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  • CLASSES

    Animal Insulins
    Concentrated Insulins with Short and Intermediate Actions
    Short-acting Human Insulins and Analogs

    DEA CLASS

    OTC, Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Hormone secreted by pancreatic beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans; essential for the metabolism and homeostasis of carbohydrate, fat, and protein
    Regular insulin 100 units/mL is a "short-acting" insulin; concentrated regular insulin 500 units/mL exhibits different pharmacokinetics
    Used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2; also used for blood glucose management due to hyperglycemia in critical care and other care settings
    Injectable regular insulin is available in 2 concentrations: 100 units/mL and 500 units/mL; clinicians and patients must ensure that the correct concentration is used to avoid severe overdose and hypoglycemia

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Humulin R, Novolin R, ReliOn, Velosulin BR

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Humulin R Subcutaneous Inj Sol Conc: 1mL, 500U
    Humulin R/Novolin R Subcutaneous Inj Sol: 1mL, 100U

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or for type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately managed by diet, exercise, and oral hypoglycemics.
    Subcutaneous dosage
    Adults

    When used for intermittent subcutaneous injection, the total daily dose is given as 2 to 4 injections per day, typically administered 30 to 60 minutes before meals; or administer as a sliding scale based on blood glucose monitoring several times per day. Regular U-500 insulin has a longer duration of action (up to 24 hours) compared to regular 100 units/mL, and is usually administered 2 to 3 times per day; regular 100 units/mL is usually administered 3 or more times per day and may also be used in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents or longer-acting insulin products. A common regimen is to give an intermediate insulin (NPH or Lente) and regular insulin concomitantly and give two injections per day. About 2/3 of the daily insulin dose is given before breakfast and about 1/3 is given before the evening meal. Initially, an intermediate-to-regular insulin ratio of 2:1 can be given 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast and an intermediate-to-regular insulin ratio of 1:1 can be given 30 to 60 minutes before dinner. The dosage and/or ratio can be adjusted, if necessary, based on the patient's blood glucose. Another common regimen is to administer regular with an intermediate insulin before breakfast, regular insulin before dinner, and an intermediate-acting insulin alone at bedtime. Additional regimens include regular insulin at each meal and 1 to 2 doses of NPH, lente, or ultralente insulin daily, or 1 dose of insulin glargine daily. Alternatively, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) external pumps may be used to deliver regular human insulin† (consult specialized references); therapy is provided by a professional team trained in CSII therapy and capable of supporting patient care continuously (i.e., 24-hours/7 days-a-week).

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Insulin requirements are highly variable and must be individualized based on patient-specific factors and type of insulin regimen. During partial remission phase, total combined daily insulin requirement is often less than 0.5 units/kg/day. Prepubertal children (outside the partial remission phase) usually require 0.7 to 1 unit/kg/day. During puberty, insulin requirement is much greater, often between 1 to 2 units/kg/day. Administer pre-meal doses of regular insulin approximately 20 to 30 minutes prior to a meal. Use regular insulin in combination with intermediate- or long-acting insulin as part of twice-daily regimens or basal-bolus regimens. Twice daily insulin regimens consist of 2 subcutaneous insulin injections given per day; approximately two-thirds of the total daily insulin dose is given in the morning and one-third in the evening. Initially, for each insulin dose, approximately one-third is given as a regular insulin and the other two-thirds is an intermediate-acting insulin. These ratios may change based on individual response. Basal-bolus regimens typically consist of 4 to 5 subcutaneous insulin injections given per day; 1 to 2 as an intermediate- or long-acting insulin plus 3 to 4 pre-meal regular insulin doses. Depending on the type of insulin used as the basal insulin, the proportion supplied as the regular insulin usually ranges from 40 to 70% of the total daily dose.

    For the treatment of gestational diabetes or for the treatment of patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (Type 1 or type 2) who are now pregnant.
    For pregnant patients with gestational-onset diabetes not controlled by diet-therapy alone.
    Subcutaneous dosage (human regular and NPH insulin combination therapy)
    Adults (pregnant females)

    Dosage guidelines are variable and must be individualized. Initial suggested daily insulin requirements are roughly 0.3—0.7 units/kg/day; requirements usually increase during the second and third trimesters (i.e., 0.8 units/kg/day or more). The daily dose is usually divided in 2—3 doses and administered in varying ratios of NPH: regular insulin. Intensive therapy (> 3 daily injections) is rarely needed. Dose adjustments are based on fasting and postprandial blood glucose level. Per goals defined in ADA or ACOG guidelines, typical 2-hour postprandial glucose goals are <= 120 mg/dl. To prevent fetal and maternal complications, meticulous blood glucose control and monitoring is required. During labor, insulin requirements decrease and usually return to normoglycemia several days postpartum. Insulin is often discontinued during or after labor; monitor blood glucose during labor and the days postpartum; follow-up at 6 weeks postpartum.

    For pregnant patients with preexisting diabetes prior to pregnancy.
    Subcutaneous dosage (human regular and NPH insulin combination therapy)
    Adults (pregnant females)

    While initial suggested daily insulin requirements are roughly 0.5—0.7 units/kg of IBW/day in the 1st trimester; insulin needs may initially be lower than prepregnancy levels; individualize dosage. Daily requirements are higher in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters; roughly 0.6—0.8 units/kg (second trimester), and 0.9—1 units/kg (third trimester). The daily dose is usually divided in 2—3 doses and administered in varying ratios of NPH: regular insulin, dependent on individual patient needs. Dose adjustments are based on fasting and postprandial blood glucose as per goals defined in ADA and ACOG guidelines. To prevent fetal and maternal complications, meticulous blood glucose control and monitoring is required. At the onset of labor, insulin requirements typically decrease but must be carefully monitored and adjusted. Due to increased insulin sensitivity, insulin is usually held immediately postpartum until the blood glucose is >= 180 mg/dl. Insulin is then reinitiated at <= 90% of prepregnancy levels.

    For the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage
    Adults

    Continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of human regular insulin is the preferred route of administration for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Initially, 0.14 units/kg/hour via IV continuous infusion. Alternatively, 0.1 units/kg IV bolus, followed by 0.1 units/kg/hour continuous IV infusion. If serum glucose does not decrease by at least 10% in the first hour, give 0.14 units/kg as an IV bolus, then continue the previous treatment. Adequate fluid therapy must also be initiated (usually 0.9% NaCl Injection for the first hour, then 0.45% NaCl Injection if indicated); fluid type and hourly requirements are adjusted based on estimated patient need and serum osmolality. Blood glucose levels are checked hourly and the insulin intravenous infusion rate is adjusted accordingly. The insulin infusion should cause blood glucose to decrease at a rate of about 50 to 75 mg/dL per hour; a more rapid lowering of blood glucose can result in adverse effects, like cerebral edema. When the blood glucose decreases to 200 mg/dL, reduce the insulin IV infusion rate to 0.02 to 0.05 units/kg/hour IV continuous infusion, or give rapid-acting insulin at 0.1 units/kg subcutaneously every 2 hours; fluid therapy is changed to a 5% dextrose-containing IV fluid infusion. Insulin and IV fluids are adjusted to maintain a blood glucose of roughly 150 to 200 mg/dL until the acidosis is corrected.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/hour IV beginning 1 to 2 hours after starting fluid replacement therapy. Do NOT administer an IV bolus of insulin at the start of therapy; a bolus is not necessary and may increase the risk of cerebral edema. Generally, the infusion rate should remain in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/hour until the resolution of DKA (pH more than 7.3, bicarbonate more than 15 mmol/L, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate less than 1 mmol/L, or closure of the anion gap). If the patient is particularly sensitive to insulin, the dosage may be reduced to prevent hypoglycemia if the metabolic acidosis continues to resolve. To prevent too rapid decrease in blood glucose and hypoglycemia, 5% dextrose should be added to the IV fluid when plasma glucose falls to approximately 250 to 300 mg/dL or sooner if the rate of glucose decline is precipitous. Continue to monitor vital signs, fluid status, acid-base status, blood glucose, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate [if test is available], serum electrolytes, and neurological status until DKA is fully resolved. Once ketoacidosis has resolved and the patient is tolerating oral intake, transition to subcutaneous insulin. Administer rapid-acting insulin 15 to 30 minutes or regular insulin 1 to 2 hours prior to stopping the insulin infusion and providing a meal; continue subcutaneous insulin at a dose individualized to the patient's response.

