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    Barbiturate Anesthetics

    BOXED WARNING

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neuromuscular disease, requires a specialized care setting, requires an experienced clinician, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus

    Barbiturates can lead to respiratory depression that can potentiate preexisting respiratory insufficiency; use methohexital cautiously, if at all, in patients with status asthmaticus or uncontrolled asthma. Because methohexital can cause dose-dependent respiratory depression, it should be used cautiously in patients with pulmonary disease states causing respiratory depression, dyspnea, severe pulmonary insufficiency, or airway obstruction. Barbiturates should be avoided in patients with bronchopneumonia. Use with close supervision in patients with sleep apnea or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Also use cautiously in patients with a neuromuscular disease that may affect respiration such as myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, or myotonia. Laryngospasm is also common during barbiturate induction. All routes of administration of methohexital are often associated with hiccups, coughing, and/or muscle twitching, which may also impair pulmonary ventilation. Administration of methohexital requires a specialized care setting. Only use methohexital in hospital or ambulatory care settings that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory (e.g. pulse oximetry) and cardiac functions. Assure immediate availability of resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation. The use of methohexital requires an experienced clinician and personnel trained in resuscitative equipment use and skilled in airway management need to be immediately available. Also, for deeply sedated patients, a designated individual other than the practitioner performing the procedure should be present to continuously monitor the patient.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, schedule IV

    DESCRIPTION

    Ultra-short-acting highly lipophilic barbiturate; faster onset of action and recovery time vs thiopental and twice as potent; used alone as an anesthetic for short procedures that are relatively painless, as an inducing agent, or as an adjunct to regional anesthesia.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Brevital

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Brevital Intramuscular Inj Pwd F/Sol: 2.5g, 500mg
    Brevital Intravenous Inj Pwd F/Sol: 2.5g, 500mg
    Brevital Rectal Inj Pwd F/Sol: 2.5g, 500mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For general anesthesia induction and general anesthesia maintenance.
    NOTE: Dosage must be individualized - the following doses are guidelines only.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults and Geriatric

    Induction: 1—1.5 mg/kg IV of a 1% solution given at a rate of about 1 ml per 5 seconds. The dose required is variable (range, 50—120 mg) and provides about 5—7 minutes of anesthesia. Maintenance doses of 20—40 mg IV of a 1% solution, given as required usually every 4—7 minutes. Alternatively, a continuous IV drip of the 0.2% solution may be used; the average rate of administration is about 3 ml/minute (1 drop/second) but is individualized. For longer surgical procedures, gradual reduction in the administration rate is recommended. Prolonged administration may result in cumulative effects such as extended somnolence, protracted unconsciousness, and respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Respiratory depression in the presence of an impaired airway may lead to hypoxia, cardiac arrest, and death.

    Children†

    Induction with 1—2 mg/kg IV boluses using a 10 mg/ml solution and maintenance with 200 mcg/kg/minute IV infusion was well tolerated in 2 children 4—5 years of age who had unusual aggressive personality changes during awakening from propofol sedation. Methohexital was administered 22 times in one child and 28 times in the second child during daily radiation treatment. No recurrence of the behavior disturbance and no delay in discharge time were noted with methohexital as compared with propofol.

    Infants†

    3 mg/kg IV for induction led to spontaneous eye opening 23 minutes (range, 5—44 minutes) after extubation. After tracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in nitrous oxide/oxygen.

    Intramuscular dosage
    Infants, Children and Adolescents

    For induction, 6.6—10 mg/kg IM of the 5% solution.

    Rectal dosage
    Infants, Children and Adolescents

    For induction, 25 mg/kg PR given as a 1% solution.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    Dose depends on indication and is titrated to effect.

    Elderly

    Dose depends on indication and is titrated to effect.

    Adolescents

    Dose depends on indication and is titrated to effect.

    Children

    Dose depends on indication and is titrated to effect.

    Infants

    Dose depends on indication and is titrated to effect.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available; methohexital may be inappropriate for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Contraindications).

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Reconstituting instructions vary depending upon the route of administration. Directions for dilution should be followed exactly.
    Do not use diluents containing bacteriostatic agents.
    Freshly prepare and promptly use the solution. Reconstituted solutions are chemically stable for 24 hours at room temperature.

    Injectable Administration

    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
    Use of preanesthetic medication is generally advisable.
    Do not administer intra-arterially as platelet aggregation and thrombosis distal to the site of injection may occur. The resulting necrosis can lead to gangrene and possibly amputation. The extent of injury caused by inadvertent intra-arterial injection is related to concentration, therefore, solutions greater than 1% are not recommended for intravenous administration.
    Administer only in hospital or ambulatory care settings that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory (i.e., pulse oximetry) and cardiac function. Assure immediate availability of resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation and personnel trained in their use and skilled in airway management. For deeply sedated patients, a designated individual, other than the practitioner performing the procedure, should be present to continuously monitor the patients.
    Do not mix in the same syringe or simultaneously administer intravenously through the same needle with acid solutions such as atropine sulfate, metocurine iodide, and succinylcholine chloride. Solubility of the soluble sodium salts of barbiturates is maintained only at relatively high (basic) pH.

    Intravenous Administration

    Reconstitution/Dilution for Intermittent IV injection:
    Sterile water for injection should preferably be used as the diluent. Other acceptable diluents are 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. A 1% solution (10 mg/ml) should be prepared for intermittent intravenous use. Higher concentrations markedly increase the incidence of muscular movements and irregularities in respiration and blood pressure.
    Reconstitute the the 200 mg vial with 20 ml diluent or the 500 mg vial with 50 ml diluent. If using the 2.5 g vial, add 15 ml diluent to the methohexital vial then further dilute with 235 ml diluent for total volume of 250 ml. When the first dilution is made with the 2.5 g, the solution in the vial will be yellow. When further diluted to make a 1% solution, it must be clear and colorless or should not be used.
    Reconstitution/Dilution for Continuous IV infusion:
    The acceptable diluents for continuous IV administration are 5% dextrose solution or 0.9% sodium chloride solution ONLY; do NOT use sterile water for injection to avoid extreme hypotonicity.
    A 0.2% solution (2 mg/ml) should be prepared for continuous intravenous administration.To prepare a 0.2% solution, add 15 ml diluent to a 500 mg vial of methohexital, then further dilute with 235 ml diluent for total volume of 250 ml.
    Intermittent IV administration:
    The induction dose should be administered at a rate no greater than 1 ml over 5 seconds using a 1% methohexital solution.
    Continuous IV infusion administration:
    The average rate of administration is usually 3 ml/minute (1 drop/second) of a 0.2% solution.

    Intramuscular Administration

    Reconstitution for IM injection:
    Sterile water for injection should preferably be used as the diluent; 0.9% sodium chloride injection is also an acceptable diluent.
    For a 5% solution (50 mg/ml), reconstitute the the 200 mg vial with 4 ml diluent, the 500 mg vial with 10 ml diluent, and the 2.5 g vial with 50 ml diluent.
    Intramuscular injection:
    Inject into a well developed muscle. Aspirate prior to injection to avoid injection into a blood vessel.

    Rectal Administration

    Reconstitution for rectal administration:
    Sterile water for injection should preferably be used as the diluent. Other acceptable diluents are 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection.
    For a 1% solution (10 mg/ml), reconstitute the the 200 mg vial with 20 ml diluent or the 500 mg vial with 50 ml diluent. If using the 2.5 g vial, add 15 ml diluent to the methohexital vial then further dilute with 235 ml diluent for total volume 250 ml. When the first dilution is made with the 2.5 g, the solution in the vial will be yellow. When further diluted to make a 1% solution, it must be clear and colorless or should not be used.
    Rectal Administration:
    Administer as a retention enema.

    STORAGE

    Brevital:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    NOTE: As with all potent anesthetic agents and adjuncts, methohexital should be used only in hospital or ambulatory care settings that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory (i.e., pulse oximetry) and cardiac function. Immediate availability of resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation is needed. Also, personnel trained in equipment use and skilled in airway management should be assured. For deeply sedated patients, a designated individual other than the practitioner performing the procedure should be present to continuously monitor the patients.

    Agranulocytosis, barbiturate hypersensitivity, carbamazepine hypersensitivity, exfoliative dermatitis, hydantoin hypersensitivity

    Avoid methohexital use in patients who have a previous history of barbiturate hypersensitivity. Barbiturates can cause severe and potentially fatal reactions that are preceded by skin eruptions. Caution should be used when administering the drug to patients who may be predisposed to allergic reactions. Therapy should be prescribed only after critical benefit-to-risk appraisal in patients with a history of adverse hematologic (i.e., agranulocytosis), hypersensitivity, or other adverse reactions to barbiturates or certain anticonvulsants. Skin reactions can precede potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions; exfoliative dermatitis has resulted in fatalities. A history of hypersensitivity reactions should be obtained for a patient and the immediate family members. Barbiturate hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who previously experienced hydantoin hypersensitivity (e.g., phenytoin) or carbamazepine hypersensitivity. Estimates of cross-sensitivity vary, but may range from 30% to 80%. Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital are all metabolized to hydroxylated aromatic compounds via the cytochrome P450 hepatic oxidative enzymes; arene oxide intermediates are formed during metabolism and are thought to be responsible for cross-sensitivity among these anticonvulsants in susceptible individuals. Some individuals may have a reduced ability to detoxify the intermediate toxic metabolites (e.g., arene oxides) of these anticonvulsants, which may be genetically mediated. However, studies of familial reactions have also shown that allergies to 1 anticonvulsant may not translate to allergies to others. There is no way to predict with certainty which patients will exhibit cross-sensitivity.

    Porphyria

    Methohexital is contraindicated for use in patients with latent or manifest porphyria such as acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, or a history of barbiturate-induced porphyria, the result of barbiturate induction of the enzymes involved in porphyrin synthesis.

    Adrenal insufficiency, anemia, myxedema, obesity, renal disease, uremia

    Methohexital should be used with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease), renal disease, myxedema, uremia, or severe anemia because these disease processes can prolong and potentiate the hypnotic effects of methohexital. Use methohexital cautiously in patients with extreme obesity.

    Depression, mental status changes, suicidal ideation

    Methohexital, especially in higher or prolonged doses, should be used with extreme caution in patients with mental status changes, major depression, or suicidal ideation because the CNS-depressant effects of methohexital may exacerbate these conditions.

    Cardiac disease, heart failure, hypertension, hypotension, peripheral vascular disease, shock, tachycardia

    Barbiturates potentiate preexisting circulatory depression. Other induction agents should be considered in patients with cardiac disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, severe hypotension or hypertension, or shock. Following induction, temporary hypotension and tachycardia may occur.

    Hepatic disease

    The ability of the liver to demethylate and oxidize methohexital can be compromised in patients with hepatic disease. Methohexital should be used with extreme caution in this patient population. Alternative induction agents should be considered.

    Geriatric

    Geriatric patients are usually more sensitive to the sedative effects of barbiturates. After administration of methohexital for surgical procedures, the elderly may take longer to recover cognitive and psychomotor functions. In addition, elderly patients are more likely to have an age-related reduction in hepatic function and may require a lower dose. It is not known if elderly patients will respond differently than younger patients to methohexital. Elderly subjects may have conditions in which methohexital should be used cautiously such as COPD, severe hypertension or hypotension, preexisting circulatory depression, myocardial disease, congestive heart failure, or severe anemia. Caution should be exercised in debilitated patients or in those with impaired function of respiratory, circulatory, renal, hepatic, or endocrine systems. In general, dose selection for the elderly should be initiated at the low end of the dosage range and titrated slowly to the lowest possible effective dose. Because methohexital can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, there is a higher risk of falls, particularly in the elderly, with the potential for subsequent severe injuries.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in neonates, infants, and children younger than 3 years, including in utero exposure during the third trimester, may have negative effects on brain development. Consider the benefits of appropriate anesthesia in young children against the potential risks, especially for procedures that may last more than 3 hours or if multiple procedures are required during the first 3 years of life. It may be appropriate to delay certain procedures if doing so will not jeopardize the health of the child. No specific anesthetic or sedation drug has been shown to be safer than another. Human studies suggest that a single short exposure to a general anesthetic in young pediatric patients is unlikely to have negative effects on behavior and learning; however, further research is needed to fully characterize how anesthetic exposure affects brain development.

    Seizure disorder, seizures, status epilepticus

    Methohexital should be used cautiously in patients with a history of a seizure disorder. Partial seizures may be elicited in susceptible individuals, particularly pediatric patients. Also, status epilepticus may occur in susceptible patients during abrupt discontinuation of barbiturates in patients with seizure disorders; methohexital should be used with extreme caution in patients with status epilepticus.

    CNS depression, coadministration with other CNS depressants, driving or operating machinery, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication

    Methohexital may cause blurred vision, drowsiness, or dizziness after surgery or procedures. Patients should be released from the hospital or clinic in the company of a responsible adult. Patients should be instructed to avoid driving or operating machinery or performing other hazardous tasks for 8 to 12 hours following methohexital administration. Avoid ethanol intoxication; ethanol ingestion or coadministration with other CNS depressants can magnify CNS depression and the risk for respiratory depression. Because methohexital can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, there is a higher risk of falls, particularly in the elderly, with the potential for subsequent severe injuries.

