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  • CLASSES

    Antivertigo Agents
    Other Antiemetics and Antinauseants

    DEA CLASS

    OTC, Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral piperazine-derivative sedating antihistamine; structurally similar to hydroxyzine
    Used primarily as an antivertigo and antiemetic agent for symptoms associated with motion sickness
    Has also been used medically in the management of vertigo in diseases affecting the vestibular apparatus

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Antivert, Bonine, Dramamine Less Drowsy, Dramamine-N, Meni-D, Travel Sickness

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Antivert/Dramamine Less Drowsy/Dramamine-N/Meclizine Hydrochloride/Meni-D Oral Tab: 12.5mg, 25mg
    Bonine/Meclizine Hydrochloride/Travel Sickness Oral Tab Chew: 25mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of nausea/vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness.
    Oral dosage (immediate-release, chewable, or orally disintegrating tablets)
    Adults

    25 to 50 mg PO 1 hour before travel. May repeat dose every 24 hours as needed. Start at the lowest dosage for geriatric patients as elderly patients are more sensitive to anticholinergic effects.

    Children and Adolescents 12 years and older

    25 to 50 mg PO 1 hour before travel. May repeat dose every 24 hours as needed.

    For control of vertigo associated with vestibular system diseases.
    Oral dosage (tablets and chewable tablets)
    Adults

    25 to 100 mg/day PO given in divided doses, depending on clinical response. Start at the lowest dosage for geriatric patients as elderly patients are more sensitive to anticholinergic effects.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    100 mg/day PO for vertigo; 50 mg/day PO for nausea, vomiting, or dizziness associated with motion sickness.

    Geriatric

    100 mg/day PO for vertigo; 50 mg/day PO for nausea, vomiting, or dizziness associated with motion sickness.

    Adolescents

    50 mg/day PO for nausea, vomiting, or dizziness associated with motion sickness.

    Children

    12 years: 50 mg/day PO for nausea, vomiting, or dizziness associated with motion sickness.
    Less than 12 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available; however, hepatic impairment may result in increased systemic exposure of the drug; use caution.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; however, drug and metabolite accumulation is possible in the presence of renal impairment; use caution.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Chewable tablets:
    Chew or crush completely before swallowing. Do not swallow tablets whole.
     
    Oral disintegrating tablets (ODT):
    Place tablet on the tongue. Once dissolved, swallow with saliva.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Store between 68 to 86 degrees F
    Antivert:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Bonine:
    - Avoid excessive humidity
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Dramamine Less Drowsy:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Dramamine-N:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Meni-D :
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Travel Sickness:
    - Avoid excessive humidity
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Meclizine is contraindicated in any patient with hypersensitivity to meclizine or to any of the product ingredients.

    Bladder obstruction, prostatic hypertrophy, urinary retention

    Due to the anticholinergic effects of meclizine, precautions must be exercised in certain patient populations. Patients with bladder obstruction, particularly of the bladder neck or prostatic hypertrophy can develop symptomatic urinary retention.

    Closed-angle glaucoma, contact lenses

    Because of its potential anticholinergic action, use meclizine with caution in patients with closed-angle glaucoma. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may make the eyes dry. The use of lubricating drops may be necessary and these effects may bother some who use contact lenses.

    GI obstruction, ileus

    The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may decrease gastric motility and tone. This can aggravate ileus and/or exacerbate retention in patients with pyloroduodenal GI obstruction.

    Asthma

    Caution should be used in patients with asthma since anticholinergic actions of meclizine can aggravate this condition.

    Driving or operating machinery, ethanol ingestion

    Drowsiness has been reported with meclizine; patients receiving this drug should be advised to avoid driving or operating machinery until the effects of the drug are known. The effects of alcohol or other CNS depressants may be additive with sedating antihistamines. Patients should avoid ethanol ingestion while taking meclizine.

    Hepatic disease, poor metabolizers

    Use meclizine with caution in patients with hepatic disease or impairment, as use has not been evaluated in these patients. Meclizine undergoes liver metabolism, and hepatic impairment may result in increased systemic exposure of the drug. Use with caution in patients who are poor metabolizers of CYP2D6. The genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6 that results in poor and intermediate phenotypes could contribute to large inter-individual variability in meclizine exposure. Monitor for adverse reactions and clinical effect in these patients accordingly.[43856]

    Renal failure, renal impairment

    Meclizine administration in the presence of renal impairment has not been evaluated. Due to the potential for drug and metabolite accumulation, meclizine should be administered with caution in patients with renal impairment or renal failure.

