglycinate: (Major) Flavocoxid exerts similar pharmacologic characteristics to other systemic NSAIDs. Additive pharmacodynamic effects, including a potential for additive adverse cardiac and GI effects, may be seen if flavocoxid is used with NSAIDs. In general, the concurrent use of flavocoxid and NSAIDs should be avoided.
    Floxuridine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of floxuridine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Fluconazole significantly inhibits the metabolism of flurbiprofen via CYP2C9. Increased adverse effects of flurbiprofen may occur, especially if the two drugs are used concurrently over several days.
    Fludarabine: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluorouracil, 5-FU: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of fluorouracil, 5-FU, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Fondaparinux: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Food: (Moderate) Administering nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with marijuana may limit some of marijuana's pharmacologic activities. Certain actions of marijuana require prostaglandin-mediated processes to occur; NSAIDs may interfere with these processes thereby decreasing marijuana's effect. Coadministration of indomethacin with marijuana has been shown to significantly decrease euphoria, tachycardia, and the intraocular pressure lowering activity of marijuana.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Foscarnet: (Minor) The risk of renal toxicity may be increased if foscarnet is used in conjuction with other nephrotoxic agents, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Gadoterate meglumine: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Gallium Ga 68 Dotatate: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Ganciclovir: (Minor) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents, such as NSAIDs, with ganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function carefully if concomitant therapy is required.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Minor) Garlic, Allium sativum may produce clinically-significant antiplatelet effects; until more data are available, garlic should be used cautiously in patients receiving drugs with a potential risk for bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Gefitinib: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as gentamicin.
    Ginger, Zingiber officinale: (Minor) Patients receiving regular therapy with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should use ginger with caution, due to a theoretical risk of bleeding resulting from additive pharmacology related to the COX enzymes. However, clinical documentation of interactions is lacking. Several pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale) are reported to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) induced platelet activation in human whole blood. The constituent (8)-paradol is the most potent inhibitor of COX-1 and exhibits the greatest anti-platelet activity versus other gingerol analogues. The mechanism of ginger-associated platelet inhibition may be related to decreased COX-1/Thomboxane synthase enzymatic activity.
    Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba: (Moderate) Ginkgo is reported to inhibit platelet aggregation and several case reports describe bleeding complications with Ginkgo biloba, with or without concomitant drug therapy. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in patients receiving drugs that inhibit platelet aggregation or pose a risk for bleeding, such as NSAIDs. A case of fatal intracerebral bleeding has been reported with the combination of Ginkgo and the NSAID ibuprofen. A 71 year-old male had been taking a concentrated Ginkgo biloba extract (Gingium, Germany) 40 mg PO twice daily for a few years; 4 weeks prior to his death, he had started taking ibuprofen (600 mg daily) for osteoarthritic hip pain. The man was found comatose and CT scan revealed a massive intracerebral bleed; no other causative factors were identified.
    Glimepiride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glimepiride; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glipizide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glyburide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Gold: (Moderate) Due to the inhibition of renal prostaglandins by NSAIDs, concurrent use with other nephrotoxic agents, such as gold compounds, may lead to additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Heparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin: (Moderate) Immune Globulin (IG) products have been reported to be associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death. Patients predisposed to acute renal failure include patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates. Coadminister IG products at the minimum concentration available and the minimum rate of infusion practicable. Also, closely monitor renal function.
    Hydralazine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Major) Prolonged cytopenias, including thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, are frequently associated with the ibritumomab tiuxetan therapeutic regimen. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. The potential for bleeding should be considered in the concomitant use of such medications during the ibritumomab tiuxetan therapeutic regimen. Frequent laboratory monitoring of patients who must receive these therapies is recommended, with modification of clinical approaches to transfusion and other therapies if bleeding occurs due to the additive mechanisms and risks.
    Ibuprofen lysine: (Major) Because ibuprofen lysine exerts similar pharmacologic characteristics to other systemic NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors, additive pharmacodynamic effects, including a potential increase for additive adverse GI effects, may be seen if ibuprofen lysine is used with other NSAIDs. In general, concurrent use of ibuprofen lysine and another NSAID should be avoided.
    Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Idarubicin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of idarubicin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ifosfamide: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of ifosfamide, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Immune Globulin IV, IVIG, IGIV: (Moderate) Immune Globulin (IG) products have been reported to be associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death. Patients predisposed to acute renal failure include patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates. Coadminister IG products at the minimum concentration available and the minimum rate of infusion practicable. Also, closely monitor renal function.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Indomethacin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Interferon Alfa-2a: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Interferon Alfa-2b: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Iodipamide Meglumine: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iohexol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iopamidol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iopromide: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ioversol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ioxaglate Meglumine; Ioxaglate Sodium: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Irinotecan: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of irinotecan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Isosulfan Blue: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as flurbiprofen. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Ixabepilone: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Kanamycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as kanamycin.
    Ketoprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ketorolac: (Severe) Concomitant use of ketorolac with another NSAID is contraindicated. Increased adverse gastrointestinal effects are possible if ketorolac is used with other systemic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including COX-2 inhibitors.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Lapatinib: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Leflunomide: (Moderate) In vitro studies indicate that the M1 metabolite of leflunomide inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many NSAIDs. Leflunomide altered protein binding and thus, increased the free fraction of ibuprofen by 13% to 50%. The clinical significance of the interactions with NSAIDs is unknown. There was extensive concomitant use of NSAIDs in phase III clinical studies of leflunomide in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and no clinical differential effects were observed. However, because some NSAIDs have been reported to cause hepatotoxic effects, some caution may be warranted in their use with leflunomide.
    Lepirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SNRIs such as levomilnacipran due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding in patients taking levomilnacipran and NSAIDs.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Lithium levels should be monitored when patients initiate or discontinue nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. In some cases, lithium toxicity has resulted from interactions between an NSAID and lithium. Indomethacin and piroxicam have been reported to significantly increase steady-state plasma lithium concentrations. There is also evidence that other NSAIDs, including the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, have the same effect. In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 twice daily with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone. It is thought that prostaglandins are involved in the renal clearance of lithium and that NSAIDs interfere with lithium excretion. Typically, increased lithium levels develop over 5 to 10 days after adding a NSAID and return to pretreatment levels within 7 days of stopping the NSAID.
    Lomustine, CCNU: (Major) Due to the bone marrow suppressive and thrombocytopenic effects of lomustine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Although the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown, concurrent use of flurbiprofen and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter flurbiprofen exposure; caution and monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together. Flurbiprofen is a substrate of CYP2C9. In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce and/or inhibit CYP2C9. The net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on CYP2C9-mediated metabolism is not clear, but CYP2C9 substrate exposure may be affected leading to decreased efficacy or increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as flurbiprofen. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Magnesium Salts: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Mannitol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Mechlorethamine, Nitrogen Mustard: (Major) Mechlorethamine, nitrogen mustard is highly toxic and is associated with lymphocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mechlorethamine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Meloxicam: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Melphalan: (Major) Bone marrow suppression is the most significant toxicity associated with melphalan in most patients, and includes thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of melphalan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mercaptopurine, 6-MP: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mercaptopurine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mesalamine, 5-ASA: (Minor) The concurrent use of mesalamine with known nephrotoxic agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity.
    Methotrexate: (Major) In general, NSAID therapy can decrease the clearance of methotrexate, resulting in elevated and prolonged serum methotrexate levels. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should not be administered prior to, concomitantly, or following intermediate or high doses of methotrexate. Concomitant administration of NSAIDs with high dose methotrexate therapy has been reported to elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate resulting in deaths from severe hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concurrently with lower doses of methotrexate. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate has been given concurrently with NSAIDs without apparent problems. It should be noted that the doses of methotrexate used in rheumatoid arthritis are lower than those used in psoriasis or malignant disease; higher methotrexate doses may lead to unexpected toxicity in combination with NSAIDs. Concurrent use of NSAIDs may increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients with methotrexate-induced myelosuppression or mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Methoxsalen: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as flurbirprofen could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of flurbirprofen before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Methylsulfonylmethane, MSM: (Moderate) Patients taking methylsulfonylmethane, MSM have reported increased bruising or blood in the stool. These effects have not been confirmed in published medical literature or during clinical studies. Use methylsulfonylmethane, MSM with caution in patients who are taking drugs with the potential for additive bleeding, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). During an available, published clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis, patients with bleeding disorders or using anticoagulants or platelet inhibiting drugs were excluded from enrollment. Patients who choose to consume methylsulfonylmethane, MSM while receiving NSAIDs should be observed for potential bleeding.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mifepristone, RU-486: (Moderate) Mifepristone RU-486, significantly increased exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2C8/2C9 in interaction studies. Therefore, when mifepristone is used in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome and coadministered with other CYP2C8/2C9 substrates, including NSAIDs, the lowest does of the substrate should be used and patients monitored closely for adverse reactions.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by milnacipran due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding in patients taking milnacipran and NSAIDs.
