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    Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockers/ARBs

    BOXED WARNING

    Pregnancy

    Losartan is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category D. Once pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan therapy as soon as possible. Women of child-bearing age should be made aware of the potential risk and losartan should only be given after careful counseling and consideration of individual risks and benefits. When used during the second and third trimesters, drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists) reduce fetal renal function and increase fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Other potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. Retrospective data indicate that first trimester use of ACE inhibitors has been associated with a potential risk of birth defects. However, a large observational study (n = 465,754) found that the risk of birth defects was similar in infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, in infants exposed to other antihypertensives during the first trimester, and in those whose mothers were hypertensive but were not treated. Infants born to mothers with hypertension, either treated or untreated, had a higher risk of birth defects than those born to mothers without hypertension. The authors concluded that the presence of hypertension likely contributed to the development of birth defects rather than the use of medications. In rare cases when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue losartan unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. It should be noted that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe newborns with histories of in utero exposure to losartan for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, blood pressure and renal perfusion support may be required, as well as exchange transfusion or dialysis to reverse hypotension and/or support decreased renal function.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Angiotensin II antagonist; used once daily for HTN, diabetic nephropathy, proteinuria, or CHF (off-label); additive efficacy with HCTZ; reverses potassium loss and rise in serum uric acid with HCTZ; does not inhibit ACE and accumulate bradykinin; less likely to cause cough or angioedema than ACE inhibitors; long-acting active metabolite, E-3174.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Cozaar

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Cozaar/Losartan Potassium Oral Tab: 25mg, 50mg, 100mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of hypertension, either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
    Oral dosage
    Adults and Adolescents

    Initially, 50 mg PO once daily, unless the patient is volume depleted. The maintenance dosage range is 25 to 100 mg/day PO, given in 1 to 2 divided doses. Maximal effects generally occur within 3 to 6 weeks. The addition of a diuretic has a greater effect on lowering blood pressure than increasing the losartan dosage beyond 50 mg/day. The addition of hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg to losartan 50 mg daily results in an additional 50% reduction in DBP and SBP. A modest reduction in blood pressure (up to 3 mm Hg) is achieved by increasing the daily dose of losartan from 50 to 100 mg. When volume depletion is suspected (e.g., patients taking diuretics), initiate therapy with 25 mg PO once daily.

    Geriatric

    See adult dosage. No dosage adjustment is necessary.

    Children >= 6 years

    The usual recommended starting dose is 0.7 mg/kg PO once daily (up to 50 mg/day). Individualize dosage to attain blood pressure goals. Doses greater than 1.4 mg/kg/day (or greater than 100 mg/day) PO have not been studied. Losartan can be prepared extemporaneously as an oral suspension.

    For stroke prophylaxis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
    NOTE: There is evidence that this benefit does not apply to Black patients.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 50 mg PO once daily. Maximal antihypertensive effects generally occur within 3 to 6 weeks. If needed for blood pressure (BP) reduction, add hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg PO once daily and/or increase the losartan dosage to 100 mg PO once daily. If further BP control is needed, increase the HCTZ dosage to 25 mg PO once daily. This FDA-approved indication is based on the findings of the LIFE trial which compared losartan vs. atenolol in patients with hypertension and LVH. In this trial, losartan reduced the risk of stroke (nonfatal and fatal) by 25% compared to atenolol. The overall findings demonstrate that losartan is more effective than atenolol in reducing total mortality and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with less drug-related adverse events. In a pre-specified subanalysis of the LIFE study in diabetic hypertensives with LVH, similar findings are reported.

    Geriatric

    See adult dosage. No dosage adjustment is necessary.

    For the treatment of proteinuria or diabetic nephropathy.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 50 mg PO once daily; then increase the dosage to 100 mg PO once daily based on blood pressure response. In the long-term (mean 3.4 years) RENAAL study, losartan (50 to 100 mg/day PO) was renoprotective (end points: doubling of serum creatinine, development of end-stage renal disease) when compared to placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

    Geriatric

    See adult dosage. No dosage adjustment is necessary.

