PDR MEMBER LOGIN:
  • PDR Search

    Required field
  • Advertisement
  • CLASSES

    Guanylate Cyclase Stimulants for PAH

    BOXED WARNING

    Contraception requirements, pregnancy testing, reproductive risk

    Discuss the reproductive risk of riociguat and contraception requirements, including the need for pregnancy testing before and during therapy with the female patient of childbearing potential. For females of childbearing potential, exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of therapy. Follow-up pregnancy tests should occur monthly during treatment for and 1 month after stopping treatment. Advise female patients of childbearing potential to contact their physician immediately if they become pregnant or suspect they may be pregnant. If a pregnancy test is positive, counsel the patient on the potential risks to the fetus and discuss options. To prevent pregnancy, females of reproductive potential must use acceptable contraception methods during treatment and for 1 month after discontinuation of riociguat therapy. The patient may choose a single highly effective contraceptive form, including an intrauterine device (IUD), contraceptive implant, or tubal sterilization, or a combination of a hormonal contraceptive with a barrier method or 2 barrier methods. If a male partner’s vasectomy is chosen as a method of contraception, a hormonal or barrier method must still be used by the female patient. Counsel patients on pregnancy planning and prevention, including emergency contraception.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator
    Approved for the treatment of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)
    Contraindicated for use during pregnancy; also contraindicated for use with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, nitrates, and nitric oxide donors

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Adempas

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Adempas Oral Tab: 0.5mg, 1mg, 1.5mg, 2mg, 2.5mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), (WHO Group 4) after surgical treatment, or inoperable CTEPH, to improve exercise capacity and WHO functional class or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), (WHO Group 1), to improve exercise capacity, WHO functional class and to delay clinical worsening.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 1 mg PO 3 times daily. Consider a starting dose of 0.5 mg PO 3 times daily in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effects of riociguat. If systolic blood pressure remains more than 95 mmHg and the patient has no signs or symptoms of hypotension, increase the dose by 0.5 mg PO 3 times daily. Dose increases should be no sooner than 2 weeks apart. The dose can be increased to the highest tolerated dosage, up to a maximum of 2.5 mg PO 3 times daily. Patients who smoke may require more than 2.5 mg PO 3 times daily if tolerated; a dose decrease may be necessary in patients who stop smoking. If the patient has symptoms of hypotension, decrease the dosage by 0.5 mg PO 3 times daily. The efficacy of riociguat was shown in patients on monotherapy or in combination with endothelin receptor antagonists or prostanoids. Studies establishing effectiveness included predominately patients with WHO functional class II or III and etiologies of idiopathic or heritable PAH (61%) or PAH associated with connective tissue diseases (25%).

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    2.5 mg PO 3 times daily.

    Geriatric

    2.5 mg PO 3 times daily.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Safety and efficacy have not been established in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C), therefore use is not recommended. No dosage adjustments are recommended in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl 15 mL/minute or more: No dosage adjustments are needed.
    CrCl less than 15 mL/minute: Safety and efficacy have not been established, therefore use is not recommended.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Safety and efficacy have not been established; therefore, use is not recommended.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Riociguat may be taken with or without food.
    For patients unable to swallow whole tablets, riociguat may be crushed and mixed with water or soft food (e.g., applesauce) immediately prior to administration.
    If a dose is missed, instruct patients to continue with the next regularly scheduled dose; however, if therapy is interrupted for >= 3 days, riociguat must be retitrated.

    STORAGE

    Adempas:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Hypotension, hypovolemia

    Riociguat reduces blood pressure. The potential for symptomatic hypotension or ischemia may be increased in patients with hypovolemia, severe left ventricular outflow obstruction, resting hypotension, autonomic dysfunction, or concomitant treatment with antihypertensives or strong CYP, P-gp, or BCRP inhibitors. Consider a dose reduction if signs or symptoms of hypotension occur.

    Pulmonary edema

    Riociguat is not recommended in patients with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). Pulmonary vasodilators may significantly worsen the cardiovascular status of patients with PVOD. The possibility of PVOD should be considered in patients who develop acute pulmonary edema. Discontinue use of riociguat if PVOD is confirmed.