    For the treatment of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage
    Adults 20 years and older

    Initially, 0.14 units/kg/hour IV continuous infusion. Alternatively, 0.1 units/kg IV bolus, followed by 0.1 units/kg/hour continuous IV infusion. If serum glucose does not decrease by at least 10% in the first hour, give 0.14 units/kg as an IV bolus, then continue the previous treatment. Adequate fluid therapy must also be initiated (usually 0.9% NaCl Injection for the first hour, then 0.45% NaCl Injection if indicated); fluid type and hourly requirements are adjusted as needed. Blood glucose levels are checked hourly and the insulin intravenous infusion rate is adjusted accordingly. The insulin infusion should cause blood glucose to decrease at a rate of about 50 to 75 mg/dL per hour; a more rapid lowering of blood glucose can result in adverse effects, like cerebral edema. When the blood glucose decreases to 300 mg/dL, reduce the insulin IV infusion rate to 0.02 to 0.05 units/kg/hour IV continuous infusion and consider adding 5% Dextrose to IV fluid. Keep blood glucose between 200 and 300 mg/dL until the patient is mentally alert.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.025 to 0.05 units/kg/hour continuous IV infusion once serum glucose concentrations are no longer declining at a rate of at least 50 mg/dL/hour with fluid administration. Monitor blood glucose concentrations hourly and adjust the insulin infusion rate to achieve a decrease in glucose concentration of 50 to 75 mg/dL/hour. Suspend insulin therapy if the serum glucose concentration decreases by more than 100 mg/dL/hour.

    For the treatment of neonatal diabetes mellitus†.
    Continuous Intravenous dosage
    Neonates and Infants

    A continuous IV infusion may be used to initially control blood glucose concentrations and determine insulin requirements in newly diagnosed neonates and infants. Although specific recommendations for initiating the insulin infusion are not available, continuous infusion of insulin at a dose of 0.01 to 0.1 units/kg/hour IV have been used in neonates and infants for other indications. Of note, neonates can be very sensitive to the effects of insulin; titrate the dose carefully to desired blood glucose concentrations with frequent monitoring. After stabilization and requirements have been determined, patients are typically converted to multiple daily subcutaneous injections of regular insulin or rapid acting insulin with a long acting insulin analog or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion via an insulin pump with a rapid acting insulin analog.

    Subcutaneous dosage

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) may be preferred by some clinicians as it offers several advantages over multiple daily injections. CSII is more representative of physiologic insulin, is easier to manage, and has been shown to improve long-term metabolic control with reduced hypoglycemia episodes.

    Neonates and Infants

    Typical insulin dosage requirements range from 0.29 to 1.4 units/kg/day subcutaneously. Regular insulin (mealtime insulin) in combination with a basal insulin can be used, although a rapid acting analog may be preferred when using multiple daily injections. In breast or bottle fed neonates, the mealtime insulin accounts for about 70% of the daily insulin requirement. In infants, mealtime insulin accounts for 50% to 70% of the daily insulin requirement. The mealtime insulin doses should be divided equally and administered prior to each feeding/meal. Monitor blood glucose concentrations prior to each meal and adjust insulin doses as necessary.

    For nutritional supplementation† to maintain normoglycemia in very low birthweight infants with persistent glucose intolerance, including those neonates on parenteral nutrition with persistent glucose intolerance.
    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage
    Premature Neonates

    0.05 units/kg/hour IV continuous infusion adjusted to maintain blood glucose concentrations within normal ranges (e.g., 72 to 108 mg/dL in one study and 72 to 144 mg/dL in another). Neonates are especially sensitive to insulin, and an insulin regimen may rapidly induce hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. Monitor blood glucose and other parameters extremely closely. Blood glucose and potassium concentrations should be obtained every 1 to 2 hours. Based on a systematic review, the routine administration of continuous insulin infusion for promoting growth is not recommended. The benefits do not outweigh the risk of potential hypoglycemia, injuries related to routine heel sticks for blood sampling, and the cost of infusion and blood glucose monitoring.

    For the treatment of hyperkalemia†.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    5 to 10 units regular insulin infused IV bolus coadministered with 50 mL of 50% Dextrose Injection IV over 5 minutes. To accurately prepare this dosage, U-100 insulin syringes with a Luer connector are available and are recommended to be used to avoid dosage errors. One study indicated equal efficacy but a reduced incidence of hypoglycemia if the dextrose solution was administered over 5 minutes followed by the insulin bolus. Use regular insulin only, do not use any other type of insulin IV. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended. In patients with hyperglycemia (i.e., higher than 250 mg/dL) and hyperkalemia, infusion of dextrose is not necessary.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Dextrose 0.5 to 1 gram/kg/hour (using 20% Dextrose Injection) combined with insulin 0.2 units IV for every gram of glucose administered.

    Neonates

    0.05 to 0.2 units/kg/hour continuous infusion; given with continuous dextrose infusion. A prolonged and gradual tapering of insulin and glucose is recommended because rapid cessation can cause hypoglycemia. In a study of 12 premature neonates born at 28 weeks gestation or less with a serum potassium concentration of more than 7 mEq/L, 0.05 to 0.1 units/kg/hour of insulin was given with existing intravenous fluids to 7 patients and 5 received rectal sodium polystyrene sulfonate. There was a significant decrease in serum potassium concentrations compared with the sodium polystyrene sulfonate-treatment group in the first 6 hours of therapy (p = 0.002). Premature neonates tolerated doses up to 0.2 units/kg/hour for 12 to 36 hours. In a study of 12 premature neonates (24 to 26 weeks gestational age) with hyperkalemia, an average insulin dose of 0.2 units/kg/hour was administered with 0.5 grams glucose/kg/hour. All premature neonates showed initial control in hyperkalemia. Hyperglycemia was a problem during this study and a decrease in glucose delivery or increase in insulin dose resolved hyperglycemia in most of the neonates. Dextrose/insulin infusion was decreased when hyperkalemia started resolving, after a mean duration of approximately 6 hours. The average duration of treatment was 29 hours.

    Subcutaneous dosage
    Adults

    25 units subcutaneously, co-administered with an IV infusion of 10% Dextrose Injection and sodium bicarbonate.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Specific maximum dosage information is not available. Individualize dosage based on careful monitoring of blood glucose and other clinical parameters in all patient populations.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Frequent blood glucose monitoring and insulin dosage reduction may be required in patients with hepatic impairment. Individualize dosage based on blood glucose and other clinical parameters.

    Renal Impairment

    Frequent blood glucose monitoring and insulin dosage reduction may be required in patients with renal impairment. Individualize dosage based on blood glucose and other clinical parameters.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Injectable Administration

    Regular insulin is available in 2 concentrations: 100 units/mL and 500 units/mL; it is essential that clinicians and patients ensure that the correct concentration of regular insulin is used. Inadvertent use of the 500 units/mL concentration in place of the 100 units/mL concentration could result in severe overdose and hypoglycemia. The 500 units/mL concentration is reserved for those patients requiring more than 200 units/day of insulin. The Humulin R U-500 vial, which contains 20 mL, has a band of aqua coloring, a 500 units/mL concentration statement consisting of white lettering on a green rectangular background, and a green "U-500" statement prominently displayed next to the trade name. Additionally, the vial has a green flip top and a red warning on the front panel describing the highly concentrated dose and a statement advising use with only U-500 insulin syringes.
    Buffered, regular insulin is administered by subcutaneous injection only. Do NOT give by intravenous or intramuscular injection.
    Unbuffered, regular insulin (500 units/mL) is for intermittent subcutaneous injection only. Do NOT give by intravenous or intramuscular injection.
    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use injections which are unusually viscous, cloudy, or discolored.
    Patients using insulin vials should never share needles or syringes with another person.
     
    Insulin Pens:
    Insulin pens should never be shared among patients. Even if the disposable needle is changed, sharing may result in transmission of hepatitis viruses, HIV, or other blood-borne pathogens. Do not share pens among multiple patients in an inpatient setting; use multidose vials instead, if available, or, reserve the use of any pen to 1 patient only.
    Ensure that the patient knows how to use the type of pen needles being dispensed.
    For standard pen needles with an outer cover and an inner needle cover, remove both covers before use.
    For the safety pen needle, remove only the outer cover; the fixed inner needle shield remains in place.