    Pregnancy

    Data from epidemiological studies have not generally indicated a drug-associated risk of major birth defects with meclizine during human pregnancy. However, in a published study of meclizine in pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, an increased incidence of fetal malformations was observed following oral administration at doses as low as 25 mg/kg, which is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose (100 mg) on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis. Meclizine has been used to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, but such use should occur under the advice and supervision of a qualified health care professional. Other drugs with an approved indication for this purpose (e.g., doxylamine; pyridoxine products) may be preferable.

    Breast-feeding

    There are no data on the presence of meclizine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. While this agent may be excreted in breast milk, no problems have been documented in the nursing infant. Occasional doses during breast feeding should not pose a risk, however prolonged use or larger doses of antihistamine-type drugs may cause effects in the infant (e.g., drowsiness), or may decrease milk production. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    Anticholinergic medications, geriatric

    Use meclizine with caution in geriatric adults because they may be more sensitive to the anticholinergic effects of meclizine than younger adults. In addition, the anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be significant and are additive with other anticholinergic medications in any patient, and especially in the elderly. According to the Beers Criteria, first-generation antihistamines are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in geriatric patients and should be avoided because they are highly anticholinergic, there is reduced clearance in advanced age, tolerance develops when used as hypnotics, and there is a greater risk of anticholinergic effects (e.g., confusion, dry mouth, constipation) and toxicity compared to younger adults. Avoid drugs with strong anticholinergic activity in geriatric patients with the following conditions due to the potential for symptom exacerbation or adverse effects: dementia/cognitive impairment (adverse CNS effects), delirium/high risk of delirium (new-onset or worsening delirium), or lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia in men (urinary retention or hesitancy). The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities; meclizine should be used only for a limited duration (less than 14 days) unless there is documented evidence of enduring symptoms that cannot otherwise be alleviated. Antihistamines (e.g., first-generation agents) have strong anticholinergic properties and are not considered medications of choice in older individuals. If administered, use the smallest possible dose. Anticholinergics may cause excessive sedation, confusion, cognitive impairment, distress, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention. Many of these effects may lead to other adverse consequences, such as falls.

    Children, infants, neonates

    The safety and efficacy of meclizine for motion sickness have not been established in neonates, infants and children less than 12 years of age. The safety and efficacy of meclizine for vertigo have not been established in pediatric patients.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    tardive dyskinesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ocular hypertension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    blurred vision / Early / 0-1.0
    psychosis / Early / Incidence not known
    ataxia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hallucinations / Early / Incidence not known
    impaired cognition / Early / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    dyskinesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    dystonic reaction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    constipation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urinary retention / Early / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Mild