    Labor, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of methohexital in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies have not revealed evidence of harm to the fetus or impaired fertility. Although long-term use of methohexital is not expected, chronic exposure to other barbiturates during pregnancy has been associated with major fetal malformations, hemorrhage at birth, and addiction. A retrospective study revealed that in utero exposure to barbiturates was associated with intelligence deficits. Barbiturates readily cross the placental barrier and are distributed throughout fetal tissues with highest concentrations found in the placenta, fetal liver, and brain. Fetal blood concentrations approach maternal blood concentrations after parenteral administration. Repeated use of barbiturates during the third trimester can cause physical dependence in the neonate. Neonates with chronic barbiturate exposure in utero may experience an acute withdrawal syndrome, including seizures and hyperirritability, with an onset up to 14 days after birth. Repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures during the third trimester of pregnancy may have negative effects on fetal brain development. Consider the benefits of appropriate anesthesia in pregnant women against the potential risks, especially for procedures that may last more than 3 hours or if multiple procedures are required prior to delivery. It may be appropriate to delay certain procedures if doing so will not jeopardize the health of the child and/or mother. No specific anesthetic or sedation drug has been shown to be safer than another. Human studies suggest that a single short exposure to a general anesthetic in young pediatric patients is unlikely to have negative effects on behavior and learning; however, further research is needed to fully characterize how anesthetic exposure affects brain development. If methohexital is used during labor and obstetric delivery, carefully observe neonates for signs of reduced respiration and respiratory distress, particularly if the infant is premature, and have resuscitation equipment available. Anesthetic doses of barbiturates may inhibit uterine activity, reducing the force and frequency of uterine contractions.

    Breast-feeding

    Use caution when methohexital is administered to a breast-feeding woman. Small amounts of barbiturates are excreted into breast milk. Previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations considered methohexital as usually compatible with breast-feeding. Because methohexital is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate which is only used as an anesthetic agent, there is a reduced likelihood of the nursing infant experiencing adverse effects which may be observed with long-term barbiturate exposure. In general, the healthy term infant can safely nurse as soon after surgery as the mother is awake and alert.

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neuromuscular disease, requires a specialized care setting, requires an experienced clinician, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus

    Barbiturates can lead to respiratory depression that can potentiate preexisting respiratory insufficiency; use methohexital cautiously, if at all, in patients with status asthmaticus or uncontrolled asthma. Because methohexital can cause dose-dependent respiratory depression, it should be used cautiously in patients with pulmonary disease states causing respiratory depression, dyspnea, severe pulmonary insufficiency, or airway obstruction. Barbiturates should be avoided in patients with bronchopneumonia. Use with close supervision in patients with sleep apnea or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Also use cautiously in patients with a neuromuscular disease that may affect respiration such as myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, or myotonia. Laryngospasm is also common during barbiturate induction. All routes of administration of methohexital are often associated with hiccups, coughing, and/or muscle twitching, which may also impair pulmonary ventilation. Administration of methohexital requires a specialized care setting. Only use methohexital in hospital or ambulatory care settings that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory (e.g. pulse oximetry) and cardiac functions. Assure immediate availability of resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation. The use of methohexital requires an experienced clinician and personnel trained in resuscitative equipment use and skilled in airway management need to be immediately available. Also, for deeply sedated patients, a designated individual other than the practitioner performing the procedure should be present to continuously monitor the patient.

    Extravasation, intraarterial administration, subcutaneous administration

    Subcutaneous administration of methohexital injections should be avoided, as can cause localized injection reactions that may range from slight irritation to tissue necrosis. Take care to also avoid intraarterial administration or extravasation during parenteral use, which might result in severe localized reactions such as pain, spasm, or gangrene. Subcutaneous swelling may serve as a sign of arterial or periarterial placement of the catheter. Do not exceed recommended IV infusion rates.

    Hepatic encephalopathy

    As with other barbiturates, methohexital is metabolized in the liver. Patients with hepatic disease may be at increased risk for developing drug toxicity and may require reduced dosages and slower titration, although specific dosage recommendations are not available. Because barbiturates may impair the ability of the liver to metabolize ammonia, barbiturates are best avoided in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