    Intravenous Administration

    ONLY regular, unbuffered insulin (100 units/mL) may be administered intravenously. Do NOT use Humulin R U-500 intravenously.
    To accurately prepare intravenous doses, U-100 insulin syringes with a Luer connector are available and are recommended to be used to avoid dosage errors.
     
    Direct IV injection
    Inject desired dose of undiluted regular insulin directly into a vein or via Y-site injection or 3-way stopcock at a rate of up to 50 units/minute.
     
    Continuous IV infusion
    Following compounding of the solution, the concentration of insulin may be decreased by at least 20 to 80% due to adsorption to the plastic or glass container or tubing.
    For intravenous use, Humulin R regular human insulin should be used at concentrations from 0.1 unit/mL to 1 unit/mL in infusion systems with 0.9% sodium chloride infusion injection using polyvinyl chloride infusion bags. Do NOT use Humulin R U-500 to prepare infusions.
    For intravenous use, Novolin R regular human insulin should be used at concentrations from 0.05 units/mL to 1 unit/mL in infusion systems using polypropylene infusion bags, using any of the following infusion fluids: 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% dextrose, or 10% dextrose with 40 mmol/L potassium chloride.
    For example, an insulin infusion may be prepared by adding 100 units of regular insulin to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection to prepare an infusion concentration of 1 unit/mL.
    An initial infusion rate of 0.1 unit/kg/hour is frequently recommended, but the rate of administration must be individualized.
    Insulin adsorbs to plastics used for IV tubing. To minimize adsorption, fill the tubing administration set with the insulin admixture (concentration of at least 0.5 units/mL) for 20 to 30 minutes then flush with 100 mL of the insulin admixture prior to administration. Another source suggests that a priming volume of 20 mL of a 1 unit/mL of insulin solution is sufficient to minimize insulin adsorption to IV lines.
    Storage of insulin infusions:
    Prepared with Humulin R 100 units/mL: Insulin infusions at concentrations of 0.1 to 1 unit/mL in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection are stable for 48 hours under refrigeration (2 to 8 degrees C or 36 to 46 degrees F) and may be used for an additional 48 hours at room temperature.
    Prepared with Novolin R 100 units/mL: Insulin infusions at concentrations of 0.05 to 1 unit/mL in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose Injection, or 10% Dextrose Injection with 40 mmol/L potassium chloride are stable for 24 hours at room temperature.

    Intramuscular Administration

    ONLY regular, unbuffered insulin (100 units/mL) may be administered intramuscularly.
    Intamuscular (IM) administration is not commonly used or recommended, although, it may be used in certain clinical situations such as hyperglycemic crisis (i.e., diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic state) or dehydration.
    Inject into a large muscle. Aspirate prior to injection to avoid injection into a blood vessel.

    Subcutaneous Administration

    Intermittent Subcutaneous Injection
    The American Diabetes Association recommends to ONLY use insulin syringes marked in insulin units.
    U-100 insulin syringes should be used to measure regular insulin (100 units/mL). Clinicians should instruct patients on how to correctly draw the prescribed dose of insulin into the correct syringe and confirm that the patient has understood these directions and can correctly draw the prescribed dose of insulin with their syringe.
    U-500 insulin syringes should be used to measure concentrated insulin (500 units/mL). Each marking on the U-500 insulin syringe represents 5 units of insulin. Due to an increase in the risk of dosing errors, do not switch between types of syringes. Clinicians should instruct patients on how to correctly draw the prescribed dose of insulin into the correct syringe and confirm that the patient has understood these directions and can correctly draw the prescribed dose of insulin with their syringe. Clinicians should also ensure that the prescribed dose of Humulin R U-500 always be expressed in units of insulin.
    Various lengths of needles are available: short (5, 6 mm) and long (8, 12.7 mm). Studies have confirmed equal efficacy and safety/tolerability with short-length needles as compared to longer ones, even in obese patients.
    Regular insulin injection should be followed by a meal within approximately 30 minutes of administration.
    Subcutaneous injections are usually made into the anterior and lateral aspects of the thigh, the upper arms, buttocks, or the abdomen. The abdomen is recommended to increase the rate of absorption.
    Double-check the vial strength and dosage in syringe prior to administration.
    Do NOT perform dose conversion when using the Humulin R U-500 Kwikpen or Humulin R U-500 vial/syringe.
    In adults, 4, 5, and 6 mm needles do not generally require the lifting of a skin fold; give injections at 90 degrees to the skin surface. Children, adolescents, slim individuals, or injection into limbs or slim abdomens may warrant use of a skin fold to avoid intramuscular injection. Additionally, 6 mm needles should be used with a skin fold or a 45-degree angle when injected into limbs or slim abdomens. Aspiration is not necessary. Inject slowly and ensure the plunger has been fully depressed. The needle should be remain in the skin for 10 seconds after injection to ensure complete delivery of the insulin dose.
    Rotate administration sites with each injection to prevent lipodystrophy. However, staying within the same area (e.g., abdomen) is generally recommended to decrease the variability in insulin absorption from dose to dose.
     
    Mixing of regular insulin (100 units/mL concentration ONLY)
    Do NOT mix concentrated regular insulin (500 units/mL) with other insulin products or solutions.
    Be sure that the brands of insulin are compatible. For example, do not mix Humulin R with insulin preparations other than Humulin N.
    When mixing regular insulin with a longer-acting insulin together in a syringe, draw regular insulin into the syringe first. This prevents contamination of the remaining regular insulin in the vial by the longer-acting insulin. Inject immediately after mixing.
    NPH and regular insulin can be mixed together in a syringe without changes in potency or action. NPH and regular insulin can be combined in the same syringe and be refrigerated for at least one month without changes in potency.
     
    Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) (100 units/mL concentration ONLY)
    Do NOT use concentrated regular insulin (500 units/mL) in an insulin pump.
    Do not mix regular insulin with other insulins when using in an external pump.
    The manufacturer recommends that Novolin R should not be used in external pumps due to the risk of precipitation.
    Consult specialized references for specific recommendations.
    Change the injection site every 48 hours. A new injection site should be selected if a current site becomes erythematous, pruritic, or thickened, as skin reactions or alterations in absorption can occur.
     
    Preparation and Administration Instructions for Patients
    To prepare a dose from a vial:
    Clean the rubber stopper of the vial with an alcohol wipe. Pull back the plunger of a disposable syringe to fill the syringe with an amount of air equal to your dose of insulin (if your dose is 30 units, pull the plunger to the 30 unit mark). Insert the needle into the rubber stopper of the vial, and inject the air into the vial (this will make the insulin easier to remove). Turn the vial and syringe upside down. Making sure the tip of the needle is in the insulin, pull back on the plunger to fill the syringe with the prescribed number of units of insulin. Before removing the needle from the vial, check your syringe for air bubbles. If bubbles are present, hold the syringe straight up and flick the syringe firmly with your finger until the bubbles float to the top. Push them out with the plunger and withdraw the correct dose of insulin. Lift the vial off the syringe.
     
    Mixing of two types of insulin (100 units/mL concentration ONLY):
    Regular insulin should be mixed with longer-acting insulins only on the advice of your prescriber. Follow your prescriber's instructions on whether to mix your insulins ahead of time or just before giving your injection. It is important to be consistent in your method. Clean the rubber stopper of both vials of insulin with an alcohol wipe. Roll the vial of the longer-acting insulin gently between the palms of your hands to mix and warm the insulin. Be sure to mix the insulin well, but do not shake vigorously. Pull back the plunger of a disposable syringe to fill the syringe with an amount of air equal to your dose of longer-acting insulin (if your dose is 30 units, pull the plunger to the 30 unit mark). Insert the needle into rubber stopper of the longer-acting insulin vial and inject the air into the vial (this will make the insulin easier to remove). Make sure that the tip of the needle does not touch the longer-acting insulin. Do not withdraw any of the longer-acting insulin into the syringe. Withdraw the needle. Follow the same steps for your regular insulin dose, but do not withdraw the needle. Turn the vial of regular insulin and syringe upside down. Making sure the tip of the needle is in the insulin, withdraw the prescribed number of units of regular insulin into the syringe. Before removing the needle from the vial, check your syringe for air bubbles. If bubbles are present, hold the syringe straight up and flick the syringe firmly with your finger until the bubbles float to the top. Push them out with the plunger and withdraw the correct dose. Lift the vial of regular insulin off the syringe and insert the syringe into the vial of the longer-acting insulin. Turn the vial and syringe upside down. Making sure the tip of the needle is in the insulin, withdraw the prescribed units of longer-acting insulin. Lift the vial off the syringe.
     