    drowsiness / Early / 0-31.0
    xerostomia / Early / 16.7-16.7
    dizziness / Early / Incidence not known
    tremor / Early / Incidence not known
    restlessness / Early / Incidence not known
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    weakness / Early / Incidence not known
    insomnia / Early / Incidence not known
    mydriasis / Early / Incidence not known
    abdominal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    xerophthalmia / Early / Incidence not known
    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if dichloralphenazone is used concomitantly with any of the sedating H1 blockers. Use caution with this combination. Dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Moderate) Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity. Coadministration of pentazocine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Alosetron: (Moderate) Alosetron, if combined with drugs that possess anticholinergic properties like sedating H1 blockers, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstruction/impaction or paralytic ileus.
    Amantadine: (Moderate) Medications with significant anticholinergic activity may potentiate the anticholinergic effects of amantadine, and may increase the risk of antimuscarinic-related side effects. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of ambenonium may be diminished when coadministered with drugs known to exhibit anticholinergic properties including sedating H1-blockers. When concurrent use cannot be avoided, monitor the patient for reduced ambenonium efficacy.
    Aminoglycosides: (Minor) Meclizine and other antiemetics should be used carefully with aminoglycosides because they can mask symptoms of ototoxicity (e.g., nausea secondary to vertigo).
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) Meclizine is metabolized by CYP2D6, amiodarone is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use may increase meclizine plasma concentrations which may intensify its sedative and anticholinergic effects.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Moderate) A dosage adjustment may be warranted for meclizine if coadministered with celecoxib due to the potential for celecoxib to enhance the exposure and toxicity of meclizine. Celecoxib is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, and meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Amoxapine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when amoxapine is used concomitantly with drugs are known to possess relatively significant antimuscarinic properties, including sedating H1-blockers. Antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature Additive sedation may also occur.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Apomorphine causes significant somnolence. Concomitant administration of apomorphine and meclizine could result in additive depressant effects. Careful monitoring is recommended during combined use. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Due to the primary CNS effects of aripiprazole, caution should be used when aripiprazole is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications including sedating H1-blockers. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Using drugs that can cause CNS depression, such as sedating H1-blockers, concomitantly with asenapine may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with anticholinergic properties, like sedating H1-blockers and orphenadrine, are used concomitantly. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, a significant CNS depressant. Carisoprodol can cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness, may occur if carisoprodol is taken with sedating H1-blockers. Utilize appropriate caution if carisoprodol is coadministered with another CNS depressant.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, a significant CNS depressant. Carisoprodol can cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness, may occur if carisoprodol is taken with sedating H1-blockers. Utilize appropriate caution if carisoprodol is coadministered with another CNS depressant.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of meclizine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Azelastine: (Major) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating H1-blockers; avoid concurrent use.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Major) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating H1-blockers; avoid concurrent use.
    Baclofen: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when sedating H1-blockers are combined with other CNS depressants including skeletal muscle relaxants, such as baclofen.
    Barbiturates: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Benzodiazepines: (Moderate) Coadministration can potentiate the CNS effects (e.g., increased sedation or respiratory depression) of either agent. Use caution with this combination.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers. This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Berotralstat: (Moderate) Monitor for meclizine-related adverse effects, such as drowsiness and anticholinergic effects, when coadministered with berotralstat. Concomitant use may increase the exposure to meclizine. Meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate and berotralstat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Brompheniramine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Buprenorphine: (Moderate) If concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and buprenorphine is necessary, consider a dose reduction of one or both drugs because of the potential for additive pharmacological effects. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur during co-administration of buprenorphine and other CNS depressants. Prior to concurrent use of buprenorphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Evaluate the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. It is recommended that the injectable buprenorphine dose be halved for patients who receive other drugs with CNS depressant effects; for the buprenorphine transdermal patch, start with the 5 mcg/hour patch. Monitor patients for sedation or respiratory depression.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Moderate) If concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and buprenorphine is necessary, consider a dose reduction of one or both drugs because of the potential for additive pharmacological effects. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur during co-administration of buprenorphine and other CNS depressants. Prior to concurrent use of buprenorphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Evaluate the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. It is recommended that the injectable buprenorphine dose be halved for patients who receive other drugs with CNS depressant effects; for the buprenorphine transdermal patch, start with the 5 mcg/hour patch. Monitor patients for sedation or respiratory depression.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) The combination of buspirone and other CNS depressants, such as the sedating H1-blockers (sedating antihistamines), may increase the risk for sedation.
    Butabarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Butorphanol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of butorphanol with sedating H1-blockers can potentiate the effects of butorphanol on CNS and/or respiratory depression. Use together with caution. If a CNS depressant needs to be used with butorphanol, use the smallest effective dose and the longest dosing frequency of butorphanol.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cannabidiol and sedating H1-blockers. CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of cannabidiol.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metaxalone with other CNS depressants can potentiate the sedative effects of either agent.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Carbinoxamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, a significant CNS depressant. Carisoprodol can cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness, may occur if carisoprodol is taken with sedating H1-blockers. Utilize appropriate caution if carisoprodol is coadministered with another CNS depressant.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) A dosage adjustment may be warranted for meclizine if coadministered with celecoxib due to the potential for celecoxib to enhance the exposure and toxicity of meclizine. Celecoxib is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, and meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cenobamate and sedating H1-blockers. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Due to the duplicative and additive pharmacology, concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with sedating H1-blockers should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of anticholinergic and CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive anticholinergic effects, sedation, and somnolence.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the duplicative and additive pharmacology, concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with sedating H1-blockers should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of anticholinergic and CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive anticholinergic effects, sedation, and somnolence.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when chlorpromazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Chlorzoxazone: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression is possible if chlorzoxazone is used concomitantly with other CNS depressants including sedating H1-blockers. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness can occur, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness. Dosage adjustments of one or both medications may be necessary.