    Renal failure, renal impairment

    During use of methohexital, exercise caution in patients with renal impairment, renal failure, or renal disease leading to these complications. Methohexital is contraindicated for use by patients in whom general anesthesia is contraindicated. Dosing alterations do not appear to be needed in patients with impaired renal function; methohexital is extensively metabolized by the liver.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    respiratory arrest / Rapid / Incidence not known
    apnea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    skin necrosis / Early / Incidence not known
    thrombosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    laryngospasm / Rapid / Incidence not known
    bronchospasm / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    erythema / Early / 0-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    respiratory depression / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypoventilation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    delirium / Early / Incidence not known
    phlebitis / Rapid / Incidence not known
    skin ulcer / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    pruritus / Rapid / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    drowsiness / Early / Incidence not known
    restlessness / Early / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    psychomotor impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    injection site reaction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    skin irritation / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    shivering / Rapid / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    abdominal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    hypersalivation / Early / Incidence not known
    hiccups / Early / Incidence not known
    cough / Delayed / Incidence not known
    rhinitis / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when dihydrocodeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with a barbiturate can decrease dihydrocodeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased dihydromorphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of dihydrocodeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of dihydrocodeine. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Because doxylamine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Major) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with dichloralphenazone. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of pentazocine with other CNS depressants can potentiate respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation. Pentazocine should be used cautiously in any patient receiving these agents, which may include barbiturates. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Major) Concomitant use of tramadol with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of tramadol with a barbiturate can decrease tramadol concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of tramadol and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of seizures, serotonin syndrome, and the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; tramadol is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Acetazolamide: (Minor) Acetazolamide can induce osteomalacia in patients treated chronically with barbiturates. Potential mechanisms for this interaction include a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor induced increase in the urinary excretion of calcium and an increase in barbiturate effects resulting from metabolic acidosis. Acetazolamide can also increase the rate of excretion of weakly acidic drugs, such as barbiturates.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with acrivastine.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Concomitant use of alfentanil with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of alfentanil with a barbiturate may decrease alfentanil plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; alfentanil is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely. (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Alpha-blockers: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and alpha-blockers increases the risk of developing hypotension and hypothermia.
    Alprazolam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, the oral clearance of alprazolam (0.8 mg single dose) was increased in the presence of another CYP3A4 inducer for 10 days from 0.9 +/- 0.21 mL/minute/kg to 2.13 +/- 0.54 mL/minute/kg and the elimination half-life was shortened from 17.1 +/- 4.9 to 7.7 +/- 1.7 hours. Alprazolam is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Altretamine: (Minor) Because altretamine undergoes significant metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system, agents that stimulate CYP450 enzymes, such as barbiturates, increase the metabolism of altretamine and may result in decreased therapeutic effects.
    Amikacin: (Moderate) Patients receiving general anesthetics should be observed for exaggerated effects if they are receiving amikacin.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics. (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Amiodarone: (Major) In general, adverse cardiovascular effects such as hypotension and atropine resistant bradycardia can occur in patients receiving amiodarone who subsequently are administered any general anesthetics, particularly volatile anesthetics. Due to the extremely long half life of amiodarone, a drug interaction is also possible for days to weeks after discontinuation of amiodarone.
    Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of chlordiazepoxide. Chlordiazepoxide is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Amlodipine: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely. (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely. (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely. (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Amoxapine: (Major) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of amoxapine and barbiturates. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of lansoprazole if concomitant use of lansoprazole and barbiturates is necessary. Lansoprazole is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Drugs known to induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 may lead to decreased lansoprazole plasma concentrations.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of omeprazole with barbiturates because it can result in decreased efficacy of omeprazole. Omeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
    Amphetamine: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of dextroamphetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of dextroamphetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of dextroamphetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Amprenavir: (Major) Coadministration with phenobarbital and, potentially, other barbiturates may increase the metabolism of amprenavir and lead to decreased amprenavir concentrations resulting in reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and development of viral resistance. If amprenavir and barbiturates are used together, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) Anagrelide is partially metabolized by CYP1A2. Coadministration of anagrelide with drugs that induce CYP1A2, such as barbiturates, could theoretically increase the elimination of anagrelide and decrease the efficacy of anagrelide.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Apomorphine causes significant somnolence. Concomitant administration of apomorphine and CNS depressants could result in additive depressant effects.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) No specific drug interactions were identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials. Theoretically, apraclonidine might potentiate the effects of CNS depressant drugs such as general anesthetics.
    Apremilast: (Major) The coadministration of apremilast and barbiturates is not recommended. Apremilast is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4, with minor metabolism by CYP1A2; barbiturates are strong CYP3A4 inducers and also induce CYP1A2. Coadministration of rifampin, another strong CYP3A4 inducer, with a single dose of apremilast resulted in a decrease in apremilast AUC and Cmax by 72% and 43%, respectively. A similar reduction in systemic exposure may be seen with coadministration of apremilast and barbiturates which may result in a loss of efficacy of apremilast.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Major) Use caution if barbiturates and aprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for a possible decrease in the efficacy of aprepitant. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares the same drug interactions. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers and aprepitant is a CYP3A4 substrate. When a single dose of aprepitant (375 mg, or 3 times the maximum recommended dose) was administered on day 9 of a 14-day rifampin regimen (a strong CYP3A4 inducer), the AUC of aprepitant decreased approximately 11-fold and the mean terminal half-life decreased by 3-fold. The manufacturer of aprepitant recommends avoidance of administration with strong CYP3A4 inducers, but does not provide guidance for weak-to-moderate inducers.
    Aripiprazole: (Major) Because aripiprazole is metabolized by CYP3A4, the manufacturer recommends that the oral aripiprazole dose be doubled over 1 to 2 weeks when strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, are added to aripiprazole therapy. If these agents are used in combination, the patient should be carefully monitored for a decrease in aripiprazole efficacy. When the CYP3A4 inducer is withdrawn from the combination therapy, the aripiprazole dose in adults should be reduced over 1 to 2 weeks to the original level. Avoid concurrent use of Abilify Maintena with a CYP3A4 inducer when the combined treatment period exceeds 14 days because aripiprazole blood concentrations decline and may become suboptimal. In adults receiving 662 mg, 882 mg, or 1,064 mg of Aristada and receiving a strong CYP3A4 inducer, no dosage adjustment is necessary; however, the 441 mg dose should be increased to 662 mg if the CYP inducer is added for more than 2 weeks. Avoid concurrent use of Aristada Initio and strong CYP3A4 inducers. Additive CNS effects are possible, including drowsiness or dizziness. Patients should report any unusual changes in moods or behaviors while taking this combination.
    Armodafinil: (Major) It is not clear how armodafinil interacts with barbiturates like phenobarbital. Armodafinil is partially metabolized by CYP3A4 and combined use with CYP3A4 inducers such as phenobarbital and other barbiturates may result in decreased armodafinil efficacy. Barbiturates used for sleep could counteract the effect of armodafinil on wakefulness, and would not ordinarily be prescribed. The potential effects of combining armodafinil with anticonvulsant barbiturate medications are unclear. Many psychostimulants can reduce the seizure threshold, but it is not clear if armodafinil can affect seizure control.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) The barbiturates are inducers and both components of artemether; lumefantrine are substrates of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme; therefore, coadministration may lead to decreased artemether; lumefantrine concentrations. Concomitant use warrants caution due to a possible reduction in antimalarial activity.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Major) General anesthetics are known to increase cardiac irritability via myocardial sensitization to catecholamines. These anesthetics can produce ventricular arrhythmias and/or hypertension when used concomitantly with epinephrine. (Major) The use of articaine; epinephrine during or following treatment with general anesthetics has been associated with the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and should be avoided, if possible.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Barbiturates can cause CNS depression, and if used concomitantly with asenapine, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when dihydrocodeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with a barbiturate can decrease dihydrocodeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased dihydromorphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of dihydrocodeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of dihydrocodeine. (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of omeprazole with barbiturates because it can result in decreased efficacy of omeprazole. Omeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Atorvastatin: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Atorvastatin; Ezetimibe: (Minor) CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates may decrease the efficacy of atorvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when these drugs are co-administered.
    Atracurium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Atropine; Diphenoxylate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Scopolamine may cause dizziness and drowsiness. Concurrent use of scopolamine and CNS depressants can adversely increase the risk of CNS depression.
    Avanafil: (Minor) Avanafil is a substrate of and primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. It can be expected that concomitant administration of CYP3A4 enzyme-inducers will decrease plasma levels of avanafil, however, no interaction studies have been performed. CYP3A4 inducers include barbiturates.
    Avatrombopag: (Major) Avoid coadministration of avatrombopag and barbiturates. Concomitant use may decrease avatrombopag exposure, potentially resulting in decreased efficacy. Avatrombopag is metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4; barbiturates are dual inducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. Coadministration of another dual inducer of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 decreased avatrombopag by 0.5-fold.
    Axitinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of axitinib with methohexital if possible, due to the risk of decreased efficacy of axitinib. Selection of a concomitant medication with no or minimal CYP3A4 induction potential is recommended. Axitinib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Methohexital is a moderate CYP3A4. Coadministration with a strong CYP3A4/5 inducer significantly decreased the plasma exposure of axitinib in healthy volunteers.
    Azelastine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine, an antihistamine, is combined with CNS depressants including the barbiturates.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine, an antihistamine, is combined with CNS depressants including the barbiturates.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Bacitracin: (Moderate) Systemic bacitracin may act synergistcally to increase or prolong skeletal muscle relaxation produced by neuromuscular blocking agents and/or general anesthetics.
    Bedaquiline: (Major) Avoid concurrent use of barbiturates with bedaquiline. Barbiturates may induce CYP3A4 metabolism resulting in decreased bedaquiline systemic exposure (AUC) and possibly reduced therapeutic effect.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Concomitant use of opium with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Bendamustine: (Moderate) Bendamustine is metabolized to minimally active metabolites by CYP1A2. Concurrent administration of a CYP1A2 inducer such as the barbiturates may cause a decrease in bendamustine plasma concentrations and a potential decrease in cytotoxicity. The parent compound of Bendamustine is believed to be primarily responsible for the cytotoxicity against cancers. Caution should be exercised when coadministering bendamustine with a CYP1A2 inducer, or consider an alternative agent.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) Concomitant use of benzhydrocodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of benzhydrocodone with a barbiturate may decrease benzhydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; benzhydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Minor) Chronic therapy with barbiturates can increase the metabolism and decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. During acute overdoses, barbiturates can enhance the formation of toxic acetaminophen metabolites.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Benzphetamine: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of sympathomimetics. Dosages of sympathomimetics should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Benztropine: (Moderate) CNS depressants, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, can increase the sedative effects of benztropine.
    Beta-adrenergic blockers: (Major) General anesthetics can potentiate the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers and can produce prolonged hypotension.
    Bicalutamide: (Moderate) Bicalutamide is metabolized by CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 activity and will decrease the plasma concentrations of bicalutamide.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Minor) Barbiturates may decrease the half-life and plasma concentrations of metronidazole. The clinical significance of this effect is uncertain.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur. (Minor) Barbiturates may decrease the half-life and plasma concentrations of metronidazole. The clinical significance of this effect is uncertain.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) Because bortezomib undergoes significant metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system, induction of CYP450 enzymes by the barbiturates may increase the clearance and metabolism of this drug and may result in decreased therapeutic effects.
    Brexpiprazole: (Major) Because brexpiprazole is partially metabolized by CYP3A4, the manufacturer recommends that the brexpiprazole dose be doubled over 1 to 2 weeks when strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates and primidone, are added to brexpiprazole therapy. If these agents are used in combination, the patient should be carefully monitored for a decrease in brexpiprazole efficacy. When the CYP3A4 inducer is withdrawn from the combination therapy, the brexpiprazole dose should be reduced over 1 to 2 weeks to the original level.
    Brimonidine: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of the anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics including barbiturates.
    Brimonidine; Brinzolamide: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of the anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics including barbiturates.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of the anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics including barbiturates.
    Brivaracetam: (Minor) Plasma concentrations of brivaracetam may decrease during co-administration with barbiturates. A 19% decrease in the plasma concentration of brivaracetam was observed during co-administration with phenobarbital; however, no dose adjustment is recommended for brivaracetam during concomitant therapy.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as brompheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as brompheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as brompheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as brompheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as brompheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as brompheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Bupivacaine Liposomal: (Minor) Bupivacaine is metabolized by CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce these isoenzymes and if given concurrently with bupivacaine may decrease the efficacy of bupivacaine.
    Bupivacaine: (Minor) Bupivacaine is metabolized by CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce these isoenzymes and if given concurrently with bupivacaine may decrease the efficacy of bupivacaine.
    Bupivacaine; Lidocaine: (Minor) Bupivacaine is metabolized by CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce these isoenzymes and if given concurrently with bupivacaine may decrease the efficacy of bupivacaine.
    Buprenorphine: (Moderate) Close monitoring of the patient is recommended if a CYP3A4 inducer is used with buprenorphine. Inducers of CYP3A4 such as phenobarbital may induce the hepatic metabolism of buprenorphine, which may lead to opiate withdrawal or inadequate pain control. It is likely that all barbiturates exert the same effect as phenobarbital. This interaction is most significant if the enzyme-inducing agent is added after buprenorphine therapy has begun. Buprenorphine doses may need to be increased if any of these agents are added. Conversely, buprenorphine doses may need to be decreased if these drugs are discontinued. Additive CNS depression may be the more important issue initially when barbiturates are given with buprenorphine; the induction of buprenorphine metabolism may take several days. Prior to concurrent use of buprenorphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted. It is recommended that the injectable buprenorphine dose be halved for patients who receive other drugs with CNS depressant effects; for the buprenorphine transdermal patch, start with the 5 mcg/hour patch. Monitor patients for sedation or respiratory depression.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Close monitoring of the patient is recommended if a CYP3A4 inducer is used with buprenorphine. Inducers of CYP3A4 such as phenobarbital may induce the hepatic metabolism of buprenorphine, which may lead to opiate withdrawal or inadequate pain control. It is likely that all barbiturates exert the same effect as phenobarbital. This interaction is most significant if the enzyme-inducing agent is added after buprenorphine therapy has begun. Buprenorphine doses may need to be increased if any of these agents are added. Conversely, buprenorphine doses may need to be decreased if these drugs are discontinued. Additive CNS depression may be the more important issue initially when barbiturates are given with buprenorphine; the induction of buprenorphine metabolism may take several days. Prior to concurrent use of buprenorphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted. It is recommended that the injectable buprenorphine dose be halved for patients who receive other drugs with CNS depressant effects; for the buprenorphine transdermal patch, start with the 5 mcg/hour patch. Monitor patients for sedation or respiratory depression.