    Minoxidil: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mitomycin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mitomycin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Mitoxantrone: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mitoxantrone, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Muromonab-CD3: (Moderate) NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressives as they may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Nabumetone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Nelarabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of nelarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Neomycin: (Minor) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive NSAIDs concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides.
    Neostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Omacetaxine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of omacetaxine and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when the platelet count is less than 50,000 cells/microliter due to an increased risk of bleeding.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Flurbiprofen is metabolized by CYP2C9; oritavancin is a weak CYP2C9 inhibitor. Coadministration may result in elevated flurbiprofen plasma concentrations. If these drugs are administered concurrently, monitor patients for NSAID-induced toxicity, such as nausea, GI bleeding, or renal dysfunction.
    Oxaprozin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Paclitaxel: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of paclitaxel, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Pegaspargase: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of pegaspargase, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Additive nephrotoxicity may be seen with the combination of pentamidine and other agents that cause nephrotoxicity, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Pentosan: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Pentostatin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of pentostatin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Phenoxybenzamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Concurrent use of topiramate and drugs that affect platelet function such as NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding. In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, bleeding was more frequently reported in patients receiving topiramate (4.5%) compared to placebo (2 to 3%). In those with severe bleeding events, patients were often taking drugs that cause thrombocytopenia or affect platelet function or coagulation.
    Phentolamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Physostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Piroxicam: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Platelet Inhibitors: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Pneumococcal Vaccine, Polyvalent: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of antipyretics, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), may decrease an individual's immunological response to the pneumococcal vaccine. A post-marketing study conducted in Poland using a non-US vaccination schedule (2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age) evaluated the impact of prophylactic oral acetaminophen on antibody responses to Prevnar 13. Data show that acetaminophen, given at the time of vaccination and then dosed at 6 to 8 hour intervals for 3 doses on a scheduled basis, reduced the antibody response to some serotypes after the third dose of Prevnar 13 when compared to the antibody responses of infants who only received antipyretics 'as needed' for treatment. However, reduced antibody responses were not observed after the fourth dose of Prevnar 13 with prophylactic acetaminophen.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Polymyxin B: (Major) The chronic coadministration of systemic polymyxins may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since Polymyxin B is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Polymyxins: (Major) The administration of colistimethate sodium may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since colistimethate sodium is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Porfimer: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as flurbiprofen could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of flurbiprofen before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Pralatrexate: (Major) Renal elimination accounts for approximately 34% of the overall clearance of pralatrexate. Concomitant administration of drugs that undergo substantial renal clearance, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may result in delayed clearance of pralatrexate.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Prazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Probenecid: (Major) Probenecid can decrease the renal clearance of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Reduction of the NSAID dose may be necessary when it is used together with probenecid.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of procarbazine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Pyridostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of quinolones and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs has been reported to increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures. Patients with CNS disorders or other risk factors that may predispose them to seizure development or patients taking drugs that lower the seizure threshold may not be appropriate candidates for NSAID usage if they are also taking a quinolone. Use a quinolone with caution in individuals who take a NSAID concomitantly.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Reteplase, r-PA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Rivaroxaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Romidepsin: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Salicylates: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Salsalate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Sertraline: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Sodium Hyaluronate, Hyaluronic Acid: (Moderate) Increased bruising or bleeding at the injection site may occur when using hyaluronate sodium with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sorafenib: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may also occur when NSAIDs are used with sorafenib. Patients should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Streptokinase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Streptomycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as streptomycin.
    Streptozocin: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Sulfinpyrazone: (Moderate) Sulfinpyrazone is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and may lead to increased plasma levels of NSAIDs. During concurrent therapy, monitor for potential NSAID-induced toxicity, such as GI irritation or bleeding.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Sulindac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Tacrine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Telavancin: (Minor) Concurrent or sequential use of telavancin with drugs that inhibit renal prostaglandins such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may lead to additive nephrotoxicity. Closely monitor renal function and adjust telavancin doses based on calculated creatinine clearance.