    Clemastine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Clobazam: (Moderate) Clobazam, a benzodiazepine, may cause drowsiness or other CNS effects. Additive drowsiness may occur when clobazam is combined with CNS depressants such as sedating H1-blockers. In addition, caution is recommended when administering clobazam with medications extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 such as diphenhydramine because clobazam has been shown to inhibit CYP2D6 in vivo and may increase concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Clozapine exhibits clinically significant anticholinergic effects and sedation that may be additive with other medications that may cause anticholinergic effects and sedation, including antihistamines such as meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines and to avoid tasks requiring mental alertness until they are aware of the effects of the combination.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of meclizine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when promethazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when promethazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    COMT inhibitors: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Cyclizine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Moderate) Cyclobenzaprine and sedating antihistamines such as meclizine both exhibit anticholinergic activity, and anticholinergic side effects can be additive. Monitor for anticholinergic-related effects such as constipation and urinary retention. Additive CNS depression causing sedation and/or dizziness is also possible. Dosage adjustments of either or both drugs may be necessary.
    Cyproheptadine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Dantrolene: (Moderate) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect (e.g., drowsiness) may occur when dantrolene is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Daratumumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of meclizine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of meclizine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of meclizine with ritonavir may result in elevated meclizine plasma concentrations. Meclizine is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Desloratadine: (Minor) Although desloratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of desloratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Although desloratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of desloratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of deutetrabenazine and drugs that can cause CNS depression, such as meclizine, may have additive effects and worsen drowsiness or sedation. Advise patients about worsened somnolence and not to drive or perform other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how deutetrabenazine affects them.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Co-administration of dexmedetomidine with sedating antihistamines is likely to lead to an enhancement of CNS depression.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Patients receiving oral digoxin therapy should be monitored for increased digoxin effects when receiving drugs with substantial anticholinergic activity. Meclizine can theoretically increase the absorption of digoxin by decreasing gastrointestinal motility. Anticholinergics, because of their ability to cause tachycardia, can also antagonize the beneficial actions of digoxin in atrial fibrillation/flutter.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Diphenhydramine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including disopyramide. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and donepezil should be avoided if possible. Donepezil inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of donepezil.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and donepezil should be avoided if possible. Donepezil inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of donepezil.
    Doxylamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with antihistamines is necessary. Concurrent use of dronabinol, THC with antihistamines may result in additive drowsiness, hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity.
    Droperidol: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers have additive or potentiating sedative and other CNS effects with droperidol. Following administration of droperidol, lower doses of the other CNS depressant may need to be used.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of meclizine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of meclizine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate.
    Entacapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Esketamine: (Moderate) Closely monitor patients receiving esketamine and meclizine for sedation and other CNS depressant effects. Instruct patients who receive a dose of esketamine not to drive or engage in other activities requiring alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) A reduction in the dose of eszopiclone and concomitantly administered CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, should be considered to minimize additive sedative effects. In addition, the risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased during co-administration of eszopiclone and other CNS depressants, which may decrease the ability to perform tasks requiring full mental alertness such as driving.
    Ethanol: (Major) Advise patients to avoid alcohol consumption while taking CNS depressants. Alcohol consumption may result in additive CNS depression.
    Etomidate: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Everolimus: (Moderate) Monitor for meclizine-related adverse effects, such as drowsiness and anticholinergic effects, when coadministered with everolimus. Concomitant use may increase the exposure to meclizine. Meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate and everolimus is a CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of ezogabine and medications that may affect voiding such as meclizine, a sedating antihistamine (H1-blocker). Ezogabine has caused urinary retention requiring catheterization in some cases. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine on the urinary tract may be additive. Additive sedation or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of fenfluramine and meclizine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Flibanserin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of flibanserin with CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, may increase the risk of CNS depression (e.g., dizziness, somnolence) compared to the use of flibanserin alone. Patients should avoid activities requiring full alertness (e.g., operating machinery or driving) until at least 6 hours after each dose and until they know how flibanserin affects them.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Meclizine is metabolized by CYP2D6, fluoxetine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use may increase meclizine plasma concentrations which may intensify its sedative and anticholinergic effects.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Additive sedative effects may be seen when fluphenazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Fospropofol: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics like fospropofol.
    Gabapentin: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of meclizine and gabapentin. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and galantamine should be avoided if possible. Galantamine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of galantamine.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Haloperidol can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants such as the sedating H1-blockers. Additive anticholinergic effects may occur. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or CNS effects may also occur.
    Heparin: (Minor) Antihistamines may partially counteract the anticoagulant actions of heparin, according to the product labels. However, this interaction is not likely of clinical significance since heparin therapy is adjusted to the partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and other clinical parameters of the patient.
    Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Hydantoins: (Moderate) Hydantoin anticonvulsants can theoretically add to the CNS depressant effects of other CNS depressants including the sedating H1 blockers.