    Bupropion: (Moderate) Bupropion may interact with drugs that induce hepatic microsomal isoenzyme function via CYP2B6 such as the barbiturates. While not systematically studied, these drugs may induce the metabolism of bupropion and may decrease bupropion exposure. If bupropion is used concomitantly with a CYP inducer, it may be necessary to increase the dose of bupropion, but the maximum recommended dose should not be exceeded. Advise patients that until they are reasonably certain that the combination does not adversely affect their performance, they should refrain from driving an automobile or operating complex, hazardous machinery.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Bupropion may interact with drugs that induce hepatic microsomal isoenzyme function via CYP2B6 such as the barbiturates. While not systematically studied, these drugs may induce the metabolism of bupropion and may decrease bupropion exposure. If bupropion is used concomitantly with a CYP inducer, it may be necessary to increase the dose of bupropion, but the maximum recommended dose should not be exceeded. Advise patients that until they are reasonably certain that the combination does not adversely affect their performance, they should refrain from driving an automobile or operating complex, hazardous machinery.
    Buspirone: (Major) Substances that are potent inducers of hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4, such as barbiturates, may increase the rate of buspirone metabolism. If a patient has been titrated to a stable dosage on buspirone, a dose adjustment of buspirone may be necessary to maintain anxiolytic effect. There is also a risk of additive CNS depression when buspirone is given concomitantly with barbiturates.
    Butorphanol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of butorphanol with other CNS depressants, such as barbiturates, can potentiate the effects of butorphanol on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Caffeine: (Minor) The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration. (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Caffeine; Ergotamine: (Minor) The metabolism of caffeine can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Calcifediol: (Moderate) Dose adjustment of calcifediol may be necessary during coadministration with barbiturates. Additionally, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact PTH, and calcium concentrations should be closely monitored if a patient initiates or discontinues therapy with barbiturates. Barbiturates stimulate microsomal hydroxylation and reduce the half-life of calcifediol. In rare cases, this has caused anticonvulsant-induced rickets and osteomalacia.
    Calcitriol: (Moderate) Barbiturates can decrease the activity of vitamin D by increasing its metabolism. In rare cases, this has caused anticonvulsant-induced rickets and osteomalacia. Vitamin D supplementation may be required in patients with inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D who are receiving chronic treatment with barbiturates.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cannabidiol and methohexital. CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of cannabidiol.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate hepatic metabolism of carbamazepine due to induction of hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. Carbamazepine serum concentrations should be monitored closely if a barbiturate is added or discontinued during therapy.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors, like entacapone or tolcapone, should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression due to the possibility of additive sedation. Agents that may cause additive sedation when given concurrently with tolcapone include the barbiturates. The risk for adverse effects may increase, and patients should use caution in driving or other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as carbinoxamine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as carbinoxamine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as carbinoxamine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as carbinoxamine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as carbinoxamine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as carbinoxamine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Cardiac glycosides: (Moderate) Hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, such as barbiturates, can accelerate the metabolism of digoxin, decreasing its serum concentrations. It is recommended that digoxin concentrations be monitored if used with barbiturates.
    Cariprazine: (Major) Cariprazine and its active metabolites are extensively metabolized by CYP3A4. Concurrent use of cariprazine with CYP3A4 inducers, such as primidone or barbiturates, has not been evaluated and is not recommended because the net effect on active drug and metabolites is unclear. In addition, due to the CNS effects of cariprazine, caution should be used when cariprazine is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications including benzodiazepines and other anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with barbiturates should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with barbiturates should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Cevimeline: (Moderate) Inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 and/or CYP 2D6, such as the barbiturates, may cause a reduction in cevimeline plasma concentrations.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as dexchlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorambucil: (Minor) Barbiturates appear to increase the hepatic activation of chlorambucil to its active metabolite than to inactive metabolite. Clinicians should be alert for a potential increase in chlorambucil related activity and/or toxicity.
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) Chloramphenicol inhibits the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system and can affect the hepatic metabolism of phenobarbital. Phenobarbital levels rise modestly. It is also possible that plasma concentrations of chloramphenicol can be reduced by concomitant use of barbiturates, agents that are known to stimulate hepatic microsomal enzymes responsible for chloramphenicol metabolism.
    Chlordiazepoxide: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of chlordiazepoxide. Chlordiazepoxide is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of chlordiazepoxide. Chlordiazepoxide is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Chloroprocaine: (Major) If epinephrine is added to chloroprocaine, do not use the mixture in a patient during or following treatment with general anesthetics. Concurrent use has been associated with the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and should be avoided, if possible.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when dihydrocodeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with a barbiturate can decrease dihydrocodeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased dihydromorphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of dihydrocodeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of dihydrocodeine. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when dihydrocodeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with a barbiturate can decrease dihydrocodeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased dihydromorphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of dihydrocodeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of dihydrocodeine. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Cinacalcet: (Moderate) Coadministration of cinacalcet with a CYP3A4 enzyme inducer, such as a barbiturate, may result in a decreased effect of cinacalcet.
    Cisatracurium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Citalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in citalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, citalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as clemastine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Clobazam: (Moderate) Concomitant of clobazam with other CNS-depressant drugs including barbiturates can potentiate the CNS effects (i.e., increased sedation or respiratory depression) of either agent. The primary metabolic pathway of clobazam is CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6. Metabolism of N-desmethylclobazam occurs primarily through CYP2C19. Results of a population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that concurrent use of phenobarbital, a CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 inducer, did not significantly alter the kinetics of clobazam or its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam at steady-state. It should be noted that because clobazam is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, induction of one pathway may not appreciably increase its clearance.
    Clonazepam: (Moderate) Monitoring of clonazepam concentrations or dosage adjustment may be necessary if used concurrently with barbiturates due to decreased clonazepam concentrations. Clonazepam concentration decreases of approximately 38% have been reported when clonazepam is used with strong CYP3A4 inducers. Clonazepam is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may also occur.
    Clorazepate: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of N-desmethyldiazepam, the active metabolite of clorazepate. N-desmethyldiazepam is a CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 inducers.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Patients on certain anticonvulsant therapies should receive clozapine with caution. Clozapine may interact with anticonvulsants in several ways; concurrent use of clozapine in patients on antiepileptic medications is not recommended in seizures that are not well controlled. Clozapine lowers the seizure threshold in a dose-dependent manner and thus may induce seizures; dosage adjustments of clozapine should be cautious. CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6 isoenzymes metabolize clozapine; anticonvulsant drugs known to induce one or more of these isoenzymes include barbiturates. Clinicians should monitor for reduced clozapine effectiveness during concurrent use of anticonvulsants that are weak to moderate CYP inducers. Additive sedation may be noted initially with concurrent clozapine and barbiturate use; enzyme induction by barbiturates takes several days to become clinically apparent.
    Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of codeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with a barbiturate can decrease codeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased morphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of codeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties.
    COMT inhibitors: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors, like entacapone or tolcapone, should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression due to the possibility of additive sedation. Agents that may cause additive sedation when given concurrently with tolcapone include the barbiturates. The risk for adverse effects may increase, and patients should use caution in driving or other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Conjugated Estrogens: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Cyclophosphamide: (Minor) Use caution if cyclophosphamide is used concomitantly with barbiturates, and monitor for a possible increase in cyclophosphamide-related adverse events. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug that is hydroxylated and activated primarily by CYP2B6; the contribution of CYP3A4 to the activation of cyclophosphamide is variable. N-dechloroethylation to therapeutically inactive but neurotoxic metabolites occurs primarily via CYP3A4. Additional isoenzymes involved in the activation of cyclophosphamide include CYP2C9 and 2C19. The active metabolites, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and aldophosphamide, are inactivated by aldehyde dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers, as well as inducers of CYP2C9 and 2C19. It is not yet clear what effects CYP450 inducers have on the activation and/or toxicity of cyclophosphamide; the production of active or neurotoxic metabolites may be increased.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Phenobarbital may induce cyclosporine metabolism, thereby increasing the clearance of cyclosporine. It is likely that other barbiturates would interact similarly with cyclosporine; however no supportive data are available. If phenobarbital is added to an existing cyclosporine regimen, monitor cyclosporine concentrations closely to avoid loss of clinical efficacy until a new steady-state concentration is achieved. Conversely, if phenobarbital is discontinued, cyclosporine concentrations could increase.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with cyproheptadine.
    Darifenacin: (Minor) Barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital or primidone) may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of darifenacin. The dosage requirements of darifenacin may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concurrent use of ritonavir with phenobarbital or other barbiturates should be done cautiously. Increased doses of anticonvulsants may be required due metabolism induction by ritonavir. However, since these anticonvulsants are hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, increased metabolism of protease inhibitors may occur, leading to decreased antiretroviral efficacy. Close monitoring of drug concentrations and/or therapeutic and adverse effects is required.
    Delavirdine: (Major) Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of delavirdine, lead to substantial reductions in delavirdine concentrations and efficacy. The manufacturer recommends that delavirdine not be given with barbiturates when used as anticonvulsants due to the potential for subtherapeutic antiretroviral activity and the subsequent possibility for the development of resistant mutations of HIV. In addition, delavirdine may inhibit the metabolism of the barbiturates. If used concomitantly, the patient should be observed for changes in the clinical efficacy and concentrations of the antiretroviral and anticonvulsant regimens.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Advise patients that concurrent use of deutetrabenazine and drugs that can cause CNS depression, such as barbiturates, may have additive effects and worsen drowsiness or sedation.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as dexchlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are co-used with sedating antihistamines, such as dexchlorpheniramine. Monitor for additive CNS and respiratory effects, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Dexlansoprazole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of dexlansoprazole with barbiturates because it may result in decreased efficacy of dexlansoprazole. Dexlansoprazole is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Co-administration of dexmedetomidine with barbiturates is likely to lead to an enhancement of CNS depression.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of dextroamphetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Quinidine is eliminated primarily via hepatic metabolism, primarily by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. Administration of other hepatic enzyme inducers, such as barbiturates, can accelerate quinidine elimination and decrease its serum concentrations. Phenobarbital may decrease quinidine half-life and corresponding AUC by about 50 to 60%. Quinidine concentrations should be monitored closely after one of these agents is added. No special precautions appear necessary if these agents are begun several weeks before quinidine is added but quinidine doses may require adjustment if one of these agents is added or discontinued during quinidine therapy.
    Diazepam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of diazepam. Diazepam is a CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 inducers.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering diclofenac with inducers of CYP2C9, such as barbiturates. When used together, the systemic exposure to diclofenac (a CYP2C9 substrate) may decrease, potentially resulting in impaired efficacy. Higher diclofenac doses may be needed. In addition, phenobarbital toxicity has been reported to have occurred in a patient on chronic phenobarbital treatment after diclofenac initiation.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering diclofenac with inducers of CYP2C9, such as barbiturates. When used together, the systemic exposure to diclofenac (a CYP2C9 substrate) may decrease, potentially resulting in impaired efficacy. Higher diclofenac doses may be needed. In addition, phenobarbital toxicity has been reported to have occurred in a patient on chronic phenobarbital treatment after diclofenac initiation.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Diethylstilbestrol, DES: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when dihydrocodeine is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with a barbiturate can decrease dihydrocodeine concentrations, resulting in less metabolism by CYP2D6 and decreased dihydromorphine concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of dihydrocodeine and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of dihydrocodeine.
    Diltiazem: (Major) Diltiazem is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration of diltiazem with known CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, may significantly decrease the bioavailability of diltiazem. When possible, avoid coadministration of these drugs and consider alternative therapy. When an alternative therapy is not possible, patients should be monitored for the desired cardiovascular effects on heart rate, chest pain, or blood pressure.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with dimenhydrinate.
    Diphenhydramine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) Hepatic microsomal enzyme-inducing agents, such as barbiturates, have the potential to accelerate the hepatic metabolism of disopyramide, a CYP3A4 substrate. Serum disopyramide concentrations should be monitored closely if hepatic enzyme inducers are either added or discontinued during disopyramide therapy.
    Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) The elimination of donepezil may be increased by concurrent administration of moderate to strong inducers of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, such as barbiturates (including primidone). The clinical effect of this interaction on the efficacy of donepezil has not been determined. Observe patients for evidence of reduced donepezil efficacy if these agents are prescribed concurrently.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) The elimination of donepezil may be increased by concurrent administration of moderate to strong inducers of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, such as barbiturates (including primidone). The clinical effect of this interaction on the efficacy of donepezil has not been determined. Observe patients for evidence of reduced donepezil efficacy if these agents are prescribed concurrently.
    Doxacurium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Doxazosin: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and alpha-blockers increases the risk of developing hypotension and hypothermia.
    Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) Although these interactions have not been specifically studied, hepatic enzyme inducers, such as barbiturates, may affect the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol and may necessitate dosage adjustments of doxercalciferol.
    Doxorubicin: (Major) Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3A4. Inducers of CYP3A4 may decrease the concentration of doxorubicin and compromise the efficacy of chemotherapy. Avoid coadministration of barbiturates and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, monitor doxorubicin closely for efficacy.
    Doxycycline: (Major) Phenobarbital has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline. Doxycycline half-life was decreased from 15.3 hours to 11.1 hours. It is likely that other barbiturates may exert the same effect. Clinicians should keep in mind that larger doses of doxycycline may be necessary in patients receiving barbiturates. This interaction may not apply to other tetracyclines since they are less dependent on hepatic metabolism for elimination.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) Because doxylamine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) Because doxylamine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with barbiturates is necessary, and monitor for an increase in barbiturate-related adverse reactions and a decrease in the efficacy of dronabinol. Additive dizziness, confusion, somnolence, and other CNS effects may also occur. Dronabinol is a CYP2C9 and 3A4 substrate; barbiturates are moderate or strong (phenobarbital) inducers of CYP3A4; additionally phenobarbital is a moderate CYP2C9 inducer. Concomitant use may result in decreased plasma concentrations of dronabinol. Decreased clearance of barbiturates has also been reported with dronabinol use, possibly by competitive inhibition of metabolism. Published data show an increase in the elimination half-life of pentobarbital by 4 hours when concomitantly dosed with dronabinol.
    Dronedarone: (Major) The concomitant use of dronedarone and CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided. Dronedarone is metabolized by CYP3A. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, with dronedarone may result in reduced plasma concentration and subsequent reduced effectiveness of dronedarone therapy.
    Droperidol: (Major) Central nervous system depressants, such as barbiturates, have additive or potentiating effects with droperidol. Following administration of droperidol, lower doses of the other CNS depressant should be used.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Dyphylline: (Moderate) Methylxanthines and inhaled general anesthetics have been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Concurrent use may increase the risk of such effects including cardiac arrhythmias.