    Tobacco smoking

    Tobacco smoking significantly reduces the plasma concentrations of riociguat. Although the safety and efficacy of riociguat in doses more than 2.5 mg PO 3 times daily have not been established, higher doses may be considered in patients who smoke in order to match exposure seen in nonsmoking patients. Consider a dose reduction of riociguat in patients who stop smoking.

    Pregnancy

    Riociguat is contraindicated for use in pregnancy. Exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of therapy. Riociguat may cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. When administered to rats at doses equivalent to approximately 2- and 8-times the human exposure, riociguat caused teratogenic and embryotoxic effects including an increased rate of cardiac ventricular-septal defect and post-implantation loss. When administered to rabbits, abortions were observed at doses 4-times the human exposure and fetal toxicity was seen with doses equivalent to 13-times the human exposure. If riociguat is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, counsel the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus.

    Breast-feeding

    It is not known whether riociguat is excreted in human milk. Riociguat or its metabolite were present in the milk of rats. Because many drugs are present in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-feeding infants, discontinue breast-feeding or discontinue riociguat. Epoprostenol may be a reasonable alternative in nursing women.

    Contraception requirements, pregnancy testing, reproductive risk

    Discuss the reproductive risk of riociguat and contraception requirements, including the need for pregnancy testing before and during therapy with the female patient of childbearing potential. For females of childbearing potential, exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of therapy. Follow-up pregnancy tests should occur monthly during treatment for and 1 month after stopping treatment. Advise female patients of childbearing potential to contact their physician immediately if they become pregnant or suspect they may be pregnant. If a pregnancy test is positive, counsel the patient on the potential risks to the fetus and discuss options. To prevent pregnancy, females of reproductive potential must use acceptable contraception methods during treatment and for 1 month after discontinuation of riociguat therapy. The patient may choose a single highly effective contraceptive form, including an intrauterine device (IUD), contraceptive implant, or tubal sterilization, or a combination of a hormonal contraceptive with a barrier method or 2 barrier methods. If a male partner’s vasectomy is chosen as a method of contraception, a hormonal or barrier method must still be used by the female patient. Counsel patients on pregnancy planning and prevention, including emergency contraception.