    Hydroxyzine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with iloperidone, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when iloperidone is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Ipecac: (Major) Ipecac has been shown to be effective in producing emesis in patients who have ingested antiemetics, provided ipecac is given promptly (usually within 1 hour of antiemetic consumption). If ipecac is administered after antiemetic therapy has begun to exert therapeutic effects, ipecac may be less effective. It is suggested the irritating GI effects of ipecac lead to emesis following antiemetic consumption.
    Isocarboxazid: (Major) Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and sedating H1-blockers (antihistamines) may result in additive sedation, anticholinergic effects, or hypotensive reactions. Consider alternative therapy to these antihistamines where possible. If alternative combinations are not available, these medications may be used together with close monitoring. Many nonprescription products for coughs, colds, allergy, hay fever, or insomnia contain sedating antihistamines. Patients receiving an MAOI should be counseled that it is essential to consult their health care provider or pharmacist prior to the use of any nonprescription products. Advise against driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until patients know how this combination affects them.
    Ketamine: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lasmiditan and sedating H1-blockers. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Lemborexant: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lemborexant and sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and sedating H1-blockers may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS effects. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if lemborexant is taken with other CNS depressants. Patients should generally avoid nonprescription antihistamine products that are marketed as sleep-aids concurrently with lemborexant.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Due to the duplicative and additive pharmacology, concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with sedating H1-blockers should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of anticholinergic and CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive anticholinergic effects, sedation, and somnolence.
    Levomethadyl: (Moderate) Enhanced CNS depressant effects may occur when levomethadyl is combined with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1 blockers.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Because lithium has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills, caution is advisable during concurrent use of other medications with centrally-acting effects including meclizine.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive hypotension and sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and meclizine. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of meclizine with ritonavir may result in elevated meclizine plasma concentrations. Meclizine is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Loratadine: (Minor) Although loratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of loratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Although loratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of loratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers are associated with anticholinergic effects and sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having anticholinergic activity and CNS depressant properties such as traditional antipsychotic agents, including loxapine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and meclizine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Magnesium Salts: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as sedating H1-blockers. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when maprotiline is used concomitantly with other commonly used drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects, such as meclizine.
    Melatonin: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of sedating antihistamines and melatonin may cause additive CNS depression and should be used cautiously in combination. Especially use caution when combining melatonin with sedating antihistamines found in OTC sleep products, since over-sedation, CNS effects, or sleep-related behaviors may occur. Use of more than one agent for hypnotic purposes may increase the risk for over-sedation, CNS effects, or sleep-related behaviors. Be alert for unusual changes in moods or behaviors. Patients reporting unusual sleep-related behaviors likely should discontinue melatonin use.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when promethazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Mephobarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) The CNS-depressant effects of meprobamate can be potentiated with concomitant administration of other drugs known to cause CNS depression including sedating H1-blockers.
    Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metaxalone with other CNS depressants can potentiate the sedative effects of either agent.
    Methadone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of methadone with another CNS depressant can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma; examples include sedating H1-blockers. Prior to concurrent use of methadone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Methadone should be used with caution and in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; in opioid-naive adults, use an initial methadone dose of 2.5 mg every 12 hours. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of sedating H1-blockers. This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine. Coadminister with caution and monitor for altered response to drug therapy.
    Methocarbamol: (Moderate) Methocarbamol may cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants such as sedating H1-blockers. Combination therapy can cause additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the patient's ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness. Dosage adjustments of either or both medications may be necessary.
    Methohexital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Metoclopramide: (Minor) Combined use of metoclopramide and other CNS depressants, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, can increase possible sedation.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) Metyrapone may cause dizziness and/or drowsiness. Other drugs that may also cause drowsiness, such as sedating H1-blockers, should be used with caution. Additive drowsiness and/or dizziness is possible.
    Metyrosine: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of metyrosine with sedating H1-blockers can result in additive sedative effects.
    Minocycline: (Minor) Injectable minocycline contains magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mirabegron: (Moderate) Mirabegron is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 such as meclizine may be increased when co-administered with mirabegron. Meclizine has been shown to be a CYP2D6 substrate in vitro. Appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Consistent with the CNS depressant effects of mirtazapine, additive effects may occur with other CNS depressants such as meclizine. Mirtazapine should be administered cautiously with such agents because the CNS effects on cognitive performance and motor skills can be additive.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Mitotane can cause sedation, lethargy, vertigo, and other CNS side effects. Concomitant administration of mitotane and CNS depressants, including sedating h1-blockers, may cause additive CNS effects.
    Molindone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when sedating h1-blockers are combined with other CNS depressants including molindone.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Major) Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and sedating H1-blockers (antihistamines) may result in additive sedation, anticholinergic effects, or hypotensive reactions. Consider alternative therapy to these antihistamines where possible. If alternative combinations are not available, these medications may be used together with close monitoring. Many nonprescription products for coughs, colds, allergy, hay fever, or insomnia contain sedating antihistamines. Patients receiving an MAOI should be counseled that it is essential to consult their health care provider or pharmacist prior to the use of any nonprescription products. Advise against driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until patients know how this combination affects them.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nabilone with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the effects of nabilone on respiratory depression.
    Nalbuphine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when sedating H1-blockers are combined with other CNS depressants including nefazodone.