    Dyphylline; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Methylxanthines and inhaled general anesthetics have been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Concurrent use may increase the risk of such effects including cardiac arrhythmias.
    Efavirenz: (Major) Complex interactions may occur when barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital) are administered to patients receiving treatment for HIV infection; if treating seizure disorder, a different anticonvulsant should be used whenever possible. If a barbiturate must be used in a patient being treated for HIV, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy and seizure control; appropriate dose adjustments to the barbiturate or the antiretroviral medications are unknown. The combination regimens used to treat HIV often include substrates, inducers, and inhibitors of several CYP isoenzymes. Efavirenz is a substrate and inducer of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Phenobarbital is an inducer of CYP3A4, and a substrate and inducer of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Use caution if these drugs are to be coadministered, with increased monitoring of both efavirenz and barbiturate concentrations.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Major) Complex interactions may occur when barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital) are administered to patients receiving treatment for HIV infection; if treating seizure disorder, a different anticonvulsant should be used whenever possible. If a barbiturate must be used in a patient being treated for HIV, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy and seizure control; appropriate dose adjustments to the barbiturate or the antiretroviral medications are unknown. The combination regimens used to treat HIV often include substrates, inducers, and inhibitors of several CYP isoenzymes. Efavirenz is a substrate and inducer of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Phenobarbital is an inducer of CYP3A4, and a substrate and inducer of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Use caution if these drugs are to be coadministered, with increased monitoring of both efavirenz and barbiturate concentrations.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Complex interactions may occur when barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital) are administered to patients receiving treatment for HIV infection; if treating seizure disorder, a different anticonvulsant should be used whenever possible. If a barbiturate must be used in a patient being treated for HIV, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy and seizure control; appropriate dose adjustments to the barbiturate or the antiretroviral medications are unknown. The combination regimens used to treat HIV often include substrates, inducers, and inhibitors of several CYP isoenzymes. Efavirenz is a substrate and inducer of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Phenobarbital is an inducer of CYP3A4, and a substrate and inducer of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Use caution if these drugs are to be coadministered, with increased monitoring of both efavirenz and barbiturate concentrations.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Severe) Concurrent administration of barbiturates with elbasvir; grazoprevir is contraindicated. Barbiturates are strong CYP3A inducers, while both elbasvir and grazoprevir are substrates of CYP3A. Use of these drugs together is expected to significantly decrease the plasma concentrations of both elbasvir and grazoprevir, and may result in decreased virologic response.
    Eltrombopag: (Moderate) Eltrombopag is metabolized by CYP1A2. The significance of administering inducers of CYP1A2, such as barbiturates, on the systemic exposure of eltrombopag has not been established. Monitor patients for a decrease in the efficacy of eltrombopag if these drugs are coadministered.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Major) Inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., barbiturates) can decrease exposure to linagliptin to subtherapeutic and likely ineffective concentrations. For patients requiring use of such drugs, an alternative to linagliptin is strongly recommended.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Major) Barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, primidone) may significantly reduce systemic exposure of felodipine; consider alternative therapy. If coadministration is necessary, monitor the patient closely for desired cardiovascular effects on heart rate, blood pressure, or chest pain. Felodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate, and these anticonvulsants are potent CYP3A4 inducers. In a pharmacokinetic study, felodipine's Cmax was considerably lower in epileptic patients on long-term anticonvulsant therapy than in healthy volunteers. In these patients, the mean AUC was reduced approximately 6% of that observed in healthy adults.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Entacapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors, like entacapone or tolcapone, should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression due to the possibility of additive sedation. Agents that may cause additive sedation when given concurrently with tolcapone include the barbiturates. The risk for adverse effects may increase, and patients should use caution in driving or other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Ephedrine: (Major) General anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of sympathomimetics, including ephedrine.
    Epinephrine: (Major) General anesthetics are known to increase cardiac irritability via myocardial sensitization to catecholamines. These anesthetics can produce ventricular arrhythmias and/or hypertension when used concomitantly with epinephrine.
    Eplerenone: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Erdafitinib: (Major) If coadministration of erdafitinib and methohexital is necessary at the initiation of erdafitinib therapy, administer the dose of erdafitinib as recommended (8 mg once daily with potential to increase the dose to 9 mg on days 14 to 21 based on phosphate levels and tolerability). If methohexital must be added to erdafitinib therapy after the initial dose increase period (days 14 to 21), increase the dose of erdafitinib up to 9 mg. If methohexital is discontinued, continue erdafitinib at the same dose in the absence of drug-related toxicity. Erdafitinib is a CYP3A4 substrate and methohexital is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Erlotinib: (Moderate) There may be a risk of reduced erlotinib efficacy when coadministered with methohexital; however, the risk has not been clearly defined. If coadministration is necessary, consider increasing the erlotinib dose by 50 mg increments at 2-week intervals as tolerated, to a maximum of 450 mg. Erlotinib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2. Methohexital is a CYP3A4 and 1A2 inducer. Coadministration may decrease plasma concentrations of erlotinib.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Esketamine: (Major) Closely monitor patients receiving esketamine and barbiturates for sedation and other CNS depressant effects. Instruct patients who receive a dose of esketamine not to drive or engage in other activities requiring alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the metabolism of eslicarbazepine resulting in decreased plasma concentrations of and potentially reduced efficacy of eslicarbazepine. An increased dose of eslicarbazepine may be necessary if these drugs are coadministered.
    Esomeprazole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of esomeprazole with barbiturates because it can result in decreased efficacy of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid coadministration of esomeprazole with barbiturates because it can result in decreased efficacy of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
    Estazolam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of estazolam. Estazolam is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Esterified Estrogens: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estradiol: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estradiol; Progesterone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estrogens: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Estropipate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Eszopiclone: (Major) Barbiturates are potent inducers of CYP3A4 may increase the rate of eszopiclone metabolism. Additive CNS depression may also occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with eszopiclone. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of eszopiclone and any barbiturate; dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Ethanol: (Major) Alcohol is associated with CNS depression. The combined use of alcohol and CNS depressants can lead to additive CNS depression, which could be dangerous in tasks requiring mental alertness and fatal in overdose. Alcohol taken with other CNS depressants can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs when prescribing CNS depressant medications. In many cases, the patient should receive a lower dose of the CNS depressant initially if the patient is not likely to be compliant with avoiding alcohol.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Ethosuximide: (Moderate) Barbiturates induce hepatic microsomal enzymes and increase the hepatic metabolism of ethosuximide, leading to a decrease in ethosuximide plasma concentrations and half-life. To maintain a therapeutic dosage, serum concentrations of ethosuximide should be measured, especially if barbiturate therapy is added to or withdrawn from ethosuximide therapy.
    Etoposide, VP-16: (Major) Monitor for clinical efficacy of etoposide, VP-16 when coadministered with methohexital, as concomitant use may be associated with increased etoposide clearance and reduced efficacy. Barbiturates, such as methohexital, induce CYP3A4; etoposide is a CYP3A4 substrate. The clinical relevance of this interaction may be low due to the short-term use of methohexital in clinical practice.
    Ezetimibe; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when barbiturates are co-administered with simvastatin, which is metabolized by CYP3A4.
    Felodipine: (Major) Barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, primidone) may significantly reduce systemic exposure of felodipine; consider alternative therapy. If coadministration is necessary, monitor the patient closely for desired cardiovascular effects on heart rate, blood pressure, or chest pain. Felodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate, and these anticonvulsants are potent CYP3A4 inducers. In a pharmacokinetic study, felodipine's Cmax was considerably lower in epileptic patients on long-term anticonvulsant therapy than in healthy volunteers. In these patients, the mean AUC was reduced approximately 6% of that observed in healthy adults.
    Fenoprofen: (Minor) Phenobarbital and possibly other barbiturates can decrease the plasma concentrations and half-life of fenoprofen. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established, but dosage adjustments of fenoprofen may be necessary with concurrent administration of phenobarbital or following initiation or withdrawal of the drug.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Concomitant use of fentanyl with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of fentanyl with a barbiturate may decrease fentanyl plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; fentanyl is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Flibanserin: (Major) The concomitant use of flibanserin with CYP3A4 inducers significantly decreases flibanserin exposure compared to the use of flibanserin alone. Therefore, concurrent use of flibanserin and phenobarbital or other barbiturates, which are strong CYP3A4 inducers, is not recommended.
    Fluconazole: (Minor) Barbiturates induce hepatic CYP enzymes including 3A4, 2C19 and 2C9 and may reduce effective serum concentrations of fluconazole. Be alert for lack of efficacy of fluconazole in concurrent use.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine is metabolized by the CYP1A2 hepatic microsomal isoenzyme, and inducers of this enzyme such as barbiturates, may increase olanzapine clearance. The clinical effect of this interaction is thought to be minimal; however, the clinician should be alert for reduced olanzapine effect if the drugs are coadministered. Additive effects are possible when olanzapine is combined with other drugs which cause respiratory depression and/or CNS depression. Barbiturates can cause CNS depression, and if used concomitantly with olanzapine, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension.
    Food: (Moderate) The incidence of marijuana associated adverse effects may change following coadministration with barbiturates. Barbiturates are inducers of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, two isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of marijuana's most psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC). When given concurrently with barbiturates, the amount of Delta-9-THC converted to the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) may be increased. These changes in Delta-9-THC and 11-OH-THC plasma concentrations may result in an altered marijuana adverse event profile.
    Fosamprenavir: (Major) Coadministration with phenobarbital and, potentially, other barbiturates may increase the metabolism of fosamprenavir and lead to decreased fosamprenavir concentrations resulting in reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and development of viral resistance. If fosamprenavir and barbiturates are used together, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of galantamine during concurrent use of barbiturates. Galantamine is a substrate for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The effectiveness of the drug could theoretically be reduced by the concomitant administration of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as barbiturates.
    Gallium Ga 68 Dotatate: (Minor) Mannitol promotes the urinary excretion of barbiturates, and it may be used as an adjunct in patients with barbiturate toxicity.
    General anesthetics: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if general anesthetics are used concomitantly with barbiturates.
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) Patients receiving general anesthetics should be observed for exaggerated effects if they are receiving gentamicin.
    Glimepiride: (Minor) Barbiturates may induce the CYP2C9 metabolism of glimepiride. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored and possible dose adjustments of glimepiride may need to be made.
    Glimepiride; Pioglitazone: (Minor) Barbiturates may induce the CYP2C9 metabolism of glimepiride. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored and possible dose adjustments of glimepiride may need to be made.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Minor) Barbiturates may induce the CYP2C9 metabolism of glimepiride. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored and possible dose adjustments of glimepiride may need to be made.
    Green Tea: (Minor) Some green tea products contain caffeine. The metabolism of xanthines, such as caffeine, can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by caffeine administration.
    Griseofulvin: (Minor) Barbiturates can impair the oral absorption of griseofulvin, resulting in decreased serum concentrations and, potentially, decreased antifungal efficacy. The clinical significance of this interaction is uncertain, but the manufacturer recommends that these drugs not be co-administered.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Guarana: (Minor) The metabolism of xanthines, such as caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, which are all found in guarana, can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. The hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by guarana administration.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Haloperidol can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants such as barbiturates. Caution should be exercised with simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects.
    Hemin: (Major) Hemin works by inhibiting the enzyme (delta)-aminolevulinic acid synthetase. Drugs which increase the activity of this enzyme, such as barbiturates should not be used with hemin.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydantoins: (Moderate) Barbiturates can stimulate the hydroxylating enzyme that metabolizes phenytoin or, conversely, may inhibit phenytoin (or fosphenytoin) metabolism. In general, therapeutic doses of phenobarbital induce the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin, producing lower phenytoin serum concentrations. Large doses of phenobarbital, however, tend to increase phenytoin serum concentrations due to competition for hepatic pathways. Thus, phenytoin serum concentrations can increase, decrease, or not change during concomitant therapy with barbiturates. Conversely, phenytoin can increase serum concentrations of the barbiturate, however this has not been as well studied. Similar interactions may occur with ethotoin, although specific data are lacking.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics. (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics. (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Hydromorphone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydromorphone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Hydroxyzine: (Major) Because hydroxyzine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including barbiturates.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Barbiturates can cause CNS depression, and if used concomitantly with iloperidone, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. In theory, the use of barbiturates and iloperidone may also result in an increase in iloperidone elimination as a result of the CYP inducing effects of barbiturates.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Imatinib: (Major) Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and may increase the metabolism of imatinib and decrease imatinib concentrations and clinical effects. Caution is recommended when imatinib is given in combination with barbiturates.
    Indinavir: (Major) Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of indinavir and lead to decreased antiretroviral efficacy. In addition, indinavir may inhibit the CYP metabolism of barbiturates, resulting in increased barbiturate concentrations. Appropriate dose adjustments necessary to ensure optimum levels of both anti-retroviral agent and the barbiturate are unknown. Anticonvulsant serum concentrations should be monitored closely if these agents are added; the patient should be observed for changes in the clinical efficacy of the antiretroviral or anticonvulsant regimen.
    Insulins: (Minor) The risk of developing hypothermia is increased when methohexital is used with hypothermia-producing agents such as ethanol, insulins, phenothiazines, or other general anesthetics.
    Isoproterenol: (Major) Both isoproterenol and general anesthetics sensitize myocardial tissue to the development of potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Concomitant use of isoproterenol with general anesthetics can increase the risk of developing this adverse reaction.
    Isradipine: (Major) Because isradipine is a substrate of CYP3A4, the concomitant use of drugs that strongly induce CYP3A4, such as barbiturates, may cause a reduction in the bioavailability and thus decreased therapeutic effect of isradipine. Consider alternative therapy; if co-use is necessary, patients should be monitored for potential loss of therapeutic effect when hepatic enzyme inducers are added to isradipine therapy.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Use of barbiturates is not recommended for 2 weeks before or during itraconazole therapy. Barbiturates induce hepatic CYP enzymes including 3A4, 2C19 and 2C9 and may reduce effective serum concentrations of itraconazole. Monitor for breakthrough fungal infections.
    Ivabradine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ivabradine and barbiturates including primidone. Ivabradine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; barbiturates induce CYP3A4. Coadministration may decrease the plasma concentrations of ivabradine resulting in the potential for treatment failure.
    Ixabepilone: (Major) Ixabepilone is a CYP3A4 substrate and concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers such as barbiturates may lead to reduced and subtherapeutic concentrations of ixabepilone. Caution should be utilized when CYP3A4 inducers are coadministered with ixabepilone, and alternative therapies with low enzyme induction potential should be considered.
    Kava Kava, Piper methysticum: (Major) Any substances that act on the CNS, including barbiturates, may interact with kava kava. Patients taking barbiturates should avoid use of this herb.
    Ketoconazole: (Minor) Barbiturates induce hepatic CYP enzymes including 3A4, 2C19 and 2C9 and may reduce effective serum concentrations of ketoconazole. Clinicians should be alert for lack of efficacy of these antifungals in concurrent use.
    Lansoprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of lansoprazole if concomitant use of lansoprazole and barbiturates is necessary. Lansoprazole is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Drugs known to induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 may lead to decreased lansoprazole plasma concentrations.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of lansoprazole if concomitant use of lansoprazole and barbiturates is necessary. Lansoprazole is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Drugs known to induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 may lead to decreased lansoprazole plasma concentrations.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Barbiturates may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic effect of lesinurad; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Barbiturates induce the CYP2C9 isoenzyme, and lesinurad is a CYP2C9 substrate.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Barbiturates may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic effect of lesinurad; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Barbiturates induce the CYP2C9 isoenzyme, and lesinurad is a CYP2C9 substrate.