    To inject a dose:
    Select an injection site on the stomach, arm, buttocks, or thigh, and clean with an alcohol wipe. The abdomen is recommended to increase the rate of absorption. Examine the injection site to determine whether lifting a skin fold is required or not given the needle length. If a skin fold is needed, pinch the skin up with your thumb and index fingers (possibly the addition of the middle finger) without causing skin blanching or pain. Insert the needle at a 90 degree angle to the surface of skin fold. Press the plunger all the way down to slowly deliver the insulin. Keep the needle in the skin for 10 seconds so that all of the insulin is injected. Remove the needle from the skin, release the skin fold, and press gently on the injection site for a moment (but do not rub or massage). Rotate your injection site such that each site is not used more than once every 1 to 2 months. Do not use injection sites that are thickened, red, or bumpy. Never inject insulin into a vein.
     
    Storage of opened products:
    Do not use regular insulin if it has been frozen. Protect from direct heat and light.
    Storage of Open Vials (100 unit/mL): Opened insulin vials that are in-use, may be stored at room temperature to minimize local irritation.
    Opened Humulin R vials: Do not store above 30 degrees C [86 degrees F]. Discard 31 days after vial opened.
    Opened Novolin R vials: Do not store above 25 degrees C [77 degrees F]; do NOT refrigerate. Discard 42 days after vial opened.
    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) recommends that an opened insulin vial may be kept at room temperature for up to 1 month (usually defined as 28 to 30 days). Insulin that has been kept at room temperature for longer than 1 month should be thrown away. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) also states that an opened insulin vial can be kept at room temperature for approximately 1 month. Extremes of temperature should be avoided because these can lead to significant changes in insulin action. If human insulin vials are stored under refrigeration while in use and are used beyond 30 days, the stability of these vials may be affected by a number of factors; such factors include the number of injections per day, volume of insulin remaining in the vial, exposure to light, agitation, and technique used for dose preparation. The impact of such factors is difficult to measure, and the health care professional should advise patients on an individual basis concerning long-term storage of opened insulin vials when refrigerated. The length of time an insulin can be stored while unopened is based on the expiration date.
    Storage of Opened Novolin Flexpen: Do not store above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F); do NOT refrigerate. Discard 28 days after opening.
    Storage of Opened Humulin 500 units/mL Vials: Store in a refrigerator (2 to 8 degrees C [36 to 46 degrees F]) or at room temperature (below 30 degrees C [86 degrees F]); discard after 40 days. Do not freeze. Protect from heat and light.
    Storage of Opened Humulin 500 units/mL KwikPen: Do NOT refrigerate. Store at room temperature (below 30 degrees C [86 degrees F]); discard after 28 days.
    If changes in blood glucose concentrations occur, the potency of the insulin should be questioned and a new vial of the same type of insulin should be used.

    STORAGE

    Humulin R:
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Protect from light
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Novolin R:
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Do not use if product has been frozen
    - Prior to dispensing, store in refrigerator (36 to 46 degrees F)
    - Protect from light
    - Store below 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until time of use
    - Unrefrigerated product should be discarded 42 days after it is first kept out of refrigerator
    ReliOn:
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Do not use if product has been frozen
    - Prior to dispensing, store in refrigerator (36 to 46 degrees F)
    - Protect from light
    - Store below 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until time of use
    - Unrefrigerated product should be discarded 42 days after it is first kept out of refrigerator
    Velosulin BR:
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Do not use if product has been frozen
    - Prior to dispensing, store in refrigerator (36 to 46 degrees F)
    - Protect from light
    - Store below 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until time of use
    - Unrefrigerated product should be discarded 42 days after it is first kept out of refrigerator

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Diarrhea, fever, infection, surgery, thyroid disease, trauma, vomiting

    Fever, thyroid disease, infection, recent trauma or surgery, diarrhea secondary to malabsorption, vomiting, and certain medications can affect insulin requirements, requiring dosage adjustments. Diabetic patients should be given a 'sick-day' plan to take appropriate action with blood glucose monitoring and insulin therapy when acute illness is present.

    Hepatic disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Hepatic disease, renal impairment, or renal failure may affect insulin dosage requirements; frequent blood glucose monitoring and insulin dosage reduction may be required. Some pharmacokinetic studies have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with hepatic or renal failure. Individualize dosage based on blood glucose and other clinical parameters.

    Intramuscular administration, intravenous administration

    Do not give concentrated regular insulin (500 units/mL) via intravenous administration, intramuscular administration, or via an insulin pump. In addition, the 500 unit/mL concentration should not be diluted or mixed with any other insulin products or solutions. Only regular, unbuffered insulin (100 units/mL) may be administered intramuscularly, although this route of administration is not commonly used or recommended. Regular insulin (100 units/mL) can be administered via intravenous administration; the American Diabetes Association recommends that regular insulin by continuous intravenous infusion be used to treat hyperglycemic crisis including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) (and diabetic coma) unless it is considered mild. 

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) administration

    Only regular insulin, insulin lispro, insulin glulisine, and insulin aspart should be used for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) administration in external pumps. However, the manufacturer of Novolin R does not recommend the use of this brand of regular insulin in external pumps, due to the risk of precipitation. In addition, concentrated regular insulin (500 units/mL) should not be used in an insulin pump. Patients should be advised that self-monitoring of blood glucose is especially important when using CSII. Regular insulin should not be mixed with any other insulins when used in an external pump. Physicians and patients should carefully evaluate information on pump use in the specialized references, the patient package insert, and the pump manufacturer's manual. Pump or infusion set malfunction or insulin degradation can lead to hyperglycemia and DKA or HHS in a short time because of the small subcutaneous depot of insulin. This is especially important for rapid-acting insulin analogs that are more quickly absorbed through skin and have a shorter duration of action (e.g., insulin aspart, insulin glulisine, and insulin lispro). These differences may be particularly relevant when patients are switched from multiple injection therapy or infusion with buffered regular insulin. If hyperglycemia during CSII occurs, prompt identification of the cause of hyperglycemia is necessary. Interim therapy with subcutaneous injections may be required.

    Hypoglycemia

    Insulin is contraindicated in patients during episodes of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect of insulin therapy and a major barrier to achieving optimal glycemic control long term. Patients at risk for hypoglycemia are young pediatric patients, elderly patients, those with hepatic or renal impairment, those with brittle diabetes, patients who have received an overdose of insulin, and those with a delayed or decreased food intake. Physical activity also increases the risk of hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise and again approximately 7 to 12 hours after exercise. A source of simple carbohydrate should be readily available before, during, and after exercise. Patients at risk for severe, iatrogenic hypoglycemia include those with insulin deficiency (i.e., type 1 diabetes mellitus and advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus), those with a history of severe hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia unawareness, and those undergoing intensive insulin therapy. Patient and family education regarding hypoglycemia management is crucial; the patient and patient's family should be instructed on how to recognize and manage the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in individuals and change over time in the same individual. Early warning signs of hypoglycemia may be less obvious in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness, which can be due to a long history of diabetes (where deficiencies in the release or response to counter-regulatory hormones exist), with autonomic neuropathy, or taking beta-blockers. Of note, changes in insulin, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may also affect glycemic control. It is essential that clinicians and patients ensure the correct insulin is dispensed and administered; this includes the correct insulin brand and concentration. The Humulin R U-500 vial, which contains 20 mL, has a band of aqua coloring, a 500 units/mL concentration statement consisting of white lettering on a green rectangular background, and a green “U-500” statement prominently displayed next to the trade name. Additionally, the vial has a green flip top and a red warning on the front panel describing the highly concentrated dose and a statement advising use with only U-500 insulin syringes. Dosing errors have occurred when Humulin R U-500 was administered with syringes other than a U-500 insulin syringe. Only a U-500 insulin syringe should be used with Humulin R U-500 in order to avoid administration errors. Clinicians must also determine that patients can draw up the correct insulin dosage before prescribing and dispensing. Insulin from a pen should NOT be transferred into a syringe for administration as overdose and severe hypoglycemia can occur. Patients should be aware of the need to have a readily available source of glucose (dextrose, d-glucose) or other carbohydrate to treat hypoglycemic episodes. In patients who are currently taking an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (i.e., acarbose or miglitol) along with their insulin, oral glucose (dextrose) should be used to treat hypoglycemia; sucrose (table sugar) is unsuitable. In severe hypoglycemia, intravenous dextrose or glucagon injections may be needed. Insulin injections should not be used by the family to treat those patients who are unconscious. Severe or frequent hypoglycemia in a patient is an indication for the modification of treatment regimens, including setting higher glycemic goals.