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    Riociguat is contraindicated in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    hematemesis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pulmonary edema / Early / Incidence not known
    spontaneous fetal abortion / Delayed / Incidence not known
    teratogenesis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    gastritis / Delayed / 21.0-21.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 10.0-10.0
    anemia / Delayed / 7.0-7.0
    constipation / Delayed / 5.0-5.0
    bleeding / Early / 2.4-2.4
    subdural hematoma / Early / 0-1.0
    hemoptysis / Delayed / 1.0-1.0
    vaginal bleeding / Delayed / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    headache / Early / 27.0-27.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 21.0-21.0
    dizziness / Early / 20.0-20.0
    nausea / Early / 14.0-14.0
    diarrhea / Early / 12.0-12.0
    vomiting / Early / 10.0-10.0
    gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / 5.0-5.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nasal congestion / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Amphetamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Antacids: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Dosage recommendations for riociguat are not available if coadministration with apalutamide is necessary. Riociguat is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Strong CYP3A4 inducers may significantly reduce riociguat exposure, but data are not available.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if riociguat and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in riociguat-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Riociguat is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of riociguat. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors like dipyridamole ,is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. A high rate of discontinuation for hypotension has been reported when riociguat was combined with specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, for example.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Avanafil: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and avanafil is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Benzphetamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Boceprevir is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Carbamazepine: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Orthostatic vital signs should be monitored in patients who are at risk for hypotension, such as those receiving cariprazine in combination with antihypertensive agents. Atypical antipsychotics may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope, most commonly during treatment initiation and dosage increases. Patients should be informed about measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning, or rising slowly from a seated position. Consider a cariprazine dose reduction if hypotension occurs.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) Coadministration of riociguat and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) and nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors (dipyridamole or theophylline, aminophylline) is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. Clinical experience with other phosphodidesterase inhibitors (e.g., milrinone, cilostazol, and roflumilast) is limited. The addition of riociguat to a stable sildenafil regimen (20 mg three times a day) resulted in additive hemodynamic effects in an exploratory interaction study in 7 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Among patients with PAH on stable sildenafil treatment and riociguat there was one death, possibly related to the combination of these drugs, and a high rate of discontinuation for hypotension.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Conivaptan: (Major) Avoid coadministration of conivaptan, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, with riociguat, a CYP3A4/P-gp substrate. Concomitant use of riociguat with conivaptan may result in hypotension. According to the manufacturer of conivaptan, concomitant use of conivaptan, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, and CYP3A substrates, such as riociguat, should be avoided. Coadministration of conivaptan with other CYP3A substrates (midazolam, simvastatin, amlodipine) has resulted in increased mean AUC values (2 to 3 times). Theoretically, similar pharmacokinetic effects could be seen with riociguat. Treatment with riociguat may be initiated no sooner than 1 week after completion of conivaptan therapy. According to the manufacturer of riociguat, monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Daclatasvir: (Minor) Systemic exposure of riociguat, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with daclatasvir, a P-gp inhibitor. Taking these drugs together could increase or prolong the therapeutic effects of riociguat; monitor patients for potential adverse effects.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir may increase riociguat exposure and result in hypotension. Ritonavir inhibits isoenzymes and drug transporters that metabolize riociguat, specifically CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). In addition, dasabuvir and paritaprevir are also BCRP inhibitors. If these drugs are to be coadministered, consider an initial riociguat dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day, monitor patients for hypotension, and decrease the riociguat dose in patients who do not tolerate the hypotensive effects. (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors, such as ritonavir, increases riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider a starting adult dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Delavirdine is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Diethylpropion: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dipyridamole: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors like dipyridamole ,is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. A high rate of discontinuation for hypotension has been reported when riociguat was combined with specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, for example.
    Dobutamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Dopamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering riociguat with elbasvir; grazoprevir may result in elevated riociguat plasma concentrations. Riociguat is a substrate of CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of adverse events.
    Enzalutamide: (Major) Dosage recommendations for riociguat are not available if coadministration with enzalutamide is necessary. Riociguat is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Strong CYP3A4 inducers may significantly reduce riociguat exposure, but data are not available.
    Ephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Epinephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Fosamprenavir: (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat and fosamprenavir may result in altered riociguat plasma concentrations. Riociguat is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Amprenavir, the active metabolite of fosamprenavir, is an inducer of P-gp and a potent inhibitor and moderate inducer of CYP3A4.
    Fosphenytoin: (Major) Phenytoin or fosphenytoin is a strong inducer of CYP3A. Coadministration with riociguat may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Gemfibrozil: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in a significant increase in riociguat exposure. A dose reduction of riociguat may be required if used concomitantly with gemfibrozil. Use riociguat and gemfibrozil together with caution. Riociguat is a substrate of CYP2C8, and gemfibrozil is a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Indinavir is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with riociguat may result in increased serum concentrations of riociguat. Riociguat is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Caution and close monitoring for adverse effects, such as hypotension, are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Isoproterenol: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Avoid riociguat use during and for up to 2 weeks after discontinuation of itraconazole treatment unless benefits of treatment outweigh the potentially increased risk of side effects. Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors such as itraconazole, increases riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider a starting dose of 0.5 mg three times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Ketoconazole: (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors such as azole antimycotics (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole) or anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (such as ritonavir) increase riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider a starting dose of 0.5 mg 3 times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors, such as lopinavir; ritonavir, increases riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider an adult starting dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat. (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors, such as ritonavir, increases riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider a starting adult dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter riociguat exposure. Riociguat is a substrate of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data also suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce and/or inhibit CYP2C8 and P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter riociguat exposure. Riociguat is a substrate of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data also suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce and/or inhibit CYP2C8 and P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Separate administration of riociguat from antacids by at least 1 hour. Antacids such as aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide decrease riociguat absorption.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Methamphetamine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Methylphenidate: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Midodrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Milrinone: (Moderate) Coadministration of riociguat and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) and nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors (dipyridamole or theophylline, aminophylline) is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. Clinical experience with other phosphodidesterase inhibitors (e.g., milrinone, cilostazol, and roflumilast) is limited. The addition of riociguat to a stable sildenafil regimen (20 mg three times a day) resulted in additive hemodynamic effects in an exploratory interaction study in 7 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Among patients with PAH on stable sildenafil treatment and riociguat there was one death, possibly related to the combination of these drugs, and a high rate of discontinuation for hypotension.