    Leucovorin: (Minor) Limited data suggest that leucovorin and levoleucovorin may interfere with the activity of anticonvulsants such as barbiturates. Folic acid can decrease serum concentrations of anticonvulsants in children. Leucovorin shares metabolic pathways with folic acid. Clinicians should consider careful monitoring of patients.
    Levobupivacaine: (Minor) Barbiturates may induce the metabolism of levobupivacaine resulting in a decreased serum half-life. Dosage adjustments of levobupivacaine may be necessary.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with barbiturates should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Levoleucovorin: (Minor) Limited data suggest that leucovorin and levoleucovorin may interfere with the activity of anticonvulsants such as barbiturates. Folic acid can decrease serum concentrations of anticonvulsants in children. Leucovorin shares metabolic pathways with folic acid. Clinicians should consider careful monitoring of patients.
    Levorphanol: (Major) Concomitant use of levorphanol with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Reduce the initial dose of levorphanol by approximately 50% or more. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Linagliptin: (Major) Inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., barbiturates) can decrease exposure to linagliptin to subtherapeutic and likely ineffective concentrations. For patients requiring use of such drugs, an alternative to linagliptin is strongly recommended.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Major) Inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., barbiturates) can decrease exposure to linagliptin to subtherapeutic and likely ineffective concentrations. For patients requiring use of such drugs, an alternative to linagliptin is strongly recommended.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of lisdexamfetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Because lithium has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills, caution is advisable during concurrent use of other medications with centrally-acting effects including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor for additive sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and barbiturates. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants such as barbiturates. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or performing any other tasks requiring mental alertness until the effects of the combination are known. The use of barbiturates parenterally may cause vasodilation and an additive risk for hypotension and may lead to bradycardia and syncope; in these patients, careful monitoring of blood pressure should occur.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of lopinavir and lead to decreased antiretroviral efficacy. In addition, coadministration of lopinavir boosted with ritonavir may induce the CYP metabolism of barbiturates, resulting in decreased barbiturate concentrations. Appropriate dose adjustments necessary to ensure optimum levels of both anti-retroviral agent and the barbiturate are unknown; however, once daily lopinavir; ritonavir should not be used. Anticonvulsant serum concentrations should be monitored closely if these agents are added; the patient should be observed for changes in the clinical efficacy of the antiretroviral or anticonvulsant regimen. (Major) Concurrent use of ritonavir with phenobarbital or other barbiturates should be done cautiously. Increased doses of anticonvulsants may be required due metabolism induction by ritonavir. However, since these anticonvulsants are hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, increased metabolism of protease inhibitors may occur, leading to decreased antiretroviral efficacy. Close monitoring of drug concentrations and/or therapeutic and adverse effects is required.
    Lorazepam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur with concurrent use.
    Lorlatinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lorlatinib with methohexital due to the potential for serious hepatotoxicity; the efficacy of lorlatinib may also be decreased. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor AST, ALT, and bilirubin 48 hours after initiating lorlatinib and at least 3 times during the first week after initiating lorlatinib. Monitor for changes in clinical response to lorlatinib. Depending upon the relative importance of each drug, discontinue lorlatinib or methohexital for persistent Grade 2 or higher hepatotoxicity. Lorlatinib is a CYP3A4 substrate and methohexital is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Severe hepatotoxicity occurred in healthy subjects receiving a single 100-mg dose of lorlatinib with multiple daily doses of a strong CYP3A4 inducer (n = 12); both drugs were also pregnane X receptor agonists (PXR). The effect of the concomitant use of moderate CYP3A inducers on lorlatinib pharmacokinetics or the risk of hepatotoxicity with the concomitant use of moderate CYP3A inducers is unknown.
    Lovastatin: (Moderate) Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when barbiturates are co-administered with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors metabolized by CYP3A4 including lovastatin.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when barbiturates are co-administered with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors metabolized by CYP3A4 including lovastatin.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Loxapine can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants, such as barbiturates. Caution should be exercised with simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects.
    Lurasidone: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Magnesium Salts: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as barbiturates. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mannitol: (Minor) Mannitol promotes the urinary excretion of barbiturates, and it may be used as an adjunct in patients with barbiturate toxicity.
    Maprotiline: (Major) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration maprotiline and barbiturates. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Mebendazole: (Moderate) Barbiturates induce hepatic microsomal enzymes and may increase the metabolism of mebendazole if given concomitantly. This effect can cause decreased levels of plasma mebendazole but is probably important only in the treatment of extraintestinal infections, such as hydatid cyst disease, and not in the treatment of intestinal helminths.
    Meclizine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with meclizine.
    Mefloquine: (Moderate) The barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and may increase the metabolism of mefloquine if coadministered. Concomitant administration can reduce the clinical efficacy of mefloquine, increasing the risk of Plasmodium falciparum resistance during treatment of malaria. Coadministration of mefloquine and anticonvulsants may also result in lower than expected anticonvulsant concentrations and loss of seizure control. Monitoring of the anticonvulsant serum concentration is recommended.
    Melatonin: (Major) Use caution when combining melatonin with other traditional sedatives and hypnotics, including the sedative barbiturates. Use of more than one agent for hypnotic purposes may increase the risk for over-sedation, CNS effects, or sleep-related behaviors. If a barbiturate is taken for seizure control, watch for changes in anticonvulsant activity. Be alert for unusual changes in moods or behaviors. Patients reporting unusual sleep-related behaviors likely should discontinue melatonin use. Additionally, melatonin exposure and efficacy may be reduced when combined with barbiturates such as phenobarbital, as barbiturates induce many CYP450 isoenzymes, including CYP1A2, the primary metabolic pathway for melatonin.
    Meperidine: (Major) Concomitant use of meperidine with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of meperidine with a barbiturate may decrease meperidine plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; meperidine is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of meperidine with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of meperidine with a barbiturate may decrease meperidine plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; meperidine is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Meprobamate: (Major) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with other anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics like meprobamate. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics and any barbiturate; dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Major) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of estrogens and progestins. As a result, the effectiveness of oral contraceptives or other hormonal contraceptives can be lost. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen or progestin containing contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). It may be prudent to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. For patients taking estrogens for other indications, like hormone replacement, a higher dose of estrogen may be required during barbiturate therapy.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Major) Coadministration of barbiturates and repaglinide may decrease the serum concentration of repaglinide; if coadministration is necessary, a dose increase of repaglinide may be necessary and increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers and repaglinide is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for the possibility of reduced effectiveness of repaglinide and possible symptoms indicating hyperglycemia.
    Methadone: (Major) Concomitant use of methadone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of methadone with a barbiturate may decrease methadone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates are inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19, isoenzymes partially responsible for the metabolism of methadone.
    Methazolamide: (Minor) Methazolamide can induce osteomalacia in patients treated chronically with barbiturates. Potential mechanisms for this interaction include a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor induced increase in the urinary excretion of calcium and an increase in barbiturate effects resulting from metabolic acidosis. Methazolamide can also increase the rate of excretion of weakly acidic drugs, such as barbiturates.
    Methocarbamol: (Moderate) Methocarbamol may cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants such as barbiturates. Dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) CNS depression can be increased when methscopolamine is combined with other CNS depressants such as any anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Methsuximide: (Moderate) Barbiturates induce hepatic microsomal enzymes and may increase the hepatic metabolism of succinimides. This may lead to a decrease in succinimide plasma concentration and a reduction in half-life.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Metoclopramide: (Minor) Combined use of metoclopramide and other CNS depressants, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, can increase possible sedation.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Metronidazole: (Minor) Barbiturates may decrease the half-life and plasma concentrations of metronidazole. The clinical significance of this effect is uncertain.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) Metyrapone may cause dizziness and/or drowsiness. Other drugs that may also cause drowsiness, such as barbiturates, should be used with caution. Additive drowsiness and/or dizziness is possible.
    Metyrosine: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of metyrosine with barbiturates can result in additive sedative effects.
    Mexiletine: (Moderate) While other hepatic enzyme inducers have been shown to accelerate the metabolism of mexiletine, no data are available regarding the effects of barbiturates on mexiletine. An interaction between barbiturates and mexiletine, however, may be possible.
    Midazolam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of midazolam. Midazolam is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Minocycline: (Minor) Injectable minocycline contains magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as barbiturates. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mirtazapine: (Major) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of mirtazapine and barbiturates. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Mitotane can cause sedation, lethargy, vertigo, and other CNS side effects. Concomitant administration of mitotane and CNS depressants may cause additive CNS effects. Mitotane should be used cautiously with other drugs that may cause CNS depression including barbiturates.
    Mivacurium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Modafinil: (Major) It is not clear how modafinil interacts with barbiturates like phenobarbital. Modafinil is partially metabolized by CYP3A4 and combined use with CYP3A4 inducers such as phenobarbital and other barbiturates may result in decreased modafinil efficacy. Barbiturates used for sleep could counteract the effect of modafinil on wakefulness, and would not ordinarily be prescribed. The potential effects of combining modafinil with anticonvulsant barbiturate medications are unclear. Many psychostimulants can reduce the seizure threshold, but it is not clear if modafinil can affect seizure control.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Severe) Patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may have an increased risk of hypotension after administration of general anesthetics, although specific studies are not available. Combined hypotensive effects are also possible with the combined use of MAOIs and spinal anesthetics. In general, MAOIs should be discontinued for at least 10 days prior to elective surgery.
    Morphine: (Major) Concomitant use of morphine with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. For extended-release morphine tablets (MS Contin and Morphabond), start with 15 mg every 12 hours. Morphine; naltrexone should be initiated at 1/3 to 1/2 the recommended starting dosage. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Major) Concomitant use of morphine with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. For extended-release morphine tablets (MS Contin and Morphabond), start with 15 mg every 12 hours. Morphine; naltrexone should be initiated at 1/3 to 1/2 the recommended starting dosage. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nabilone with other CNS depressants, like barbiturates, can potentiate the effects of nabilone on respiratory depression.
    Nalbuphine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with nalbuphine. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of nalbuphine and any barbiturate. Dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Nelfinavir: (Major) Coadministration with phenobarbital and, potentially, other barbiturates may increase the metabolism of nelfinavir and lead to decreased nelfinavir concentrations resulting in reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and development of viral resistance. If nelfinavir and barbiturates are used together, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy.
    Neratinib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of methohexital with neratinib due to decreased efficacy of neratinib. Neratinib is a CYP3A4 substrate and methohexital is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. The effect of moderate CYP3A4 induction on neratinib concentrations has not been studied; however, coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inducer decreased neratinib exposure by 87% and decreased exposure to active metabolites M6 and M7 by 37% to 49%. Because of the significant impact on neratinib exposure from strong CYP3A4 induction, the potential impact on neratinib efficacy from concomitant use with moderate CYP3A4 inducers should be considered as they may also significantly decrease neratinib exposure.
    Nesiritide, BNP: (Major) The potential for hypotension may be increased when coadministering nesiritide with other hypotensive drugs, including general anesthetics.
    Neuromuscular blockers: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Nevirapine: (Moderate) Coadministration of nevirapine with barbiturates, which induce the activity of CYP3A, would be expected to increase the clearance of nevirapine, thereby decreasing nevirapine plasma concentrations. However, since nevirapine also induces CYP3A enzymes, decreases in anticonvulsant serum concentrations may be noted with the possibility of new seizure activity. The appropriate drug-dose adjustments necessary to ensure optimum levels of both antiretroviral drugs and barbiturates are unknown. If used concomitantly, the patient should be observed for changes in the clinical efficacy and concentrations of the antiretroviral and anticonvulsant regimens.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when barbiturates are co-administered with simvastatin, which is metabolized by CYP3A4.
    Nicardipine: (Major) Patients should be monitored for loss of antihypertensive effect if CYP3A4 enzyme inducers like the barbiturates are added to nicardipine therapy. Rifampin is a potent hepatic enzyme inducer and has been shown to exert a substantial reduction of the oral bioavailability of some calcium channel blockers. This interaction should be considered with other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors including the barbiturates.
    Nifedipine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nifedipine with barbiturates and consider alternative therapy if possible. If coadministration is necessary, monitor the patient closely for desired cardiovascular effects on heart rate, blood pressure, or chest pain. The FDA-approved labeling for some nifedipine products contraindicates coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers, while other manufacturers warn avoidance of such inducers. Nifedipine is a CYP3A4 substrate, and barbiturates are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Coadministration of nifedipine with another strong CYP3A4 inducer reduced the AUC and Cmax of nifedipine by approximately 70%.
    Nimodipine: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Nintedanib: (Major) Avoid the use of barbiturates with nintedanib, as these drugs are expected to decrease the exposure of nintedanib and compromise its efficacy. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers and some barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, also induce P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In drug interaction studies, administration of a dual P-gp and CYP3A4 inducer with nintedanib decreased the AUC of nintedanib by 50%.
    Nisoldipine: (Major) Coadministration of nisoldipine with CYP3A4 inducers like the barbiturates should be avoided and alternative antihypertensive therapy should be considered. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inducer with nisoldipine in epileptic patients lowered the nisoldipine plasma concentrations to undetectable levels. Barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, primidone) may also decrease the oral bioavailability of nisoldipine via increased hepatic drug clearance.
    Norepinephrine: (Major) Norepinephrine interacts with general anesthetics because the anesthetics increase cardiac irritability, which can lead to arrhythmias.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine is metabolized by the CYP1A2 hepatic microsomal isoenzyme, and inducers of this enzyme such as barbiturates, may increase olanzapine clearance. The clinical effect of this interaction is thought to be minimal; however, the clinician should be alert for reduced olanzapine effect if the drugs are coadministered. Additive effects are possible when olanzapine is combined with other drugs which cause respiratory depression and/or CNS depression. Barbiturates can cause CNS depression, and if used concomitantly with olanzapine, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension.
    Olaparib: (Major) Avoid the coadministration of olaparib with methohexital due to decreased olaparib exposure; if concomitant use is unavoidable, there is a potential for decreased efficacy of olaparib. Olaparib is a CYP3A4 substrate and methohexital is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Coadministration with a moderate CYP3A inducer is predicted to decrease the AUC of olaparib by 60%.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concurrent use of ritonavir with phenobarbital or other barbiturates should be done cautiously. Increased doses of anticonvulsants may be required due metabolism induction by ritonavir. However, since these anticonvulsants are hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, increased metabolism of protease inhibitors may occur, leading to decreased antiretroviral efficacy. Close monitoring of drug concentrations and/or therapeutic and adverse effects is required.
    Omeprazole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of omeprazole with barbiturates because it can result in decreased efficacy of omeprazole. Omeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Avoid coadministration of omeprazole with barbiturates because it can result in decreased efficacy of omeprazole. Omeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
    Ondansetron: (Minor) Ondansetron elimination may be affected by cytochrome P-450 inducers. In a pharmacokinetic study of 16 patients with epilepsy who were maintained chronically on CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., barbiturates) a reduction in ondansetron AUC, Cmax, and half-life was observed, resulting in a significant increase in ondansetron clearance. However, these changes in ondansetron exposure are not thought to be clinically relevant; no dosage adjustment for ondansetron is recommended when CYP450 inducers are used concurrently.