    Hypokalemia

    In addition to hypoglycemia, hypokalemia may also occur as insulin facilitates the intracellular uptake of potassium. Untreated hypokalemia may result in respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and even death. Patients at risk for hypokalemia (e.g., patients using potassium-lowering drugs, taking potassium concentration sensitive drugs, or receiving a continuous IV infusion of insulin) should be monitored closely for these effects, and potassium should be replaced as clinically indicated.

    Cresol hypersensitivity

    Regular insulin is contraindicated for use in patients hypersensitive to the insulin or the excipients in the formulations. Regular insulin contains m-cresol and should be avoided in patients with m-cresol hypersensitivity; localized reactions and general myalgias have been reported with the use of cresol as an injectable excipient. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue the insulin product, treat per standard of care, and monitor the patient until signs and symptoms have resolved. Minor, local sensitivity characterized by redness, swelling, or itching at the site of injection does not usually contraindicate therapy. Less common, but potentially more serious, is generalized allergy to insulin, which may cause rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, wheezing, hypotension, tachycardia, and diaphoresis. Severe cases, including anaphylactoid reactions and shock, may be life threatening.

    Labor, neonates, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Human regular insulin remains the standard treatment for the pregnant patient with diabetes or gestational diabetes. Fetal abnormalities in animal studies of insulin have not been reported when insulin is used at doses similar to those that would be used in humans; however, high doses of insulin inducing maternal hypoglycemia have been associated with fetal toxicity such as pre- and post-implantation losses and visceral/skeletal abnormalities. Optimizing glycemic control before conception and during pregnancy appears to improve fetal outcome; this should include the avoidance of episodes of hypoglycemia as the toxic effects of maternal hypoglycemia on the fetus have been well-documented. In general, insulin requirements decline during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Careful monitoring is required throughout pregnancy and during the perinatal period. Use caution when administering insulin near the time of labor and/or obstetric delivery; insulin requirements may fluctuate and carbohydrate intake may be unpredictable. During the perinatal period, careful monitoring of neonates born to mothers with diabetes is also recommended. Post-partum, maternal insulin requirements may need adjustment. Most experts, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), recommend human insulin as the therapy of choice to maintain blood glucose as close to normal as possible during pregnancy in patients with Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, and, if diet therapy alone is not successful, for those patients with gestational diabetes; insulin does not cross the placenta.

    Breast-feeding

    It is unknown whether regular insulin is excreted in human milk; however, many drugs, including human insulin, are excreted in human milk. Insulin is degraded in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, any insulin secreted into breast milk would not be absorbed by a breast-feeding infant. The American Diabetes Association encourages breast-feeding in women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes ; accordingly, women on insulin therapy should be encouraged to breast-feed if no contraindications exist. Breast-feeding may decrease insulin requirements, despite the need for increased caloric intake. Careful observation of increased maternal caloric needs and maternal blood glucose concentrations are needed.

    Children, infants

    Infants and young children are at particular risk for hypoglycemia; they often have unpredictable appetites and activity levels, which complicate prediction of insulin requirements. In addition, young children are often unaware of hypoglycemia symptoms, which may delay proper treatment. Targeting aggressive blood glucose and A1C goals may also increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Although the A1C target is less than 7.5% across pediatric age groups in general, less stringent goals (e.g., less than 8.5%) may be appropriate for patients with a history of severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia unawareness. Individualize blood glucose and A1C targets with the goal of achieving the best possible control while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia and maintaining normal growth and development.

    Tobacco smoking

    Monitor blood glucose for needed insulin dosage adjustments in insulin-dependent diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or tobacco smoking status occurs. Nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine levels) and may increase plasma glucose. Tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose or an increase the subcutaneous absorption of insulin, respectively.