    Mitotane: (Major) Use caution if mitotane and riociguat are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of riociguat and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and riociguat is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of riociguat.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Nefazodone is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. In addition, nefazodone may cause orthostatic hypotension in some patients; this effect may be additive with riociguat. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Nitrates: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and nitrates or nitric oxide donors (e.g., amyl nitrite) is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. The blood pressure lowering effect of sublingual nitroglycerin was potentiated when administered 4 and 8 hours after riociguat. Syncope was reported in some patients.
    Norepinephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir may increase riociguat exposure and result in hypotension. Ritonavir inhibits isoenzymes and drug transporters that metabolize riociguat, specifically CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). In addition, dasabuvir and paritaprevir are also BCRP inhibitors. If these drugs are to be coadministered, consider an initial riociguat dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day, monitor patients for hypotension, and decrease the riociguat dose in patients who do not tolerate the hypotensive effects. (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors, such as ritonavir, increases riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider a starting adult dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Pemoline: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Phendimetrazine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Phenobarbital: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Phentermine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Phenytoin: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Racepinephrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Rifampin: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Ritodrine: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP inhibitors and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors, such as ritonavir, increases riociguat exposure and may result in hypotension. Consider a starting adult dose of 0.5 mg PO three times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP and P-gp/BCRP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Roflumilast: (Moderate) Coadministration of riociguat and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) and nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors (dipyridamole or theophylline, aminophylline) is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. Clinical experience with other phosphodidesterase inhibitors (e.g., milrinone, cilostazol, and roflumilast) is limited. The addition of riociguat to a stable sildenafil regimen (20 mg three times a day) resulted in additive hemodynamic effects in an exploratory interaction study in 7 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Among patients with PAH on stable sildenafil treatment and riociguat there was one death, possibly related to the combination of these drugs, and a high rate of discontinuation for hypotension.
    Sapropterin: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of sapropterin and riociguat as coadministration may result in increased systemic exposure of riociguat. Riociguat is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); in vitro data show that sapropterin may inhibit P-gp. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for increased side effects of riociguat.
    Sildenafil: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and sildenafil is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. Do not administer riociguat within 24 hours of sildenafil. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension during transition of therapy. The addition of riociguat to a stable sildenafil regimen (20 mg 3 times daily) resulted in additive hemodynamic effects in an exploratory interaction study in 7 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Among patients with PAH on stable sildenafil treatment and riociguat there was 1 death, possibly related to the combination of these drugs, and a high rate of discontinuation for hypotension.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Plasma concentrations of riociguat, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with voxilaprevir, a P-gp inhibitor. Monitor patients for increased side effects if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) Strong inducers of CYP3A (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or St. John's Wort) may significantly reduce riociguat exposure. Dosage adjustment recommendations are not available when strong CYP3A inducers are co-administered with riociguat.
    Sympathomimetics: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Tadalafil: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and tadalafil is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension. Do not administer riociguat 24 hours before or within 48 hours after tadalafil. Consider initiating riociguat at a starting dose of 0.5 mg in patients at risk of hypotension. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension during transition of therapy.
    Telaprevir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Telaprevir is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Telithromycin is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Telotristat Ethyl: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of telotristat ethyl and riociguat is necessary, as the systemic exposure of riociguat may be decreased resulting in reduced efficacy. If these drugs are used together, monitor patients for suboptimal efficacy of riociguat. Riociguat is a CYP3A4 substrate. The mean Cmax and AUC of another sensitive CYP3A4 substrate was decreased by 25% and 48%, respectively, when coadministered with telotristat ethyl; the mechanism of this interaction appears to be that telotristat ethyl increases the glucuronidation of the CYP3A4 substrate.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of temsirolimus with riociguat is necessary, and monitor for an increase in riociguat-related adverse reactions. Temsirolimus is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor in vitro, and riociguat is a P-gp substrate. Pharmacokinetic data are not available for concomitant use of temsirolimus with P-gp substrates, but exposure to riociguat is likely to increase.
    Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors (e.g., theophylline, aminophylline) is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of riociguat with strong cytochrome CYP3A inhibitors may result in hypotension. Tipranavir is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension on initiation and on treatment with strong CYP inhibitors. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who may not tolerate the hypotensive effect of riociguat.
    Tobacco: (Major) In patients who smoke tobacco, plasma concentrations of riociguat are reduced by 50 to 60% compared to nonsmokers. Doses > 2.5 mg PO three times a day may be considered in smokers in order to match exposure seen in nonsmoking patients. Safety and efficacy of riociguat in doses > 2.5 mg three times a day have not been established. A dose reduction should be considered in patients who stop smoking.
    Vardenafil: (Severe) Coadministration of riociguat and vardenafil is contraindicated due to the risk of hypotension.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) It is possible that an increase in the exposure of riociguat may occur when coadministered with drugs that inhibit CYP2C8 such as zafirlukast. Although in vivo data has not substantiated clinically relavent interactions with CYP2C8 substrates, patients should be monitored for hypotension if zafirlukast is coadministered with riociguat.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Zonisamide is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and riociguat is a substrate of P-gp. There is theoretical potential for zonisamide to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates. Use caution when starting or stopping zonisamide or changing the zonisamide dosage in patients also receiving drugs which are P-gp substrates.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Riociguat is contraindicated for use in pregnancy. Exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of therapy. Riociguat may cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. When administered to rats at doses equivalent to approximately 2- and 8-times the human exposure, riociguat caused teratogenic and embryotoxic effects including an increased rate of cardiac ventricular-septal defect and post-implantation loss. When administered to rabbits, abortions were observed at doses 4-times the human exposure and fetal toxicity was seen with doses equivalent to 13-times the human exposure. If riociguat is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, counsel the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus.