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) Meclizine is metabolized by CYP2D6, nicardipine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use may increase meclizine plasma concentrations which may intensify its sedative and anticholinergic effects.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic effects that may be clinically significant. Clinicians should keep this in mind when using antimuscarinics and other medications with anticholinergic activity in combination with olanzapine. Some medications exhibit additive anticholinergic effects include sedating H1-blockers. Olanzapine may also cause additive sedation with many of these drugs.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Meclizine is metabolized by CYP2D6, fluoxetine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use may increase meclizine plasma concentrations which may intensify its sedative and anticholinergic effects. (Moderate) Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic effects that may be clinically significant. Clinicians should keep this in mind when using antimuscarinics and other medications with anticholinergic activity in combination with olanzapine. Some medications exhibit additive anticholinergic effects include sedating H1-blockers. Olanzapine may also cause additive sedation with many of these drugs.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic effects that may be clinically significant. Clinicians should keep this in mind when using antimuscarinics and other medications with anticholinergic activity in combination with olanzapine. Some medications exhibit additive anticholinergic effects include sedating H1-blockers. Olanzapine may also cause additive sedation with many of these drugs.
    Oliceridine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oliceridine with meclizine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of oliceridine with meclizine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of meclizine with ritonavir may result in elevated meclizine plasma concentrations. Meclizine is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Opicapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Meclizine is metabolized by CYP2D6; oritavancin is a weak CYP2D6 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of meclizine may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with anticholinergic properties, like sedating H1-blockers and orphenadrine, are used concomitantly. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Coadministration of drugs with CNS depressant effects, including paliperidone and meclizine, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Monitor for signs and symptoms of CNS depression and advise patients to avoid driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until they know how this combination affects them.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibiting antidepressants (SSRIs), paroxetine is considered the most anticholinergic. Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when paroxetine is used with other medications having anticholinergic properties such as meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Peginterferon Alfa-2b: (Moderate) Monitor for adverse effects associated with increased exposure to meclizine if peginterferon alfa-2b is coadministered. Peginterferon alfa-2b is a CYP2D6 inhibitor, while meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate in vitro.
    Pentazocine: (Moderate) Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity. Coadministration of pentazocine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity. Coadministration of pentazocine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation.
    Pentobarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Perampanel: (Moderate) Co-administration of perampanel with CNS depressants, including ethanol, may increase CNS depression. The combination of perampanel (particularly at high doses) with ethanol has led to decreased mental alertness and ability to perform complex tasks (such as driving), as well as increased levels of anger, confusion, and depression; similar reactions should be expected with concomitant use of other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when perphenazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when perphenazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Pertuzumab; Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Phenelzine: (Major) Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and sedating H1-blockers (antihistamines) may result in additive sedation, anticholinergic effects, or hypotensive reactions. Consider alternative therapy to these antihistamines where possible. If alternative combinations are not available, these medications may be used together with close monitoring. Many nonprescription products for coughs, colds, allergy, hay fever, or insomnia contain sedating antihistamines. Patients receiving an MAOI should be counseled that it is essential to consult their health care provider or pharmacist prior to the use of any nonprescription products. Advise against driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until patients know how this combination affects them.
    Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Pimozide: (Moderate) Due to the effects of pimozide on cognition, it should be used cautiously with other CNS depressants including sedating antihistamines. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with anticholinergic effects and sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with pimozide. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Pitolisant: (Major) Avoid coadministration of pitolisant with meclizine as the effect of pitolisant may be decreased. Pitolisant increases histamine concentrations in the brain; therefore, H1-receptor antagonists like meclizine, may reduce pitolisant efficacy.
    Pramipexole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of pramipexole with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the sedation effects of pramipexole.
    Pregabalin: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of meclizine and pregabalin. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Primidone: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Procarbazine: (Moderate) Use procarbazine and sedating H1-blockers together with caution; additive central nervous system depression may occur.
    Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when prochlorperazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when promethazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when promethazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when promethazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Propofol: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Pyrilamine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Somnolence is a commonly reported adverse effect of quetiapine. Co-administration of quetiapine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive effects. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Ramelteon: (Moderate) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as ramelteon.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and sedating H1-blockers (sedating antihistamines) may result in additive sedation, anticholinergic effects, or hypotensive reactions. Rasagiline may be less likely to produce these interactions than other MAOIs, due to MAO-B selectivity. However, consider alternatives therapy to antihistamines where possible. If alternative combinations are not available, these medications may be used together with close monitoring. Many non-prescription products for coughs, colds, allergy, hay fever or insomnia contain sedating antihistamines. Patients receiving rasagiline should be counseled that it is essential to consult their healthcare provider or pharmacist prior to the use of any non-prescription products. Patients should also be advised against driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until they know how this combination affects them.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Due to the primary CNS effects of risperidone, caution should be used when risperidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications including meclizine. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of meclizine with ritonavir may result in elevated meclizine plasma concentrations. Meclizine is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Rituximab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and rivastigmine should be avoided if possible. Rivastigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of rivastigmine.
    Rolapitant: (Major) Use caution if meclizine and rolapitant are used concurrently, and monitor for meclizine-related adverse effects. Meclizine is a substrate of CYP2D6 and rolapitant is an inhibitor of CYP2D6; the inhibitory effect of rolapitant is expected to persist beyond 28 days for an unknown duration. Exposure to another CYP2D6 substrate, following a single dose of rolapitant increased about 3-fold on Days 8 and Day 22. The inhibition of CYP2D6 persisted on Day 28 with a 2.3-fold increase in the CYP2D6 substrate concentrations, the last time point measured.