    Geriatric, visual impairment

    Geriatric patients are especially at risk for hypoglycemic episodes when using insulin. The manufacturer does recommend caution when prescribing regular insulin to geriatric patients or other patients with compromised vision. Many geriatric patients suffer from visual impairment, and patients with visual impairment may rely on audible clicks from insulin pens to dial their dose; preparing the injection by using audible clicks may result in dosing errors. Risk factors for hypoglycemia include intensive insulin therapy, use of an excessive insulin dose, improper timing of insulin administration with regard to meals, injection of the wrong type of insulin, renal failure, severe liver disease, alcohol ingestion, defective counter-regulatory hormone release, missing meals/fasting, and gastroparesis. Because hypoglycemic events may be difficult to recognize in some elderly patients, the initial dosing and dosing increments of any insulin product should be conservative. According to the Beers Criteria, the sole use of short- or rapid-action insulin to manage or avoid hyperglycemia in the absence of basal or long-acting insulin is considered a potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for use in geriatric patients and should be avoided due to a higher risk of hypoglycemia and no improvement in hyperglycemia management regardless of care setting. The recommendation does not apply to titration of basal insulin or use of additional short- or rapid-acting insulin in conjunction with scheduled insulin (i.e., correction insulin). The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, the use of antidiabetic medications should include monitoring (e.g., periodic blood glucose) for effectiveness based on desired goals for that individual and to identify complications of treatment such as hypoglycemia or impaired renal function. Continued or long-term need for sliding scale insulin for non-emergency coverage may indicate inadequate blood sugar control.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    insulin shock / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    bronchospasm / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    anaphylactic shock / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hypoglycemia / Early / 10.0
    hyperinsulinemia / Early / Incidence not known
    Somogyi effect / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypokalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hematoma / Early / Incidence not known
    lipodystrophy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    wheezing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    antibody formation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    rash / Early / 1.0-10.0
    headache / Early / 5.0-10.0
    weight gain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    skin discoloration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    injection site reaction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    diaphoresis / Early / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    insulin resistance / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Propoxyphene may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control while receiving propoxyphene in combination with antidiabetic agents.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Major) The risk of heart failure and/or edema is increased when thiazolidinediones (including pioglitazone) are combined with insulins; monitor combined therapy closely for signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac status occurs. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Amprenavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Androgens: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Systemic bexarotene may enhance the action of insulin, resulting in hypoglycemia. Patients should be closely monitored while receiving bexarotene capsules in combination with insulin therapy; monitor for hypoglycemia and need for diabetic therapy adjustments. Hypoglycemia has not been associated with bexarotene monotherapy.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Patients taking antidiabetic agents and receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood glucose levels and dosage adjustment of their medication.
    Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Bumetanide: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are instituted. Bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when chloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including insulin, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with chloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpromazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cisapride: (Moderate) Because cisapride can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to insulin and other antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood sugar regularly. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive cisapride concomitantly.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Clonidine: (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes. (Minor) It is unclear if phenothiazines directly interact with antidiabetic agents, phenothiazines have been reported to increase blood glucose concentrations. Promethazine should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents; patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Minor) It is unclear if phenothiazines directly interact with antidiabetic agents, phenothiazines have been reported to increase blood glucose concentrations. Promethazine should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents; patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated.
    Colesevelam: (Moderate) In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulins, colesevelam increased serum triglyceride concentrations by 22% compared to placebo. Monitor patients for increase in triglyceride concentrations. Discontinue colesevelam if triglyceride concentrations are > 500 mg/dl or if hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis occurs.
    Conjugated Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Corticotropin, ACTH: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Cyclosporine may cause hyperglycemia. Patients should be monitored for worsening of glycemic control if therapy with cyclosporine is initiated in patients receiving insulin.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Promethazine: (Minor) It is unclear if phenothiazines directly interact with antidiabetic agents, phenothiazines have been reported to increase blood glucose concentrations. Promethazine should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents; patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated.
    Diazoxide: (Minor) Diazoxide, when administered intravenously or orally, produces a prompt dose-related increase in blood glucose level, due primarily to an inhibition of insulin release from the pancreas, and also to an extrapancreatic effect. The hyperglycemic effect begins within an hour and generally lasts no more than 8 hours in the presence of normal renal function. The hyperglycemic effect of diazoxide is expected to be antagonized by certain antidiabetic agents (e.g., insulin or a sulfonylurea). Blood glucose should be closely monitored.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Diethylpropion: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diethylstilbestrol, DES: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving disopyramide concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Disopyramide may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin.
    Dobutamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dopamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Edetate Calcium Disodium, Calcium EDTA: (Minor) Use caution in administration of calcium EDTA to patients with diabetes mellitus who are receiving insulin therapy. Calcium EDTA chelates the zinc in selected exogenous insulins, thereby increasing the amount of insulin available to the body and decreasing the duration of the insulin dose. Alterations in blood glucose control may result. Diabetic patients receiving calcium EDTA may require adjustments in their insulin dosage.
    Edetate Disodium, Disodium EDTA: (Minor) Use caution in administration of calcium EDTA to patients with diabetes mellitus who are receiving insulin therapy. Calcium EDTA chelates the zinc in selected exogenous insulins, thereby increasing the amount of insulin available to the body and decreasing the duration of the insulin dose. Alterations in blood glucose control may result. Diabetic patients receiving calcium EDTA may require adjustments in their insulin dosage.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Esterified Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estramustine: (Moderate) Estramustine may decrease glucose tolerance leading to hyperglycemia. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should monitor their blood glucose levels frequently due to this potential pharmacodynamic interaction.
    Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estropipate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethanol: (Moderate) Patients should be advised to limit alcohol (ethanol) ingestion when treated with insulin. Ethanol inhibits gluconeogenesis, which can contribute to or increase the risk for hypoglycemia. In some patients, hypoglycemia can be prolonged. If a patient with diabetes ingests alcohol, they should be counselled to to avoid ingestion of alcohol on an empty stomach, which increases risk for low blood sugar. Patients should also be aware of the carbohydrate intake provided by certain types of alcohol in the diet, which can contribute to poor glycemic control. If a patient chooses to ingest alcohol, they should monitor their blood glucose frequently. Many non-prescription drug products may be formulated with alcohol; instruct patients to scrutinize product labels prior to consumption.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethotoin: (Minor) Ethotoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Etonogestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Exenatide: (Moderate) The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when exenatide is used in combination with insulins. Although specific dose recommendations are not available, a lower dose of the insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting. The concurrent use of exenatide with prandial insulin has not been studied. Exenatide may be used with basal insulin regimens. Adequate blood glucose monitoring should be continued and followed.
    Fenofibrate: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Fibric acid derivatives: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) In patients with diabetes mellitus, fluoxetine may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy. Hyperglycemia has developed in patients with diabetes mellitus following discontinuation of the drug. The dosage of insulin and/or other antidiabetic agents may need to be adjusted when therapy with fluoxetine is instituted or discontinued.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition. (Moderate) In patients with diabetes mellitus, fluoxetine may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy. Hyperglycemia has developed in patients with diabetes mellitus following discontinuation of the drug. The dosage of insulin and/or other antidiabetic agents may need to be adjusted when therapy with fluoxetine is instituted or discontinued.
    Fluoxymesterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Fosphenytoin: (Minor) Fosphenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Furosemide: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are instituted. Bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Moderate) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should use dietary supplements of Garlic, Allium sativum with caution. Constituents in garlic might have some antidiabetic activity, and may increase serum insulin levels and increase glycogen storage in the liver. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control. Patients with diabetes should inform their health care professionals of their intent to ingest garlic dietary supplements. Some patients may require adjustment to their hypoglycemic medications over time. One study stated that additional garlic supplementation (0.05 to 1.5 grams PO per day) contributed to improved blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus within 1 to 2 weeks, and had positive effects on total cholesterol and high/low density lipoprotein regulation over time. It is unclear if hemoglobin A1C is improved or if improvements are sustained with continued treatment beyond 24 weeks. Other reviews suggest that garlic may provide modest improvements in blood lipids, but few studies demonstrate decreases in blood glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. More controlled trials are needed to discern if garlic has an effect on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. When garlic is used in foods or as a seasoning, or at doses of 50 mg/day or less, it is unlikely that blood glucose levels are affected to any clinically significant degree.
    Gemfibrozil: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Glimepiride; Pioglitazone: (Major) The risk of heart failure and/or edema is increased when thiazolidinediones (including pioglitazone) are combined with insulins; monitor combined therapy closely for signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac status occurs. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Major) Use of insulins with rosiglitazone is not recommended by the manufacturer due to a potential increased risk for edema or heart failure. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. In five 26-week trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone added to insulin therapy (n=867) was compared with insulin therapy alone (n=663). These trials included patients with chronic diabetes and a high prevalence of coexisting medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. In these clinical studies, an increased incidence of heart failure and other cardiovascular adverse events was seen in patients receiving combination rosiglitazone and insulin therapy compared to insulin monotherapy; the incidence of new onset or exacerbated heart failure was 0.9% in patients treated with insulin alone vs. 2% in patients treated with insulin plus rosiglitazone. Some of the patients who developed cardiac failure on combination therapy during the double blind part of the studies had no known prior evidence of congestive heart failure, or pre-existing cardiac condition. Additionally, the results of a meta-analysis that included the same 5 randomized, controlled trials mentioned previously indicate that the rate of myocardial ischemia may be increased in patients taking rosiglitazone in combination with insulin; the incidence of myocardia ischemia was 1.4% in patients receiving insulin monotherapy vs. 2.8% in patients receiving rosiglitazone and insulin combination therapy (OR 2.1 95% CI 0.9-5.1). The cardiovascular events were noted at doses of both 4 mg/day and 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone. In a sixth 26-week study, patients with baseline congestive heart failure were excluded; in this study, compared to insulin monotherapy (n=158), the addition of rosiglitazone to insulin therapy (n=161) did not increase the risk of congestive heart failure. One each of myocardial ischemia and sudden death were reported in patients taking combination therapy compared to zero patients taking insulin monotherapy. When rosiglitazone was added to insulin therapy, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher with 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone (67%) compared to 4 mg/day (53%).
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Glucagon: (Minor) Caution should be exercised when glucagon is used as a diagnostic aid for radiologic examination in patients taking insulin. Insulin reacts antagonistically towards glucagon. Monitor the patient receiving glucagon for a diagnostic procedure for the desired clinical effects. There is no concern when glucagon is used to treat severe hypoglycemia. If a patient receives glucagon due to severe hypoglycemia by a family member or caregiver, they should alert their health care provider so that insulin treatment may be adjusted, if needed.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Green Tea: (Moderate) Green tea catechins have been shown to decrease serum glucose concentrations. Patients with diabetes mellitus taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored closely for hypoglycemia if consuming green tea products.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. (Minor) Triamterene can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. Patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs indicating loss of diabetic control when therapy with triamterene is instituted. In addition, patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs of hypoglycemia when therapy with any of these other agents is discontinued.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when hydroxychloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including insulins, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with hydroxychloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Hydroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) A potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between indapamide and antidiabetic agents, like insulins. Indapamide can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Liraglutide used for weight loss should not be given concomitantly with insulin regular because of the risk of hypoglycemia. Liraglutide for the treatment of diabetes has not been studied in combination with prandial insulin. When liraglutide is used with insulin, consider lowering the dose of the insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and monitor the blood glucose concentration more frequently.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when lixisenatide is used in combination with regular insulin. Although specific dose recommendations are not available, a lower dose of the regular insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting. Adequate blood glucose monitoring should be continued and followed.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Animal data indicate that MAOIs may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when lanreotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with lanreotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levocarnitine: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levothyroxine: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Linezolid: (Moderate) Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes, has been noted in post-marketing reports with linezolid in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving therapy with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetic patients should be monitored for potential hypoglycemic reactions while on linezolid. If hypoglycemia occurs, discontinue or decrease the dose of the antidiabetic agent or discontinue the linezolid therapy. Linezolid is a reversible, nonselective MAO inhibitor and other MAO inhibitors have been associated with hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.
    Liothyronine: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Liraglutide: (Moderate) Liraglutide used for weight loss should not be given concomitantly with insulin regular because of the risk of hypoglycemia. Liraglutide for the treatment of diabetes has not been studied in combination with prandial insulin. When liraglutide is used with insulin, consider lowering the dose of the insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and monitor the blood glucose concentration more frequently.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in glycemic control when lithium is instituted; dosage adjustments of insulin may be necessary. Lithium may cause variable effects on glycemic control when used in patients receiving insulin or other antidiabetic therapy.
    Lixisenatide: (Moderate) The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when lixisenatide is used in combination with regular insulin. Although specific dose recommendations are not available, a lower dose of the regular insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting. Adequate blood glucose monitoring should be continued and followed.