    Oxazepam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur with concurrent use.
    Oxybutynin: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur when oxybutynin is used concomitantly with other CNS-depressant drugs, including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics. In addition, because oxybutynin is metabolized by CYP3A4, administration with drugs that induce CYP3A4 (such as barbiturates) may reduce the serum concentration and effects of oxybutynin. Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for reduced efficacy.
    Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Oxymorphone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxymorphone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Reduce the initial oxymorphone dosage by 1/3 to 1/2. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Oxytocin: (Major) Adverse cardiovascular effects can develop as a result of concomitant administration of oxytocin with general anesthetics.
    Paclitaxel: (Minor) Paclitaxel is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 2C8 and 3A4. Potential interactions may occur in vivo with any agent that induces CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 isoenzymes including barbiturates.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Avoid using a strong inducer of CYP3A4 if possible during the 1-month injectable dosing interval of Invega Sustenna or the 3-month injectable dosing interval of Invega Trinza. If use of a strong CYP3A4 inducer such as a barbiturate is required in patients receiving injectable paliperidone, consider management with oral paliperidone. Paliperidone is a P-gp substrate, with minor contributions in metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. A dosage increase of oral paliperidone may be required during coadministration of a strong inducer of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. However, concurrent use of oral paliperidone with a strong CYP3A4 inducer alone may not be clinically relevant since this isoenzyme contributes to only a small fraction of total body clearance of the drug. It should be noted that clinically significant barbiturate enzyme-induction occurs after several days and may not be clinically significant with short-term use of barbiturates.
    Pancuronium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Papaverine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of papaverine with potent CNS depressants such as barbiturates could lead to enhanced sedation.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Barbiturates may induce various hepatic CYP450 isoenzymes, including those responsible for the metabolism of paroxetine. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for reduced SSRI efficacy with concurrent administration of a barbiturate, especially in chronic use.
    Pentazocine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of pentazocine with other CNS depressants can potentiate respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation. Pentazocine should be used cautiously in any patient receiving these agents, which may include barbiturates.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of pentazocine with other CNS depressants can potentiate respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation. Pentazocine should be used cautiously in any patient receiving these agents, which may include barbiturates.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Major) Barbiturates may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of amlodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers; monitor blood pressure closely.
    Phenothiazines: (Moderate) Phenothiazines are CNS depressant drugs that may have cumulative effects when administered concurrently and they should be used cautiously with anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic type drugs, such as the barbiturates. Caution should be exercised during simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects or additive hypotension. Phenothiazines can also lower the seizure threshold, which may be important in patients taking a barbiturate for the treatment of seizures. Additionally, sleep-related behaviors, such as sleep-driving, are more likely to occur during concurrent use of other CNS depressants than with the use of sedatives alone. Monitor for additive effects, unusual moods or behaviors, and warn about the potential effects to driving and other activities.
    Phenoxybenzamine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and alpha-blockers increases the risk of developing hypotension and hypothermia.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Although topiramate is not extensively metabolized (70% renally eliminated), an interaction with barbiturates via hepatic isoenzyme activity is possible. In patients receiving either phenobarbital or primidone in combination with topiramate, there was a < 10% change in phenobarbital or primidone plasma concentrations; the effects on topiramate plasma concentrations were not evaluated. Barbiturates may cause additive sedation or other CNS depressive effects when used concurrently with topiramate. When topiramate is combined with phentermine for the treatment of obesity, a greater risk of CNS depression exists. Concurrent use of topiramate and drugs that cause thrombocytopenia, such as the barbiturates, may also increase the risk of bleeding; monitor patients appropriately.
    Phentolamine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and alpha-blockers increases the risk of developing hypotension and hypothermia.
    Pimavanserin: (Major) Because pimavanserin is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, the manufacturer recommends avoiding concomitant use of pimavanserin with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates. Strong inducers of CYP3A4 reduce pimavanserin exposure, potentially decreasing the effectiveness of pimavanserin.
    Polymyxins: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the neuromuscular blocking effect of colistimethate sodium by impairing transmission of impulses at the motor nerve terminals. If these drugs are used in combination, monitor patients for increased adverse effects. Neuromuscular blockade may be associated with colistimethate sodium, and is more likely to occur in patients with renal dysfunction.
    Pomalidomide: (Moderate) Use pomalidomide and barbiturates together with caution; decreased pomalidomide exposure may occur resulting in reduced pomalidomide effectiveness. Pomalidomide is a CYP1A2 substrate and barbiturates are CYP1A2 inducers.
    Potassium-sparing diuretics: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Pralidoxime: (Major) The action of barbiturates is potentiated by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which should be considered when using pralidoxime. Barbiturates should be used with caution to treat convulsions produced by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
    Pramipexole: (Major) The use of barbiturates in combination with pramipexole may increase the risk of clinically significant sedation via a pharmacodynamic interaction.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and alpha-blockers increases the risk of developing hypotension and hypothermia.
    Pregabalin: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of pregabalin with CNS-depressant drugs, including barbiturates, can potentiate the CNS effects of either agent. Pregabalin can cause considerable somnolence and the combined use of ethanol or other CNS depressants with pregabalin may lead to an additive drowsy effect.
    Prilocaine: (Major) If epinephrine is added to prilocaine, do not use the mixture in a patient during or following treatment with general anesthetics. Concurrent use has been associated with the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and should be avoided, if possible.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Major) General anesthetics are known to increase cardiac irritability via myocardial sensitization to catecholamines. These anesthetics can produce ventricular arrhythmias and/or hypertension when used concomitantly with epinephrine. (Major) If epinephrine is added to prilocaine, do not use the mixture in a patient during or following treatment with general anesthetics. Concurrent use has been associated with the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and should be avoided, if possible.
    Procarbazine: (Moderate) Use procarbazine and barbiturates together with caution; additive CNS depression may occur.
    Progestins: (Major) Avoid coadministration. Barbiturates induce hepatic enzymes and can accelerate the rate of metabolism of hormones, including progestins. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. For women taking hormonal contraception for birth control, loss of efficacy may lead to breakthrough bleeding and an increased risk for pregnancy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with hormonal contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed hepatic enzyme inducing drugs. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of the interacting medication. Additionally, epileptic women taking both anticonvulsants and OCs may be at higher risk of folate deficiency secondary to additive effects on folate metabolism; these women should ensure adequate folate supplementation.
    Quazepam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of quazepam. Quazepam is a CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 inducers.
    Quetiapine: (Major) Coadministration of barbiturates, potent CYP3A4 inducers, with quetiapine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may result in decreased exposure to quetiapine. The dose of quetiapine should be increased by up to 5-fold when combined with chronic administration (7 to 14 days) of a potent CYP3A4 inducer. Adjust the dose based on patient response and tolerability. When the potent CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, the quetiapine dose should be reduced to the original dose within 1 to 2 weeks. Also, somnolence is a commonly reported adverse effect of quetiapine; coadministration of quetiapine with barbiturates may result in additive sedative effects.
    Quinidine: (Major) Quinidine is eliminated primarily via hepatic metabolism, primarily by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. Administration of other hepatic enzyme inducers, such as barbiturates, can accelerate quinidine elimination and decrease its serum concentrations. Phenobarbital may decrease quinidine half-life and corresponding AUC by about 50 to 60%. Quinidine concentrations should be monitored closely after one of these agents is added. No special precautions appear necessary if these agents are begun several weeks before quinidine is added but quinidine doses may require adjustment if one of these agents is added or discontinued during quinidine therapy.
    Quinine: (Major) If concomitant administration of barbiturates and quinine cannot be avoided, frequently monitor the barbiturate concentration. Also, monitor closely for increased barbiturate-associated adverse events such as excessive drowsiness, difficulty breathing, or confusion. A single quinine 600 mg dose increased the mean plasma Cmax and AUC of a barbiturate by 53% and 81%, respectively, in 8 healthy subjects. In addition, barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers and may decrease plasma quinine concentrations.
    Rabeprazole: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rabeprazole with barbiturates may result in decreased rabeprazole plasma concentrations; monitor for signs and symptoms of reduced rabeprazole efficacy. Barbiturates induce CYP2C19 and rabeprazole is a CYP2C19 substrate.
    Ramelteon: (Major) Barbiturates can induce CYP1A2, the major metabolic pathway for ramelteon, and may eventually accelerate the clearance (and, thus, reduce the sedative properties) of ramelteon. Administration of multiple doses of a potent CYP inducer (rifampin) resulted in a mean decrease of approximately 80% in total exposure to ramelteon and its metabolite M-II. Additive CNS depression may also occur. The induction of ramelteon metabolism would likely require several days of barbiturate administration while additive drowsiness would appear immediately. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of any CNS-depressant drugs and any barbiturate; dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary. If the medications must be used together, monitor for the effectiveness of ramelteon. Hypnotic barbiturates are best avoided during ramelteon therapy; the manufacturer warns against using other medications for sleep concurrently with ramelteon.
    Ranolazine: (Severe) Ranolazine is contraindicated in patients receiving drugs known to be CYP3A inducers including barbiturates. Induction of CYP3A metabolism could lead to decreased ranolazine plasma concentrations and decreased efficacy.
    Rapacuronium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) The CNS-depressant effects of MAOIs can be potentiated with concomitant administration of other drugs known to cause CNS depression including buprenorphine, butorphanol, dronabinol, THC, nabilone, nalbuphine, and anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics. Use these drugs cautiously with MAOIs; warn patients to not drive or perform other hazardous activities until they know how a particular drug combination affects them. In some cases, the dosages of the CNS depressants may need to be reduced.
    Red Yeast Rice: (Moderate) Since certain red yeast rice products (i.e., pre-2005 Cholestin formulations) contain lovastatin, clinicians should use red yeast rice cautiously in combination with drugs known to interact with lovastatin. CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, can theoretically reduce the effectiveness of HMG-CoA reductase activity via induction of CYP3A4 metabolism.
    Remifentanil: (Major) Concomitant use of remifentanil with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Repaglinide: (Major) Coadministration of barbiturates and repaglinide may decrease the serum concentration of repaglinide; if coadministration is necessary, a dose increase of repaglinide may be necessary and increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers and repaglinide is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for the possibility of reduced effectiveness of repaglinide and possible symptoms indicating hyperglycemia.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Administration of reserpine can potentiate the depressant effects of CNS depressants such as barbiturates.
    Rifapentine: (Moderate) Rifapentine induces hepatic isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C8/9. Drugs metabolized by these enzymes, like barbiturates, may require dosage adjustments when administered concurrently with rifapentine.
    Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Riluzole: (Moderate) Coadministration of riluzole with barbiturates may result in decreased riluzole efficacy. In vitro findings suggest decreased riluzole exposure is likely. Riluzole is a CYP1A2 substrate and barbiturates are CYP1A2 inducers.
    Risperidone: (Major) Potent inducers of CYP3A4, such as barbiturates, may decrease plasma concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite. Therefore, the manufacturer of oral risperidone recommends a slow upward titration of the risperidone dose as needed up to double the patient's usual dose during use of a 3A4 inducer. When using Risperdal Consta, the patient will require close monitoring for 4 to 8 weeks when starting an inducer. A lower dose of Risperdal Consta may be prescribed between 2 to 4 weeks before the planned discontinuation of the inducer to adjust for the expected increase in plasma concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite. For patients treated with the recommended dose of Risperdal Consta 25 mg and discontinuing the inducer, it is recommended to continue the 25 mg dose unless a reduction to 12.5 mg or discontinuation of treatment is indicated. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been studied in clinical trials.
    Ritodrine: (Major) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics, especially hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias, can be potentiated by concomitant use of potent general anesthetics.
    Ritonavir: (Major) Concurrent use of ritonavir with phenobarbital or other barbiturates should be done cautiously. Increased doses of anticonvulsants may be required due metabolism induction by ritonavir. However, since these anticonvulsants are hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, increased metabolism of protease inhibitors may occur, leading to decreased antiretroviral efficacy. Close monitoring of drug concentrations and/or therapeutic and adverse effects is required.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) Muscle relaxation produced by succinylcholine can be prolonged when the drug is administered with a cholinesterase inhibitor. If used during surgery, extended respiratory depression could result from prolonged neuromuscular blockade. Other neuromuscular blockers may interact with cholinesterase inhibitors in a similar fashion. Cholinesterase inhibitors are therefore also likely to exaggerate muscle relaxation under general anesthetics.
    Rocuronium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Roflumilast: (Major) Coadminister barbiturates and roflumilast cautiously as this may lead to reduced systemic exposure to roflumilast. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4 and roflumilast is a CYP3A4 substrate. In pharmacokinetic study, administration of a single dose of roflumilast in patients receiving another CYP3A4 inducer, rifampin, resulted in decreased roflumilast Cmax and AUC, as well as increased Cmax and decreased AUC of the active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide.
    Romidepsin: (Moderate) Romidepsin is a substrate for CYP3A4. Coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers, like barbiturates, may decrease systemic concentrations of romidepsin. Use caution when concomitant administration of these agents is necessary.
    Ropinirole: (Moderate) Coadministration of ropinirole and barbiturates may result in decreased concentrations of ropinirole. If therapy with barbiturates is initiated or discontinued during treatment with ropinirole, adjustment of ropinirole dose may be required. Ropinirole is primarily metabolized by CYP1A2; barbiturates are inducers of CYP1A2. Also, somnolence is a commonly reported adverse effect of ropinirole; coadministration of ropinirole with barbiturates may result in additive sedative effects.
    Safinamide: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Saquinavir: (Major) Coadministration with phenobarbital and, potentially, other barbiturates may increase the metabolism of saquinavir and lead to decreased saquinavir concentrations resulting in reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and development of viral resistance. If saquinavir and barbiturates are used together, the patient must be closely monitored for antiviral efficacy.
    Scopolamine: (Moderate) Scopolamine may cause dizziness and drowsiness. Concurrent use of scopolamine and CNS depressants can adversely increase the risk of CNS depression.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Sertraline is a substrate for CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Drugs that induce hepatic isoenzymes, such as barbiturates could decrease sertraline plasma concentrations, potentially causing decreased effectiveness of this SSRI.
    Sildenafil: (Minor) Sildenafil is metabolized principally by the hepatic CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 isoenzymes. It can be expected that concomitant administration of CYP3A4 enzyme-inducers will decrease plasma levels of sildenafil, however, no interaction studies have been performed. CYP3A4 inducers include barbiturates.
    Simvastatin: (Moderate) Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when barbiturates are co-administered with simvastatin, which is metabolized by CYP3A4.
    Simvastatin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Barbiturates are significant hepatic CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for potential reduced cholesterol-lowering efficacy when barbiturates are co-administered with simvastatin, which is metabolized by CYP3A4.
    Sirolimus: (Major) Concomitant use of sirolimus and barbiturates should be avoided. Barbiturates such as phenobarbital and primidone may decrease the systemic exposure of sirolimus. Consider alternative agents with less potential for interaction. If concurrent use cannot be avoided, monitor sirolimus plasma concentrations closely and adjust the dose as necessary. Sirolimus is a substrate of CYP3A4; phenobarbital and primidone are potent CYP3A4 inducers. A similar interaction with sirolimus would be expected with all other barbiturates. In addition, the exposure of sirolimus may be altered via P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport. Sirolimus is P-gp substrate; primidone and phenobarbital may induce P-gp.
    Skeletal Muscle Relaxants: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with skeletal muscle relaxants. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of skeletal muscle relaxants and barbiturates; dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Sodium Oxybate: (Severe) Sodium oxybate should not be used in combination with CNS depressant anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics or other sedative CNS depressant drugs. Specifically, sodium oxybate use is contraindicated in patients being treated with sedative hypnotic drugs. Sodium oxybate (GHB) has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills. For example, the concomitant use of barbiturates and benzodiazepines increases sleep duration and may contribute to rapid onset, pronounced CNS depression, respiratory depression, or coma when combined with sodium oxybate.