    Ropinirole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ropinirole with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the sedation effects of ropinirole.
    Safinamide: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Secobarbital: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by concurrent medications, including H1-blockers. False study results are possible; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of procedure results.
    Sodium Iodide: (Moderate) Antihistamines may alter sodium iodide I-131 pharmacokinetics and dynamics for up to 1 week after administration. In addition, medications that decrease salivation increase the time of radiation exposure to salivary glands. Consider discontinuing sedating H1-blockers prior to sodium iodide I-131 administration.
    Sodium Sulfate; Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Chloride: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as sedating H1-blockers. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with antimuscarinic properties like solifenacin are used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics, such as meclizine.
    Suvorexant: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of suvorexant and sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Dosage adjustments of suvorexant and sedating H1-blockers may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS effects. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if suvorexant is taken with other CNS depressants. Patients should generally avoid nonprescription antihistamine products that are marketed as sleep-aids concurrently with suvorexant.
    Tacrine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and tacrine should be avoided if possible. Tacrine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of tacrine.
    Tasimelteon: (Moderate) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as tasimelteon.
    Teniposide: (Moderate) Acute central nervous system (CNS) depression, hypotension, and metabolic acidosis have been observed in patients receiving investigational infusions of high-dose teniposide who were pretreated with antiemetics with CNS-depressant activities (e.g., phenothiazine and related antiemetics). The depressant effects of the antiemetic agents and the alcohol content of the teniposide formulation may place patients receiving higher than recommended doses of teniposide at risk for central nervous system depression.
    Thalidomide: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of thalidomide with opiate agonists; antihistamines; antipsychotics; anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics; and other central nervous system depressants due to the potential for additive sedative effects.
    Thiopental: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Thioridazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when thioridazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when antipsychotics, such as thiothixene, are used concomitantly with other drugs such as sedating H1-blockers. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of tizanidine and CNS depressants like sedating h1-blockers can cause additive CNS depression.
    Tolcapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Tranylcypromine: (Major) Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and sedating H1-blockers (antihistamines) may result in additive sedation, anticholinergic effects, or hypotensive reactions. Consider alternative therapy to these antihistamines where possible. If alternative combinations are not available, these medications may be used together with close monitoring. Many nonprescription products for coughs, colds, allergy, hay fever, or insomnia contain sedating antihistamines. Patients receiving an MAOI should be counseled that it is essential to consult their health care provider or pharmacist prior to the use of any nonprescription products. Advise against driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until patients know how this combination affects them.
    Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Antihistamines that may cause sedation, such as meclizine, should be used cautiously in patients receiving trazodone because of additive CNS-depressant effects.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and CNS effects may be seen when tricyclic antidepressants are used concomitantly with sedating H1-blockers. Antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Trifluoperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when trifluoperazine is used with meclizine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription product labels carefully for additional interacting motion sickness medications.
    Trimethobenzamide: (Moderate) The concurrent use of trimethobenzamide with other medications that cause CNS depression, like the sedating h1-blockers, may potentiate the effects of either trimethobenzamide or the sedating h1-blocker.
    Triprolidine: (Major) Meclizine is an H1-blocker which exhibits significant anticholinergic effects. The anticholinergic effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive sedation may also occur.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when trospium is used concomitantly with drugs that are known to possess relatively significant antimuscarinic properties, including sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that additive antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function and temperature regulation. While CNS-related side effects such as drowsiness and blurred vision are not typically noted with trospium, they may occur in some patients.
    Vigabatrin: (Moderate) Vigabatrin may cause somnolence and fatigue. Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with vigabatrin, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when vigabatrin is given with sedating H1-blockers.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of vilazodone, caution should be used when vilazodone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics. Also, Cyproheptadine is an antagonist of serotonin in the CNS, a property which may oppose some of the pharmacologic effects of vilazodone. Cyproheptadine has been used for the management of orgasm dysfunction caused by the serotonergic antidepressants and for the adjunctive treatment of serotonin syndrome; however, a reversal of antidepressant effects may occur when cyproheptadine is given in a routine manner along with the antidepressant. Clinically, cyproheptadine reportedly has interfered with the antidepressant and anti-bulimia actions of fluoxetine, but more data are needed to confirm a direct drug-drug interaction.
    Viloxazine: (Moderate) Monitor for meclizine-related adverse effects, such as drowsiness and anticholinergic effects, when coadministered with viloxazine. Concomitant use may increase the exposure to meclizine. Meclizine is a CYP2D6 substrate and viloxazine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Zaleplon: (Moderate) In premarketing studies, zaleplon potentiated the CNS effects of ethanol, imipramine, and thioridazine for at least 2 to 4 hours. Other drugs that may have additive CNS effects with zaleplon but have not been studied include other sedating H1-blockers. If used together, a reduction in the dose of one or both drugs may be needed.
    Ziconotide: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers are CNS depressant medications that may increase drowsiness, dizziness, and confusion that are associated with ziconotide.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur with ziprasidone.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) The CNS-depressant effects of zolpidem can be potentiated with concomitant administration of other drugs known to cause CNS depression, such as sedating H1-blockers. A dose reduction of either or both drugs should be considered to minimize additive sedative effects. For Intermezzo brand of sublingual zolpidem tablets, reduce the dose to 1.75 mg/night. The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased during co-administration, which may decrease the ability to perform tasks requiring full mental alertness such as driving. In addition, sleep-related behaviors, such as sleep-driving, are more likely to occur during concurrent use of zolpidem and other CNS depressants than with zolpidem alone.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Data from epidemiological studies have not generally indicated a drug-associated risk of major birth defects with meclizine during human pregnancy. However, in a published study of meclizine in pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, an increased incidence of fetal malformations was observed following oral administration at doses as low as 25 mg/kg, which is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose (100 mg) on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis. Meclizine has been used to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, but such use should occur under the advice and supervision of a qualified health care professional. Other drugs with an approved indication for this purpose (e.g., doxylamine; pyridoxine products) may be preferable.