    Lomefloxacin: (Moderate) Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when quinolones and antidiabetic agents are co-administered.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) In general, weight reduction may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylureas). In clinical trials, lorcaserin use was associated with reports of hypoglycemia. Blood glucose monitoring is warranted in patients with type 2 diabetes prior to starting and during lorcaserin treatment. Dosage adjustments of anti-diabetic medications should be considered. If a patient develops hypoglycemia during treatment, adjust anti-diabetic drug regimen accordingly. Of note, lorcaserin has not been studied in combination with insulin.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when niacin, niacinamide is instituted or discontinued. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. When used at daily doses of 750 to 2000 mg, niacin significantly lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while increasing HDL cholesterol. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid use of macimorelin in patients receiving exogenous insulin therapy. In addition, healthcare providers are advised to discontinue insulin therapy and observe a sufficient washout period before administering macimorelin. Use of exogenous insulin may impact the accuracy of the macimorelin growth hormone test by directly affecting pituitary growth hormone secretion and by transiently elevating growth hormone concentrations.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Mecasermin rinfabate: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Megestrol: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Minor) It is unclear if phenothiazines directly interact with antidiabetic agents, phenothiazines have been reported to increase blood glucose concentrations. Promethazine should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents; patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Mesoridazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Metformin; Pioglitazone: (Major) The risk of heart failure and/or edema is increased when thiazolidinediones (including pioglitazone) are combined with insulins; monitor combined therapy closely for signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac status occurs. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Major) Use of insulins with rosiglitazone is not recommended by the manufacturer due to a potential increased risk for edema or heart failure. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. In five 26-week trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone added to insulin therapy (n=867) was compared with insulin therapy alone (n=663). These trials included patients with chronic diabetes and a high prevalence of coexisting medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. In these clinical studies, an increased incidence of heart failure and other cardiovascular adverse events was seen in patients receiving combination rosiglitazone and insulin therapy compared to insulin monotherapy; the incidence of new onset or exacerbated heart failure was 0.9% in patients treated with insulin alone vs. 2% in patients treated with insulin plus rosiglitazone. Some of the patients who developed cardiac failure on combination therapy during the double blind part of the studies had no known prior evidence of congestive heart failure, or pre-existing cardiac condition. Additionally, the results of a meta-analysis that included the same 5 randomized, controlled trials mentioned previously indicate that the rate of myocardial ischemia may be increased in patients taking rosiglitazone in combination with insulin; the incidence of myocardia ischemia was 1.4% in patients receiving insulin monotherapy vs. 2.8% in patients receiving rosiglitazone and insulin combination therapy (OR 2.1 95% CI 0.9-5.1). The cardiovascular events were noted at doses of both 4 mg/day and 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone. In a sixth 26-week study, patients with baseline congestive heart failure were excluded; in this study, compared to insulin monotherapy (n=158), the addition of rosiglitazone to insulin therapy (n=161) did not increase the risk of congestive heart failure. One each of myocardial ischemia and sudden death were reported in patients taking combination therapy compared to zero patients taking insulin monotherapy. When rosiglitazone was added to insulin therapy, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher with 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone (67%) compared to 4 mg/day (53%). (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Coadministration of metformin with an insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Insulins are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of insulin may be needed. Monitor blood sugar and adjust insulin dosage as clinically indicated.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Methohexital: (Minor) The risk of developing hypothermia is increased when methohexital is used with hypothermia-producing agents such as ethanol, insulins, phenothiazines, or other general anesthetics.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Because metoclopramide can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents, including insulin. The dosing of insulin may require adjustment in patients who receive metoclopramide concomitantly.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Metreleptin: (Moderate) Use caution when administering metreleptin to patients treated with concomitant insulins or insulin secretagogue therapy (i.e., sulfonylureas, nateglinide, repaglinide). In clinical evaluation of metreleptin, hypoglycemia occurred in 13% of patients with generalized lipodystrophy. Most reported cases occurred with concomitant insulin use, with or without oral antihyperglycemic agents. Closely monitor blood glucose in patients on concomitant insulin or insulin secretagogue therapy. Dosage adjustments to their antihyperglycemic medications may be necessary.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) In patients taking insulin or other antidiabetic agents, the signs and symptoms of acute metyrapone toxicity (e.g., symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency) may be aggravated or modified.
    Midodrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Animal data indicate that MAOIs may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nandrolone Decanoate: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when niacin, niacinamide is instituted or discontinued. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. When used at daily doses of 750 to 2000 mg, niacin significantly lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while increasing HDL cholesterol. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when niacin, niacinamide is instituted or discontinued. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. When used at daily doses of 750 to 2000 mg, niacin significantly lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while increasing HDL cholesterol. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy.
    Nicotine: (Minor) Nicotine may increase plasma glucose. Monitor blood sugar for needed insulin dosage adjustments in insulin-dependent diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs. In addition, the use of inhaled insulin is not recommended in patients who smoke. Smoking tobacco can alter the effect of inhaled insulin in several ways. First, nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine levels) and may increase plasma glucose. Second, tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. Finally, compared with non-smokers, insulin exposure after inhalation may be greater in patients who smoke. If inhaled insulin is used in this population, patients should be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations closely. If a change in smoking status or nicotine intake occur, patients should continue to monitor their blood glucose concentrations closely and clinicians should adjust the dose of insulin when indicated.
    Norepinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Norethindrone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norgestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving octreotide concomitantly with insulin or other antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control and adjust doses of these medications accordingly. Octreotide alters the balance between the counter-regulatory hormones of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone, which may result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia which occurs during octreotide acetate therapy is usually mild, but may result in overt diabetes mellitus or necessitate dose changes in insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. In patients with concomitant type1 diabetes mellitus, octreotide is likely to affect glucose regulation, and insulin requirements may be reduced. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, which may be severe, has been reported in type 1 diabetic patients. In Type 2 diabetes patients with partially intact insulin reserves, octreotide administration may result in decreases in plasma insulin levels and hyperglycemia.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Orlistat: (Minor) Weight-loss may affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In many patients, glycemic control may improve. A reduction in dose of insulins or other medicines for diabetes may be required in some patients taking orlistat. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control and adjust therapy as clinically indicated.
    Oxandrolone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Oxymetholone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pasireotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pasireotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with pasireotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pegvisomant treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pegvisomant increases sensitivity to insulin by lowering the activity of growth hormone, and in some patients glucose tolerance improves with treatment. Patients with diabetes treated with pegvisomant and antidiabetic agents may be more likely to experience hypoglycemia.
    Pemoline: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in glycemic control during the use of pentamidine; dosage adjustments of insulin may be necessary. Pentamidine can be harmful to pancreatic cells. This effect may lead to hypoglycemia acutely, followed hyperglycemia with prolonged pentamidine therapy.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving pentoxifylline concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Pentoxifylline may enhance the hypoglycemic action of insulin.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Phendimetrazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Animal data indicate that MAOIs may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas.
    Phenothiazines: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes. (Minor) It is unclear if phenothiazines directly interact with antidiabetic agents, phenothiazines have been reported to increase blood glucose concentrations. Promethazine should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents; patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated.
    Phenytoin: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pioglitazone: (Major) The risk of heart failure and/or edema is increased when thiazolidinediones (including pioglitazone) are combined with insulins; monitor combined therapy closely for signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac status occurs. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently.
    Pramlintide: (Major) Pramlintide is indicated to be used in combination with insulins; however, pramlintide increases the risk of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Because of this increased risk, a dose reduction in mealtime insulin is warranted during the titration period with pramlintide. Per the manufacturer, insulin and pramlintide should not be combined in the same syringe or administered in the same injection site as the pharmacokinetic parameters of pramlintide are altered by regular, isophane (NPH), and premixed 70/30 insulin formulations; however, in a randomized, open-label crossover study in type 1 diabetes patients, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of 30 mcg of pramlintide were not changed significantly when mixed with various short-acting insulins, long-acting insulins, or both immediately before injection. Because not all insulin types, doses of insulin, and doses of pramlintide were studied, mixing pramlintide with insulin prior to injection should be avoided. Furthermore, most insulins are formulated at a pH of approximately 7 and are not compatible with pramlintide which is formulated at a pH of 4.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved): (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Progesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Progestins: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Promethazine: (Minor) It is unclear if phenothiazines directly interact with antidiabetic agents, phenothiazines have been reported to increase blood glucose concentrations. Promethazine should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents; patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated.
    Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Propoxyphene may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control while receiving propoxyphene in combination with antidiabetic agents.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Protease inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose carefully when systemic quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including insulin, are coadministered. Discontinue the quinolone if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and initiate appropriate therapy immediately. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Hypoglycemia, sometimes resulting in coma, can occur.
    Racepinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in glycemic control during the use of reserpine. Reserpine may mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Ritodrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Rosiglitazone: (Major) Use of insulins with rosiglitazone is not recommended by the manufacturer due to a potential increased risk for edema or heart failure. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. In five 26-week trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone added to insulin therapy (n=867) was compared with insulin therapy alone (n=663). These trials included patients with chronic diabetes and a high prevalence of coexisting medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. In these clinical studies, an increased incidence of heart failure and other cardiovascular adverse events was seen in patients receiving combination rosiglitazone and insulin therapy compared to insulin monotherapy; the incidence of new onset or exacerbated heart failure was 0.9% in patients treated with insulin alone vs. 2% in patients treated with insulin plus rosiglitazone. Some of the patients who developed cardiac failure on combination therapy during the double blind part of the studies had no known prior evidence of congestive heart failure, or pre-existing cardiac condition. Additionally, the results of a meta-analysis that included the same 5 randomized, controlled trials mentioned previously indicate that the rate of myocardial ischemia may be increased in patients taking rosiglitazone in combination with insulin; the incidence of myocardia ischemia was 1.4% in patients receiving insulin monotherapy vs. 2.8% in patients receiving rosiglitazone and insulin combination therapy (OR 2.1 95% CI 0.9-5.1). The cardiovascular events were noted at doses of both 4 mg/day and 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone. In a sixth 26-week study, patients with baseline congestive heart failure were excluded; in this study, compared to insulin monotherapy (n=158), the addition of rosiglitazone to insulin therapy (n=161) did not increase the risk of congestive heart failure. One each of myocardial ischemia and sudden death were reported in patients taking combination therapy compared to zero patients taking insulin monotherapy. When rosiglitazone was added to insulin therapy, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher with 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone (67%) compared to 4 mg/day (53%).
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Use large doses of aspirin cautiously in patients receiving insulin. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Animal data indicate that MAOIs may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas.
    Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate: (Moderate) Sodium polystyrene sulfonate should be used cautiously with other agents that can induce hypokalemia such as loop diuretics, insulins, or intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Because of differences in onset of action, sodium polystyrene sulfonate is often used with these agents. With appropriate monitoring, hypokalemia can be avoided.
    Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Sparfloxacin: (Moderate) Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and antidiabetic agents. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when quinolones and antidiabetic agents are coadministered.
    Sulfadiazine: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfasalazine: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfinpyrazone: (Moderate) A case report describes an episode of brief hypoglycemia in a diabetic patient receiving both insulins and sulfinpyrazone. The patient responded spontaneously, and an association with sulfinpyrazone was not clearly established. In another report, no changes in insulin requirements were required when sulfinpyrazone therapy was added.
    Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfonamides: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sympathomimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Tacrolimus has been reported to cause hyperglycemia. Patients should be monitored for worsening of glycemic control if therapy with tacrolimus is initiated in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Tegaserod: (Moderate) Because tegaserod can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Testolactone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Testosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Thiethylperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Thioridazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Thyroid hormones: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Tobacco: (Minor) Tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored more closely whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs; dosage adjustments in antidiabetic agents may be needed.
    Torsemide: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are instituted. Bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. ACE inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Animal data indicate that MAOIs may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Triamterene: (Minor) Triamterene can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. Patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs indicating loss of diabetic control when therapy with triamterene is instituted. In addition, patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs of hypoglycemia when therapy with any of these other agents is discontinued.
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Human regular insulin remains the standard treatment for the pregnant patient with diabetes or gestational diabetes. Fetal abnormalities in animal studies of insulin have not been reported when insulin is used at doses similar to those that would be used in humans; however, high doses of insulin inducing maternal hypoglycemia have been associated with fetal toxicity such as pre- and post-implantation losses and visceral/skeletal abnormalities. Optimizing glycemic control before conception and during pregnancy appears to improve fetal outcome; this should include the avoidance of episodes of hypoglycemia as the toxic effects of maternal hypoglycemia on the fetus have been well-documented. In general, insulin requirements decline during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Careful monitoring is required throughout pregnancy and during the perinatal period. Use caution when administering insulin near the time of labor and/or obstetric delivery; insulin requirements may fluctuate and carbohydrate intake may be unpredictable. During the perinatal period, careful monitoring of neonates born to mothers with diabetes is also recommended. Post-partum, maternal insulin requirements may need adjustment. Most experts, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), recommend human insulin as the therapy of choice to maintain blood glucose as close to normal as possible during pregnancy in patients with Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, and, if diet therapy alone is not successful, for those patients with gestational diabetes; insulin does not cross the placenta.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Endogenous insulin regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism by several mechanisms; in general, insulin promotes the storage and inhibits the breakdown of glucose, fat, and amino acids. Insulin lowers glucose concentrations by facilitating the uptake of glucose in muscle and adipose tissue and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production (glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis). Insulin also regulates fat metabolism by enhancing the storage of fat (lipogenesis) and inhibiting the mobilization of fat for energy in adipose tissues (lipolysis and free fatty acid oxidation). Finally, insulin is involved in the regulation of protein metabolism by increasing protein synthesis and inhibiting proteolysis in muscle tissue.
     
    Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by insulin deficiency while diabetes mellitus type 2 is caused by a combination of insulin deficiency and resistance. Biosynthetic insulin is used as replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus to temporarily restore their ability to use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and to convert glycogen to fat. Insulin administration also enables these patients to replete their liver glycogen stores. Commercially available insulin is prepared using recombinant DNA technology utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) or enzymatic modification of beef or pork insulin to create a product identical in structure and function to endogenous human insulin.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Regular insulin is administered via the intravenous or subcutaneous routes, and can be used for administration via external subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps; investigational routes for regular insulin include oral inhalation and sublingual or buccal administration. Endogenous insulin distributes widely throughout the body. Uptake and degradation occurs predominantly in the liver, kidney, muscle, and adipocytes. The liver is the primary organ involved in insulin clearance. Insulin is filtered and reabsorbed by the kidneys; the plasma half-life of human endogenous insulin in normal, healthy controls is approximately 5 to 6 minutes. A subset of patients with genetic insulin receptor defects may exhibit a prolonged insulin half-life up to 30 minutes; diabetic patients who produce anti-insulin antibodies may also exhibit prolonged insulin half-lives versus normal controls.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes or drug transporters: None

    Intravenous Route

    The onset of action is within 15 minutes with maximal effects occurring 15 to 30 minutes after IV injection. The plasma half-life of human insulin is approximately 5 to 6 minutes, with a mean duration of action of 30 to 60 minutes.

    Subcutaneous Route

    Subcutaneously administered regular insulin is best given 30 minutes before a meal. The onset of action of unbuffered, regular insulin (100 units/mL) begins approximately 30 minutes after injection with maximal effects occurring 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. Due to insulin hexamers that slowly dissociate into monomers and thus delay absorption and time to peak concentrations, the pharmacokinetic parameters following subcutaneous administration are typically longer than those seen with intravenous administration of regular insulin. The apparent plasma half-life following subcutaneous administration is approximately 1.5 hours with a duration of action of 8 hours (mean 5 to 7 hours, actual values can widely among individuals receiving subcutaneous regular insulin). The onset of action of unbuffered, regular insulin (500 units/mL) is similar to the onset of unbuffered, regular insulin (100 units/mL); however, due to its concentrated nature, the duration of action of unbuffered, regular insulin (500 units/mL) is considerably longer (mean 21 hours, range: 13 to 24 hours). In 24 healthy obese subjects, the median Cmax of regular insulin (500 units/mL) occurred between 4 hours (50 unit dose) to 8 hours (100 unit dose) with a range of 0.5 to 8 hours. Buffered regular insulin is for subcutaneous use only, and should not be mixed with other insulin types due to the phosphate buffer. The pharmacokinetics of buffered regular insulin are identical to those of unbuffered, regular insulin (100 units/mL) administered by the subcutaneous route.