    Telbivudine: (Moderate) Drugs that alter renal function such as NSAIDs may alter telbivudine plasma concentrations because telbivudine is eliminated primarily by renal excretion. Monitor renal function before and during telbivudine treatment.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Temozolomide: (Major) Myelosuppression, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, is the dose-limiting toxicity of temozolomide. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of temozolomide, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Tenecteplase, TNK-tPA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Teniposide: (Major) Dose-limiting bone marrow suppression is the most significant toxicity associated with teniposide, and may include thrombocytopenia. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Salicylates also displace protein-bound teniposide in fresh human serum to a small but significant extent. Because of the extremely high binding of teniposide to plasma proteins, these small decreases in binding could cause substantial increases in plasma free drug concentrations that could result in potentiation of teniposide toxicity, including bone marrow suppression.
    Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Tenofovir, PMPA: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Terazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Thioguanine, 6-TG: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of thioguanine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Thiotepa: (Major) Thiotepa is highly toxic to the hematopoietic system, and causes thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and anemia. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Thrombolytic Agents: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Ticlopidine: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Timolol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Tinzaparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Tirofiban: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Tobacco: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with tobacco smoking may enhance the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Tobacco smoking may independently increase the risk of peptic ulcer and GI bleeding, and thus may increase the risk with NSAID usage. Patients using tobacco and NSAIDs concurrently should be monitored closely for GI adverse reactions.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as tobramycin.
    Tolazamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Tolbutamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Tolmetin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Concurrent use of topiramate and drugs that affect platelet function such as NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding. In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, bleeding was more frequently reported in patients receiving topiramate (4.5%) compared to placebo (2 to 3%). In those with severe bleeding events, patients were often taking drugs that cause thrombocytopenia or affect platelet function or coagulation.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Tositumomab: (Major) The tositumomab therapeutic regimen frequently causes severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. The potential benefits of medications that interfere with platelet function and/or anticoagulation should be weighed against the potential increased risk of bleeding and hemorrhage. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) In the low-renin or volume-dependent hypertensive patient, prostaglandins play an important role in the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors. NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking an ACE inhibitor. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. The potential clinical effects of selective or preferential COX-2 inhibitors are not known. Mean arterial blood pressure increased 3 mmHg in patients receiving ACE inhibitor (benazepril 10 to 40 mg daily for 4 weeks) with rofecoxib 25 mg once daily compared to the ACE inhibitor regimen alone.
    Trastuzumab: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by trazodone due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking trazodone concurrently with medications that impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Tretinoin, ATRA: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Urea: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Urokinase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Valganciclovir: (Minor) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents, such as NSAIDs, with valganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Due to the high protein binding of NSAIDs, they could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as valproic acid, divalproex sodium from albumin binding sites in the blood leading to an increase in valproic acid free drug concentrations. In such cases, a patient may experience valproic acid toxicity even if the total drug concentration is within the therapeutic range.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Vancomycin: (Minor) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive NSAIDs concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, including vancomycin.
    Vasodilators: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Vemurafenib: (Minor) Concomitant use of vemurafenib and flurbiprofen may result in increased flurbiprofen concentrations. Vemurafenib is a CYP2C9 inhibitor and flurbiprofen is a CYP2C9 substrate. Patients should be monitored for toxicity.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by venlafaxine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding when coadministering venlafaxine with NSAIDs.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by vilazodone due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking vilazodone concurrently with NSAIDs and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Vinblastine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of vinblastine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Vincristine Liposomal: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Vincristine: (Minor) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs, such as flurbiprofen, are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Vinorelbine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of vinorelbine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prolong bleeding time. If NSAIDs are administered with platelet inhibitors, these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased. The manufacturer of clopidogrel advises that caution be used when used in combination with NSAIDs as an increase in occult GI blood loss occurred when clopidogrel was used concomitantly with naproxen
    Voriconazole: (Minor) Voriconazole is known to be an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and may lead to increased plasma levels of some NSAIDs, including flurbiprofen. If voriconazole is administered concomitantly with fluribiprofen, monitor for NSAID-induced toxicity, such as GI irritation, GI bleeding or renal dysfunction and adjust the dose of the NSAID if needed.
    Vorinostat: (Major) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when NSAIDs are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia, such as myelosuppressive antineoplastic agents. Monitor closely for bleeding.