    There are no data on the presence of meclizine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. While this agent may be excreted in breast milk, no problems have been documented in the nursing infant. Occasional doses during breast feeding should not pose a risk, however prolonged use or larger doses of antihistamine-type drugs may cause effects in the infant (e.g., drowsiness), or may decrease milk production. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Meclizine is a sedating antihistamine and an antagonist at H1-receptors. It also possesses anticholinergic, central nervous system depressant, and local anesthetic effects. Although the mechanism by which meclizine exerts its antiemetic and antivertigo effects has not been fully elucidated, its central anticholinergic properties are partially responsible. The drug depresses labyrinth excitability and vestibular stimulation, and it may affect the medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Meclizine is administered orally. Distribution has not been fully characterized. The drug is metabolized in the liver, predominantly by CYP2D6. The plasma half-life in humans is about 5 to 6 hours. Meclizine is excreted in the urine as metabolites and in the feces as unchanged drug.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP2D6
    In an in vitro metabolic study using human hepatic microsome and recombinant CYP enzyme, CYP2D6 was found to be the dominant enzyme for metabolism of meclizine.

    Oral Route

    Meclizine is a sedating antihistamine (H1-blocker). In general, meclizine is well absorbed after oral administration. Maximum plasma concentrations are attained at a median of 3 hours an oral post-dose (range: 1.5 to 6 hours). The onset of action of meclizine is about 1 hour, with effects lasting between 8 to 24 hours.