    Sotalol: (Major) General anesthetics can potentiate the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers and can produce prolonged hypotension.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum, may intensify or prolong the effects of general anesthetics; profound hypotension has also been reported. In one report, the authors recommend that patients should discontinue taking St. John's Wort at least 5 days prior to anesthesia. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has recommended that patients stop taking herbal medications at least 2 to 3 weeks before surgery to decrease the risk of adverse reactions.
    Streptomycin: (Moderate) Patients receiving general anesthetics should be observed for exaggerated effects if they are receiving streptomycin.
    Succinylcholine: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Sufentanil: (Major) Concomitant use of sufentanil with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Because the dose of the sufentanil sublingual tablets cannot be titrated, consider an alternate opiate if barbiturates must be administered. If concurrent use of sufentanil injection is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of sufentanil with barbiturates may decrease sufentanil plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of barbiturates may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; sufentanil is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Sunitinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of methohexital with sunitinib if possible due to decreased exposure to sunitinib which could decrease efficacy. If concomitant use is unavoidable, consider increasing the dose of sunitinib in 12.5 mg increments based on individual safety and tolerability to a maximum of 87.5 mg (GIST and RCC) or 62.5 mg (pNET) daily; monitor carefully for toxicity. The maximum daily dose administered in the pNET study was 50 mg. Sunitinib is a CYP3A4 substrate and methohexital is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Suvorexant: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of suvorexant if coadministration with a barbiturate is necessary. Suvorexant is a CYP3A4 substrate and barbiturates are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A inducer decreased suvorexant exposure by 77% to 88%. Additive CNS effects, such as sedation and psychomotor impairment, are also possible. Dosage adjustments of suvorexant and of concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive effects. The use of suvorexant with other drugs to treat insomnia is not recommended. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if suvorexant is taken with other CNS depressants. Patients should be cautioned against driving and other activities requiring complete mental alertness.
    Tacrine: (Moderate) Cholinesterase inhibitors are also likely to exaggerate muscle relaxation under general anesthetics.
    Tacrolimus: (Major) Drugs such as barbiturates, which can induce cytochrome P-450 3A4, may decrease whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus. Monitoring of tacrolimus whole blood concentrations and appropriate dosage adjustments of tacrolimus are recommended.
    Tapentadol: (Major) Concomitant use of tapentadol with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Tasimelteon: (Major) Concurrent use of tasimelteon and strong inducers of CYP3A4, such as barbiturates or primidone, should be avoided. Because tasimelteon is partially metabolized via CYP3A4, a large decrease in exposure is possible with the potential for reduced efficacy. During administration of tasimelteon with another potent inducer of CYP3A4, tasimelteon exposure decreased by about 90%. Barbiturates also induce CYP1A2, a secondary metabolic pathway of tasimelteon.
    Temazepam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur with concurrent use.
    Terazosin: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and alpha-blockers increases the risk of developing hypotension and hypothermia.
    Terbinafine: (Moderate) Due to the risk for breakthrough fungal infections, caution is advised when administering terbinafine with barbiturates. Although this interaction has not been studied by the manufacturer, and published literature suggests the potential for interactions to be low, taking these drugs together may decrease the systemic exposure of terbinafine. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of both drugs. Terbinafine is metabolized by at least 7 CYP isoenzymes, with major contributions coming from CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4; barbiturates induce these enzymes. Monitor patients for breakthrough fungal infections.
    Thalidomide: (Major) The use of barbiturate anxiolytics, sedatives, or hypnotics with thalidomide may cause an additive sedative effect and should be avoided. Thalidomide frequently causes drowsiness and somnolence. Dose reductions may be required. Patients should be instructed to avoid situations where drowsiness may be a problem and not to take other medications that may cause drowsiness without adequate medical advice. Advise patients as to the possible impairment of mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of hazardous tasks, such as driving a car or operating other complex or dangerous machinery.
    Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) The metabolism of aminophylline can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. Patients should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if a barbiturate is added is added to aminophylline therapy. Conversely, the hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by aminophylline. (Moderate) The metabolism of theophylline can be increased by concurrent use with barbiturates. Patients should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if a barbiturate is added is added to theophylline therapy. Conversely, the hypnotic effects of barbiturates can be reduced by theophylline.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Barbiturates may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Thiopental: (Major) General anesthetics can potentiate the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers and can produce prolonged hypotension.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Thiothixene can potentiate the CNS-depressant action of other drugs such as methohexital. Caution should be exercised during simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects or additive hypotension.
    Thyroid hormones: (Minor) Hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs, including barbiturates, can increase the catabolism of thyroid hormones. Be alert for a decreased response to thyroid replacement agents with dosage adjustments, discontinuation or addition of barbiturates during thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
    Tipranavir: (Major) Barbiturates increase the metabolism of tipranavir, and may lead to decreased efficacy of tipranavir. In addition, tipranavir may inhibit the CYP metabolism of barbiturates, resulting in increased barbiturate concentrations. Appropriate dose adjustments necessary to ensure optimum levels of both anti-retroviral agent and the barbiturate are unknown. Anticonvulsant serum concentrations should be monitored closely if these agents are added; the patient should be observed for changes in the clinical efficacy of the antiretroviral or anticonvulsant regimen
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of tizanidine and CNS depressants like barbiturates can cause additive CNS depression.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) Patients receiving general anesthetics should be observed for exaggerated effects if they are receiving tobramycin.
    Tolcapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors, like entacapone or tolcapone, should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression due to the possibility of additive sedation. Agents that may cause additive sedation when given concurrently with tolcapone include the barbiturates. The risk for adverse effects may increase, and patients should use caution in driving or other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Although topiramate is not extensively metabolized (70% renally eliminated), an interaction with barbiturates via hepatic isoenzyme activity is possible. In patients receiving either phenobarbital or primidone in combination with topiramate, there was a < 10% change in phenobarbital or primidone plasma concentrations; the effects on topiramate plasma concentrations were not evaluated. Barbiturates may cause additive sedation or other CNS depressive effects when used concurrently with topiramate. When topiramate is combined with phentermine for the treatment of obesity, a greater risk of CNS depression exists. Concurrent use of topiramate and drugs that cause thrombocytopenia, such as the barbiturates, may also increase the risk of bleeding; monitor patients appropriately.
    Tramadol: (Major) Concomitant use of tramadol with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of tramadol with a barbiturate can decrease tramadol concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of tramadol and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of seizures, serotonin syndrome, and the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; tramadol is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Major) Barbiturates have been shown to enhance the hepatic clearance of verapamil. The effect on oral verapamil is greater than for IV verapamil, but a significant increase in clearance has been noted for both verapamil dosage forms during concomitant administration of a barbiturate. Patients receiving verapamil should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if barbiturates are added.
    Trazodone: (Major) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of trazodone and methohexital. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Tretinoin, ATRA: (Moderate) Barbiturates may increase the CYP450 metabolism of tretinoin, ATRA, potentially resulting in decreased plasma concentrations of tretinoin, ATRA. Monitor for decreased clinical effects of tretinoin, ATRA while receiving concomitant therapy.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Triazolam: (Moderate) Additive CNS and/or respiratory depression may occur. Additionally, barbiturates may increase the metabolism of triazolam. Triazolam is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 inducers.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), when used concomitantly with anticonvulsants, can increase CNS depression and may also lower the seizure threshold, leading to pharmacodynamic interactions. In addition, pharmacokinetic interactions may occur. Barbiturates may increase TCA metabolism. Monitor patients during concurrent use.
    Trimethobenzamide: (Moderate) The concurrent use of trimethobenzamide with barbiturates may potentiate the CNS effects of either trimethobenzamide or the barbiturate.
    Trimetrexate: (Minor) Drugs such as barbiturates can increase the metabolism of trimetrexate by induction of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 system. This can lead to lower plasma concentrations of trimetrexate.
    Triprolidine: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with triprolidine.
    Trovafloxacin, Alatrofloxacin: (Moderate) General anesthetics may potentiate the hypotension associated alatrofloxacin administration.
    Tubocurarine: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Ulipristal: (Major) Avoid administration of ulipristal with drugs that induce CYP3A4. Ulipristal is a substrate of CYP3A4 and barbiturates (such as phenobarbital or primidone) are CYP3A4 inducers. Concomitant use may decrease the plasma concentration and effectiveness of ulipristal.
    Valbenazine: (Major) Co-administration of strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, and valbenazine, a CYP3A4 substrate, is not recommended. Strong CYP3A4 inducers can decrease systemic exposure of valbenazine and its active metabolite compared to the use of valbenazine alone. Reduced exposure of valbenazine and its active metabolite may reduce efficacy.
    Valerian, Valeriana officinalis: (Major) Any substances that act on the CNS, including psychoactive drugs and drugs used as anesthetic adjuvants (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines), may theoretically interact with valerian, Valeriana officinalis. The valerian derivative, dihydrovaltrate, binds at barbiturate binding sites; valerenic acid has been shown to inhibit enzyme-induced breakdown of GABA in the brain; the non-volatile monoterpenes (valepotriates) have sedative activity. These interactions are probably pharmacodynamic in nature. There is a possibility of interaction with valerian at normal prescription dosages of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics (including barbiturates and benzodiazepines). Patients who are taking barbiturates or other sedative/hypnotic drugs should avoid concomitant administration of valerian. Patients taking medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, MAOIs, skeletal muscle relaxants, SSRIs and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine, venlafaxine) should discuss the use of herbal supplements with their health care professional prior to consuming valerian; combinations should be approached with caution in the absence of clinical data. Patients should not abruptly stop taking their prescribed psychoactive medications.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Valproic acid has been shown to inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenobarbital. It is likely that other barbiturates, like methohexital, would be affected similarly by valproic acid. Patients should be monitored for an exaggerated barbiturate effect if valproic acid is used concomitantly.
    Vancomycin: (Moderate) The concurrent administration of vancomycin and anesthetics has been associated with erythema, histamine-like flushing, and anaphylactoid reactions.
    Vardenafil: (Minor) Vardenafil is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. It can be expected that concomitant administration of CYP3A4 enzyme-inducers, such as barbiturates, will decrease plasma levels of vardenafil.
    Vasodilators: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Vecuronium: (Moderate) Methohexital may enhance the neuromuscular activity of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonging neuromuscular blockade.
    Verapamil: (Major) Barbiturates have been shown to enhance the hepatic clearance of verapamil. The effect on oral verapamil is greater than for IV verapamil, but a significant increase in clearance has been noted for both verapamil dosage forms during concomitant administration of a barbiturate. Patients receiving verapamil should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if barbiturates are added.
    Vigabatrin: (Moderate) Vigabatrin may cause somnolence and fatigue. Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with vigabatrin, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when vigabatrin is given with barbiturates.
    Vincristine Liposomal: (Major) Vincristine is a substrate for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Agents that induce CYP 3A4 may increase the metabolism of vincristine and decrease the efficacy of drug, including barbiturates. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored for possible loss of vincristine efficacy.
    Vincristine: (Major) Vincristine is a substrate for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Agents that induce CYP 3A4 may increase the metabolism of vincristine and decrease the efficacy of drug, including barbiturates. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored for possible loss of vincristine efficacy.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Use caution during concurrent use of vorapaxar and other barbiturates. Vorapaxar is a CYP3A4 substrate. Barbiturates induce CYP3A. Decreased serum concentrations of vorapaxar and thus decreased efficacy are possible during concurrent use.
    Vortioxetine: (Major) Patients should be monitored for a decreased response to vortioxetine when barbiturates are co-administered. Vortioxetine is extensively metabolized by CYP isoenzymes, primarily CYP2D6 and by CYP3A4 and other isoenzymes to a lesser extent. The manufacturer recommends that the practitioner consider an increase in dose of vortioxetine when a strong CYP inducer is co-administered for more than 14 days. In such cases, the maximum recommended dose of vortioxetine should not exceed three times the original dose. When the inducer is discontinued, the dose of vortioxetine should be reduced to the original level within 14 days.
    Warfarin: (Major) A serious drug interaction can occur between barbiturates and warfarin. All barbiturates are hepatic enzyme inducers and the clinical effects of warfarin can be compromised if a barbiturate is added. More importantly, discontinuation of a barbiturate during warfarin therapy has lead to fatal bleeding episodes when the hepatic enzyme-inducing properties of the barbiturate subside. Clinicians should note that warfarin doses will require readjustment if a barbiturate is added or discontinued during warfarin therapy. Dosage adjustments of warfarin may be necessary within 2 weeks of beginning barbiturate treatment, but the effect of the barbiturate on warfarin metabolism may persist for more than a month after discontinuing the barbiturate.
    Zaleplon: (Major) Coadministration of zaleplon and barbiturates may result in additive CNS depression. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics and any barbiturate. In addition, zaleplon is partially metabolized by CYP3A4, and concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, may increase the clearance of zaleplon. Dosage adjustments should be made on an individual basis according to efficacy and tolerability.
    Ziconotide: (Moderate) CNS depressant medications, such as barbiturates, may increase drowsiness, dizziness, and confusion that are associated with ziconotide. Dosage adjustments may be necessary if ziconotide is used with a barbiturate.
    Ziprasidone: (Major) Ziprasidone is partially metabolized via the hepatic CYP3A4 isoenzyme. A decrease in ziprasidone plasma levels could potentially occur if the drug is used concurrently with inducers of CYP3A4 including barbiturates. Additive CNS depressant effects are also possible when ziprasidone is used concurrently with barbiturates.
    Zolpidem: (Major) Concurrent use of zolpidem with barbiturates should be avoided if possible due to additive CNS depression. Sleep-related behaviors, such as sleep-driving, are more likely to occur during concurrent use of zolpidem and other CNS depressants than zolpidem alone. Concurrent use of zolpidem with other sedative-hypnotics at bedtime or in the middle of the night is not recommended. Dosage reduction may be required for co-use in some patients. For example, a dosage reduction of the Intermezzo brand of sublingual zolpidem tablets to 1.75 mg/night is recommended when used with another CNS depressant. Barbiturates are CYP3A4 enzyme inducers and may cause decreased plasma concentrations of zolpidem; in some patients efficacy may be reduced. CYP3A4 is the primary isoenzyme responsible for zolpidem metabolism, and there is evidence of significant decreases in systemic exposure and pharmacodynamic effects of zolpidem during coadministration of a potent CYP3A4 inducer.
    Zonisamide: (Moderate) Zonisamide is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4. Barbiturates are inducers of CYP3A4 and can reduce the systemic exposure to zonisamide by increasing the metabolism of the drug.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Use caution when methohexital is administered to a breast-feeding woman. Small amounts of barbiturates are excreted into breast milk. Previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations considered methohexital as usually compatible with breast-feeding. Because methohexital is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate which is only used as an anesthetic agent, there is a reduced likelihood of the nursing infant experiencing adverse effects which may be observed with long-term barbiturate exposure. In general, the healthy term infant can safely nurse as soon after surgery as the mother is awake and alert.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action: Most theories attribute the effectiveness of methohexital to an overall reduction in neuronal activity. Methohexital increases membrane ion conductance (primarily to chloride), reduces glutamate-induced depolarizations, and potentiates the inhibitory effects of GABA. In addition, barbiturates enhance receptor binding of benzodiazepines and GABA. The sedative-hypnotic effects of methohexital are believed to occur from inhibition of the midbrain reticular formation, which controls CNS arousal. Methohexital also prevents transmission of impulses from the reticular formation to the cortex as they pass through the thalamus.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Methohexital can be administered as an intermittent or continuous IV infusion in adults, and intramuscularly or rectally in children. Once in the systemic circulation, methohexital enters the CSF within 30 seconds, resulting in sleep induction. Methohexital accumulates in fatty tissues to a lesser extent than thiopental. Therefore, repeat doses of methohexital generally can be given safely. Methohexital crosses the placenta and is distributed in breast milk; however, data on the teratogenicity potential in humans are lacking. Methohexital is metabolized through demethylation and oxidation in the liver. Oxidation is the primary route of metabolism associated with termination of biologic activity. The metabolites are excreted renally.

    Intramuscular Route

    After intramuscular injection to pediatric patients, the onset of sleep occurs in 2—10 minutes. A plasma concentration of 3 mcg/ml was achieved 15 minutes after an IM dose of a 5% solution of 10 mg/kg to pediatric patients.

    Other Route(s)

    Rectal Route
    After rectal administration to pediatric patients, the onset of sleep occurs in 5—15 minutes. Plasma concentrations achieved after rectal administration tend to increase both with dose and with the use of more dilute solution concentrations when using the same dose. The absolute bioavailability after rectal administration is 17%.