    Vortioxetine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by vortioxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Bleeding events related to drugs that inhibit serotonin reuptake have ranged from ecchymosis to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking vortioxetine concurrently with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of bleeding during concurrent use of warfarin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).To minimize the potential for GI bleeding, use the lowest effective NSAID dose for the shortest possible duration. If signs or symptoms of bleeding occur, promptly evaluate and treat. Systemic hematological effects may also occur with the use of topical NSAIDs. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and may prolong bleeding time in some patients.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Concentrations of flurbiprofen in breast milk and plasma of nursing mothers suggest that a nursing infant could receive approximately 0.10 mg flurbiprofen per day in the established milk of a woman taking flurbiprofen 200 mg/day PO. Because of possible adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates, the manufacturer states that a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Because of the low levels of flurbiprofen in human breast milk and its short half-life, experts state that flurbiprofen use by the mother is unlikely to adversely affect the breast-feeding infant, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Use of ophthalmic flurbiprofen during breast-feeding has not been evaluated, however, the ophthalmic formulation does not pose concern for use during lactation. At maternal doses of 150 mg/day orally for 3 days, breast milk flurbiprofen concentrations were reported as undetectable (less than 0.05 mcg/mL) in all samples from 11 of the 12 patients studied; breast milk flurbiprofen concentrations were 0.06 mcg/mL after the first dose and 0.07 mcg/mL immediately before the second dose in milk samples from the final patient. Maternal plasma concentrations of flurbiprofen were as expected and ranged from 1.93 +/- 0.44 mcg/mL to 5.28 +/- 1.06 mcg/mL at various time points over the 3 days. Alternative analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Flurbiprofen competitively inhibits both cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, by blocking arachidonate binding resulting in analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory pharmacologic effects. The enzymes COX-1 and COX-2 catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), the first step of the synthesis prostaglandins and thromboxanes that are involved in rapid physiological responses. COX isoenzymes are also responsible for a peroxidase reaction, which is not affected by NSAIDs. In addition, NSAIDs do not suppress leukotriene synthesis by lipoxygenase pathways. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in almost all tissues, while COX-2 appears to only be constitutively expressed in the brain, kidney, bones, reproductive organs, and some neoplasms (e.g., colon and prostate cancers). COX-1 is responsible for prostaglandin synthesis in response to stimulation by circulating hormones, as well as maintenance of normal renal function, gastric mucosal integrity, and hemostasis. However, COX-2 is inducible in many cells in response to certain mediators of inflammation (e.g., interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, lipopolysaccharide, mitogens, and reactive oxygen intermediates).
    •Antiinflammatory Activity: The antiinflammatory mechanism of flurbiprofen is due to decreased prostaglandin synthesis via inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. It appears that the antiinflammatory effects may be primarily due to inhibition of the COX-2 isoenzyme. However, COX-1 is expressed at some sites of inflammation. COX-1 is expressed in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis patients, especially the synovial lining, and it is the primary enzyme of prostaglandin synthesis in human bursitis. Flurbiprofen is considered a non-selective NSAID, affecting COX-1 and COX-2 to a similar degree.
    •Analgesic Activity: Flurbiprofen is effective in cases where inflammation has caused sensitivity of pain receptors (hyperalgesia). It appears prostaglandins, specifically prostaglandins E and F, are responsible for sensitizing the pain receptors; therefore, NSAIDs have an indirect analgesic effect by inhibiting the production of further prostaglandins and does not directly affect hyperalgesia or the pain threshold. Higher doses are required for analgesic versus antiinflammatory activity.
    •Antipyretic Activity: Flurbiprofen promotes a return to a normal body temperature set point in the hypothalamus by suppressing the synthesis of prostaglandins, specifically PGE2, in circumventricular organs in and near the hypothalamus. Although not indicated for the management of fever, flurbiprofen may mask fever in some patients, especially with high or chronic dosing.
    •Ophthalmic Activity: Following topical application to the eye, flurbiprofen inhibits miosis by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ocular prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play a role in the miotic response produced during ocular surgery by constricting the iris sphincter independently of cholinergic mechanisms. In the eye, prostaglandins also have been shown to disrupt the blood-aqueous humor barrier, cause vasodilation, increase vascular permeability, promote leukocytosis, and increase intraocular pressure. The degree of ocular inflammatory response is correlated with prostaglandin-induced increases in ciliary epithelium permeability. When applied topically to the eye, flurbiprofen and other NSAIDs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in the iris, ciliary body, and conjunctiva. Thus, NSAIDs may prevent many of the manifestations of ocular inflammation. Flurbiprofen does not affect intraocular pressure or tonographic aqueous outflow resistance and does not interfere with the action of acetylcholine administered during ocular surgery. Flurbiprofen also does not prevent increases in intraocular pressure or decreases in aqueous outflow induced by topical corticosteroids.
