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Topical Antibacterial Agents, OtherTopical Nasal Anti-infectives
Unique topical antibiotic produced from Pseudomonas fluorescens; active against gram positive organisms like S. aureus and Strept. pyogenes; used for skin infections like impetigo; also in an intranasal ointment to eradicate nasal colonization of MRSA.
Bactroban, Centany, Centany AT
Bactroban Nasal Ointment: 2%Bactroban/Centany/Centany AT/Mupirocin Topical Ointment: 2%Bactroban/Mupirocin/Mupirocin Calcium Topical Cream: 2%
Apply a small amount to the affected area(s) 3 times daily. The area(s) may be covered with a sterile gauze dressing. Therapy is usually continued for 1 to 2 weeks. If a response is not evident within 3 to 5 days, the infection should be reevaluated. Studies evaluating use of mupirocin for the treatment of impetigo have found the ointment produces similar cure rates to oral erythromycin.
Apply a small amount to the affected area(s) 3 times daily for 10 days. If a response is not evident within 3 to 5 days, the infection should be reevaluated.
Apply approximately half of the ointment (roughly 0.5 g) from a single-use tube of nasal ointment into 1 nostril and the other half into the other nostril, twice a day (AM and PM) for 5 days. Clinical practice guidelines recommend twice daily application for 5 to 10 days. Smaller children may require lesser amounts.
Apply to both nares twice daily for 5 to 10 days. Use of the nasal ointment was evaluated in 10 infants with MRSA colonization of the nasal cavity (n = 1), pharynx (n = 8), or both (n = 1). The treatment course was administered as ointment application to both nares 3 times a day for 3 days. MRSA eradication was successful in the nose-limited carrier, 5 of 8 pharynx-limited carriers (63%), and the nose/pharynx carrier. The number of treatments required for MRSA eradication varied from 1 to 7 courses, with 3 infants remaining MRSA positive even after 5 to 7 courses.
Apply a small amount to the affected area(s) 3 times daily. Clinical practice guidelines support the use of mupirocin for mild cases with localized disease.
Apply a small amount to the affected area(s) 2 to 3 times daily for 1 to 2 weeks. Topical mupirocin ointment has similar or superior efficacy when compared with systemic antibiotics (i.e., erythromycin, ampicillin, flucloxacillin) for secondary skin infections, including infected eczema.
Apply a small amount to the affected area(s) 3 times daily for 5 to 14 days. Topical mupirocin ointment has similar or superior efficacy when compared with systemic antibiotics (i.e., ampicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin) for primary skin infections, including folliculitis.
Apply a small amount to each nare topically twice daily for up to 5 days pre-operatively. Use in combination with chlorhexidine baths once daily.
†Indicates off-label use
Intranasal, 5 days of twice daily therapy; Topical, maximum dosage information is not available.
12 years: Intranasal, 5 days of twice daily therapy; Topical, maximum dosage information is not available.1 to 11 years: Maximum dosage information is not available for topical ointment or cream. Safety and efficacy not established for intranasal ointment; however, intranasal ointment has been used off-label.
3 months and older: Maximum dosage information is not available for topical ointment or cream. Safety and efficacy not established for intranasal ointment; however, intranasal ointment has been used off-label.2 months: Maximum dosage information is not available for topical ointment. Safety and efficacy not established for topical cream or intranasal ointment; however, intranasal ointment has been used off label.younger than 2 months: Safety and efficacy not established; however, topical and intranasal ointment have been used off-label.
Safety and efficacy not established; however, topical ointment has been used off-label.
No dosage adjustment needed.
NOTE: Prolonged use of mupirocin is not recommended because of possible overgrowth of resistant organisms, including fungi. This overgrowth may cause superinfection.
Apply to affected area. Treated area may be covered with sterile gauze dressing if desired.Do not apply topical ointment to the eye or in the nose.
Nasal AdministrationApply nasal ointment inside the nose.Do not apply ointment to the eye.After application, close the nostrils by pressing together and releasing the sides of the nose repetitively for approximately 1 minute. This will spread the ointment throughout the nares.Discard each tube after use.Do not use concurrently with any other intranasal product.
Bactroban:- Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)Centany:- Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)Centany AT :- Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
Prolonged use of mupirocin is not recommended because of possible overgrowth of resistant organisms including fungi. This overgrowth can cause superinfection.
Normal undamaged epithelial surfaces inhibit the absorption of polyethylene glycol, the vehicle for mupirocin skin ointment. Damaged epithelial surfaces allow absorption of polyethylene glycol. Mupirocin skin ointment should not be used on burns (especially extensive burns), open wounds, or other damaged skin. Increased absorption of polyethylene glycol should be avoided, especially if there is evidence of moderate to severe renal impairment.