    Discuss the reproductive risk of riociguat and contraception requirements, including the need for pregnancy testing before and during therapy with the female patient of childbearing potential. For females of childbearing potential, exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of therapy. Follow-up pregnancy tests should occur monthly during treatment for and 1 month after stopping treatment. Advise female patients of childbearing potential to contact their physician immediately if they become pregnant or suspect they may be pregnant. If a pregnancy test is positive, counsel the patient on the potential risks to the fetus and discuss options. To prevent pregnancy, females of reproductive potential must use acceptable contraception methods during treatment and for 1 month after discontinuation of riociguat therapy. The patient may choose a single highly effective contraceptive form, including an intrauterine device (IUD), contraceptive implant, or tubal sterilization, or a combination of a hormonal contraceptive with a barrier method or 2 barrier methods. If a male partner’s vasectomy is chosen as a method of contraception, a hormonal or barrier method must still be used by the female patient. Counsel patients on pregnancy planning and prevention, including emergency contraception.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is an enzyme in the cardiopulmonary system and the receptor for nitric oxide (NO). When NO binds to sGC, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is synthesized. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired synthesis of nitric oxide and insufficient stimulation of the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway. Riociguat sensitizes sGC to endogenous NO by stabilizing NO-sGC binding and directly stimulates sGC via a different binding site, independently of NO. When riociguat stimulates the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway, generation of cGMP with subsequent vasodilation is increased.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Riociguat is administered orally. Pharmacokinetic parameters are dose proportional. Riociguat plasma concentrations directly correlate to hemodynamic parameters such as systemic vascular resistance, systolic blood pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and cardiac output. Riociguat is highly bound to plasma proteins (95%) and is metabolized by CYP1A1, CYP3A, CYP2C8 and CYP2J2. The major active metabolite, M1, is catalyzed via CYP1A1, and is 1/3 to 1/30 as potent as riociguat. M1 is further metabolized to the inactive N-glucuronide. Plasma concentrations of M1 in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are about half those for riociguat. Excretion occurs via both renal and fecal/biliary routes. The terminal elimination half-life is prolonged in patients with PAH (12 hours) compared with healthy subjects (7 hours).
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes:
    Riociguat is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). In addition, riociguat is metabolized by CYP1A1, CYP3A, CYP2C8 and CYP2J2 and the major active metabolite is formed via CYP1A1. Therefore, pharmacokinetic interactions are possible when riociguat is coadministered with inhibitors or inducers or these enzymes and/or transporter proteins.

    Oral Route

    Following oral administration, riociguat is rapidly absorbed with maximum plasma concentrations occurring within 1.5 hours. The absolute bioavailability is about 94%; food has no effect on bioavailability. Average systemic clearance of riociguat was about 1.8 L/h in patients with PAH and about 3.4 L/h in healthy subjects.