    •GI Effects: Gastrointestinal side effects of flurbiprofen are primarily contributed to COX-1 inhibition; however, potential role of COX-2 inhibition in the GI tract has not been fully elucidated.
    •Platelet Effects: The inhibition of platelet aggregation seen with flurbiprofen is due to dose-dependent inhibition of COX-1 in platelets leading to decreased levels of platelet thromboxane A2 and an increase in bleeding time. The inhibition of platelet aggregation is reversible within 24 hours of discontinuation of flurbiprofen. This differs from aspirin, which irreversibly binds to COX-1 in platelets inhibiting this enzyme for the life of the cell.
    •Renal Effects: In the kidney, prostaglandins, produced by both COX-1 and COX-2, are important regulators of sodium and water reabsorption through PGE2 and of renal function and hemodynamics via PGI2 in response to vasoconstrictive factors (e.g., endothelin-1, a factor that increases peripheral vascular resistance) and through effects on the renin-angiotensin system. In the setting of decreased volume, PGI2, helps maintain renal blood flow by counteracting other vasoconstrictive autocoids. In conditions where renal blood flow is dependent upon prostaglandin synthesis, administration of NSAIDs can result in significant decreases in renal blood flow leading to acute renal failure. In addition, alterations in sodium and water reabsorption may worsen in increased blood pressure, which can be significant in selected individuals.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Flurbiprofen is administered orally or as an ophthalmic solution. It is not widely distributed after oral administration to humans; the apparent volume of distribution is approximately 0.12 L/kg. Flurbiprofen is poorly excreted into human milk. It is highly protein bound (>= 99%), primarily to albumin. The albumin binding site is apparently different than the binding site of warfarin, sulfonamides, or phenytoin. Flurbiprofen may also bind to erythrocytes. It is metabolized in the liver, via cytochrome P4502C9, to three major metabolites as well as some minor metabolites. Two major metabolites are formed by hydroxylation and the third by hydroxylation and methylation. The principal metabolite, 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen, has weak prostaglandin inhibitory activity. Both enantiomers of flurbiprofen and the 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen metabolite undergo UGT mediated glucouronidation, primarily via UGT2B7. After oral administration, less than 3% is excreted unchanged in the urine, with about 70% of the dose eliminated in the urine as flurbiprofen, 4’-hydroxyflurbiprofen, and their acyl-glucuronide conjugates. The elimination half-life in adults is about 5.7 hours (range: 3—9 hours).
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and drug transporter: CYP2C9, UGT2B7
    Flurbiprofen is a substrate of the hepatic cytochrome isoenzyme CYP2C9. In addition, flurbiprofen and the flurbiprofen metabolite 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen undergo UGT mediated glucouronidation, primarily via UGT2B7.
     

    Oral Route

    Fluribiprofen, orally administered as a racemic mixture of both R- and S-flurbiprofen, is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. Peak plasma concentrations are attained about 2 hours after dosing. Administration with food affects the rate, but not the extent of absorption.

    Other Route(s)

    Ophthalmic Route
    Following topical application of flurbiprofen to the eye, peak drug concentrations in ocular tissues and fluids are achieved in about 0.5—1 hour. The extent of ocular absorption and peak aqueous humor concentrations of flurbiprofen do not appear to increase proportionally with the dose. Distribution into human ocular tissues and fluids has not been fully characterized. In rabbits, flurbiprofen is rapidly distributed throughout ocular tissues and fluids, including cornea, external tissues (e.g., sclera, conjunctiva), intraocular tissues (e.g., aqueous humor, iris, ciliary body), lens, and vitreous humor. In rabbits, the ocular distribution half-life is about 15 minutes and the ocular elimination half-life is about 1.5 hours. After topical application of flurbiprofen to the eye, metabolites and unchanged drug are present in urine, indicating systemic absorption. However, the risk of systemic effects appears to be minimal after topical ophthalmic use of the drug.