The intranasal form of mupirocin is not for use in neonates, infants, or children < 12 years old. Safe use and pharmacokinetic properties have not been studied in these groups. The safety and efficacy of mupirocin topical cream have not been established in pediatric patients less than 3 months and the safety and efficacy of the topical ointment have not been established in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age.
Mupirocin is not for ophthalmic administration. Avoid ocular exposure of mupirocin as ocular contact produces severe burning and tearing.
There are insufficient human data to establish a drug-associated risk with mupirocin use during pregnancy. Systemic absorption of mupirocin through intact skin is minimal after topical administration of mupirocin. No developmental toxicity was observed in rats or rabbits given mupirocin subcutaneously at doses 11 and 22 times the human topical dose based on calculations of dose divided by the entire body surface area.
It is not known whether mupirocin is present in human breast milk, has effects on the breast-fed child, or has effects on milk production. However, breast-feeding is not expected to result in exposure of the child to mupirocin due to the minimal systemic absorption of mupirocin after topical administration. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding along with the mother's clinical need for mupirocin and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from mupirocin or the underlying maternal condition. To minimize oral exposure of the drug to the breast-feeding child, thoroughly wash a breast and/or nipple being treated with mupirocin prior to breast-feeding.
Almost all antibacterial agents, including mupirocin, have been associated with pseudomembranous colitis (antibiotic-associated colitis), which may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. In the colon, overgrowth of Clostridia may occur when normal flora is altered subsequent to antibacterial administration. The toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of pseudomembranous colitis. Consider pseudomembranous colitis as a potential diagnosis in patients presenting with diarrhea after mupirocin administration. Antibacterial agents should be prescribed with caution to patients with inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or other GI disease. If diarrhea develops during therapy, discontinue the drug. After a diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis, institute therapeutic measures. Practitioners should be aware that antibiotic-associated colitis can occur over 2 months or more after administration of antibacterial agents; a careful medical history should be taken.
angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not knownanaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
erythema / Early / 0-1.0contact dermatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0blepharitis / Early / 0-1.0stomatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0pseudomembranous colitis / Delayed / Incidence not knownsuperinfection / Delayed / Incidence not known
rash / Early / 1.0-10.0headache / Early / 1.7-9.0rhinitis / Early / 6.0-6.0nausea / Early / 0-4.9pharyngitis / Delayed / 4.0-4.0skin irritation / Early / 0-3.6dysgeusia / Early / 3.0-3.0nasal irritation / Early / 2.0-2.0cough / Delayed / 2.0-2.0xerosis / Delayed / 0-1.0diarrhea / Early / 0-1.0xerostomia / Early / 0-1.0epistaxis / Delayed / 0-1.0otalgia / Early / 0-1.0pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not knownurticaria / Rapid / Incidence not knownabdominal pain / Early / Incidence not knowndizziness / Early / Incidence not knowninfection / Delayed / Incidence not known
There are no drug interactions associated with Mupirocin products.
Mupirocin is bacteriostatic at low concentrations and bactericidal at high concentrations. Bacterial protein and RNA synthesis are inhibited when mupirocin reversibly binds to bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. This enzyme normally promotes the conversion of isoleucine and tRNA to isoleucyl-tRNA. The epoxide side chain of mupirocin is similar to isoleucine and competes with it for binding sites on the synthetase enzyme. The cellular concentration of isoleucyl-tRNA becomes depleted, subsequently inhibiting bacterial protein and RNA synthesis. Unlike many other antibiotics, mupirocin has little effect on bacterial DNA synthesis and cell wall peptidoglycan formation.
Mupirocin is administered topically to the skin or the nares. Once in systemic circulation, it is rapidly metabolized to inactive monic acid and is excreted via the kidneys. The elimination half-life is 20—40 minutes for mupirocin and 30—80 minutes for monic acid.
Percutaneous absorption through intact skin is minimal in both pediatric and adult patients. Following topical administration, > 97% of the drug is bound to protein. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), the vehicle used for the ointment, can be absorbed from open or damaged skin and may cause renal failure.
Intranasal RouteIn adults, systemic absorption of intranasally applied mupirocin ointment is minimal. One study suggested 3.3% (range: 1.2—5.1%) of an applied dose may be absorbed from the nasal mucosa of adults. Pharmacokinetic studies have not been conducted in pediatric patients < 12 years of age.