    For the treatment of heart failure†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 25 to 50 mg PO once daily. Increase dose as tolerated, adjusting to the clinical response of the patient up to 50 to 150 mg/day. Guidelines recommend an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in combination with an evidence-based beta blocker and aldosterone antagonist, in select patients, for patients with chronic reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF) NYHA class I to IV to reduce morbidity and mortality. In patients with prior or current symptoms of chronic HFrEF who are intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors because of cough or angioedema, use of an ARB is recommended. Continued use of an ARB is recommended for those patients for whom subsequent angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) use is inappropriate. Use of an ARB may be considered to decrease hospitalizations for patients with preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF) and is reasonable to control blood pressure in HFpEF patients with hypertension.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    100 mg/day PO.

    Elderly

    100 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    100 mg/day PO for hypertension.

    Children

    >= 6 years: 1.4 mg/kg/day PO, not to exceed 100 mg/day PO, for hypertension.
    < 6 years: Not recommended.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Initiate therapy with 25 mg PO once daily.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl >= 30 ml/min: No dosage adjustment is needed.
    CrCl < 30 ml/min: For adults, no dosage adjustment needed, unless the patient is also volume-depleted. Losartan is not recommended in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Neither losartan or its active metabolite are removed by hemodialysis. No dosage adjustment is necessary, unless the patient is also volume-depleted (see Dosage).

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Tablets: May administer without regard to food.

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Preparation of Suspension: To prepare 200 ml of a 2.5 mg/ml suspension, add 10 ml of purified water (USP) to an 8 ounce (240 ml) amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing ten losartan 50 mg tablets. Immediately shake for at least 2 minutes. Let the concentrate stand for 1 hour and then shake for 1 minute to disperse the tablet contents. Separately prepare a 50/50 volumetric mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. Add 190 mL of the 50/50 Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet SF mixture to the tablet and water slurry in the PET bottle and shake for 1 minute to disperse the ingredients. The suspension should be refrigerated at 2—8 degrees C (36—46 degrees F) and can be stored for up to 4 weeks. Shake the suspension prior to each use and return promptly to the refrigerator.

    STORAGE

    Cozaar:
    - Protect from light
    - Store unreconstituted product at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Losartan and active metabolite plasma concentrations are similar in elderly and young adults with hypertension. Plasma losartan concentrations are about twice as high in females versus males, but the plasma concentrations of the active metabolite are unchanged. However, blood pressure responses are similar, regardless of age or gender. According to the manufacturer, no dosage adjustment is necessary.

    Hepatic disease

    Losartan should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease. Losartan requires dosage adjustment in patients with hepatic disease. Patients with mild to moderate alcoholic cirrhosis demonstrated significantly increased losartan and active metabolite plasma concentrations which were 5 and 1.7 times higher, respectively, compared to normal subjects.

    Heart failure, renal artery stenosis

    Losartan should be used with caution in patients whose renal function is critically dependent on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) (e.g., patients with heart failure). To minimize hypotensive effects in patients with heart failure, initial doses of losartan are lower than those used for hypertension. Changes in renal function have been reported in susceptible individuals receiving losartan, with these changes reversible upon discontinuation of therapy in some patients. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists affect the RAS system and have caused increases in serum creatinine in susceptible individuals. Although serum creatinine returns to baseline or stabilizes in most patients with continued use, oliguria, progressive azotemia, and rarely, acute renal failure have occurred in this patient population. ACEIs have also been associated with azotemia in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis. Although losartan has not been studied in renal artery stenosis, similar effects to the ACEIs might be anticipated due to losartan's pharmacology. Renal function should be monitored in patients receiving losartan.

    Hypotension, hypovolemia

    Losartan should be used with caution in patients who have hypovolemia. Intravascular volume depletion increases the risk of symptomatic hypotension during therapy. When initiating therapy in these patients, lower doses are recommended (see Dosage). Losartan should be used with great care in patients who exhibit signs of hypotension. Volume depletion should be corrected prior to the administration of losartan.

    Hyperkalemia

    Losartan should be used with caution patients with hyperkalemia. Although hyperkalemia is infrequent with losartan, angiotensin II blockade can elevate serum potassium concentrations by blocking aldosterone secretion and could worsen pre-existing hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium periodically and treat appropriately. Dosage reduction or discontinuation of losartan may be required. Concomitant use of other drugs that may increase serum potassium may lead to hyperkalemia.

    ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema, angioedema

    Anaphylactic reactions (anaphylactoid reactions) and angioedema have been reported with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, such as losartan. Theoretically, angiotensin II receptor antagonists should be less likely than angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to precipitate angioedema because angiotensin II receptor antagonists do not cause accumulation of kinins. However, angioedema (swelling of lips and eyelids, facial rash) has been rarely reported in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including in patients with a prior history of ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema. While angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been suggested as potential alternatives to ACE inhibitors for patients who experience angioedema due to a lower frequency of associated angioedema , the safety of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in patients with a prior history of ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema has not been definitively established. It is prudent to use substantial caution when prescribing angiotensin II receptor antagonists in patients with a history of ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema. Some authors have recommended that angiotensin II receptor antagonists should be avoided in patients with a history of angioedema, especially in those with ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema.

    Black patients

    Although angiotensin II receptor antagonists, such as losartan, are effective in reducing blood pressure in Black patients (a low renin population), there is generally a smaller antihypertensive response compared to other ethnic populations. A greater proportion of Black patients will attain blood pressure goals when angiotensin II receptor antagonists are combined with a diuretic. The overall antihypertensive response to the combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide is similar for Black and non-Black patients. Although losartan is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, there is evidence that this benefit may not apply to Black patients. In the LIFE study, Black patients treated with atenolol were at a lower risk of experiencing cardiovascular events compared with Black patients receiving losartan. This finding could not be explained on any imbalances between the treatment groups or on the basis of differences in the populations, other than race. Blood pressure reductions in both treatment groups were consistent between Black and non-Black patients in this trial. The explanation for these findings has not been established.

    Pregnancy

    Losartan is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category D. Once pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan therapy as soon as possible. Women of child-bearing age should be made aware of the potential risk and losartan should only be given after careful counseling and consideration of individual risks and benefits. When used during the second and third trimesters, drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists) reduce fetal renal function and increase fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Other potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. Retrospective data indicate that first trimester use of ACE inhibitors has been associated with a potential risk of birth defects. However, a large observational study (n = 465,754) found that the risk of birth defects was similar in infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, in infants exposed to other antihypertensives during the first trimester, and in those whose mothers were hypertensive but were not treated. Infants born to mothers with hypertension, either treated or untreated, had a higher risk of birth defects than those born to mothers without hypertension. The authors concluded that the presence of hypertension likely contributed to the development of birth defects rather than the use of medications. In rare cases when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue losartan unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. It should be noted that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe newborns with histories of in utero exposure to losartan for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, blood pressure and renal perfusion support may be required, as well as exchange transfusion or dialysis to reverse hypotension and/or support decreased renal function.

    Breast-feeding

    According to the manufacturer, it is not known whether losartan is excreted into human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made to discontinue breast-feeding or discontinue losartan therapy. Losartan has not been evaluated by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); however, the ACE inhibitors captopril and enalapril are classified by the AAP as usually compatible with breast-feeding and may represent preferable alternatives in some patients. In addition, benazepril and quinapril are excreted in human breast milk in very small quantities ; therefore, a clinically significant risk to a breast-feeding infant is not expected. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Children

    There are data supporting the safe and effective use of losartan in children aged >= 6 years. Losartan is not recommended for children < 6 years or in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73 meter-squared.

    Surgery

    In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that lower blood pressure, losartan may enhance hypotensive effects via angiotensin II blockade. Therefore, losartan should be used with caution prior to surgery. If hypotension occurs during surgery and/or anesthesia and is considered to be due to blockade of angiotensin II formation, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

    Geriatric

    Greater sensitivity to the hypotensive effects of losartan is possible in geriatric patients due to an age-related decline in renal function. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, antihypertensive regimens should be individualized to achieve the desired outcome while minimizing adverse effects. Antihypertensives may cause dizziness, postural hypotension, fatigue, and there is an increased risk for falls. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may cause angioedema, chronic persistent non-productive cough, and may worsen renal failure. Some agents require a gradual taper to avoid adverse consequences caused by abrupt discontinuation. There are many drug interactions that can potentiate the effects of antihypertensives. Combination therapy of an ARB with a potassium-sparing diuretic or potassium supplementation has the potential for life-threatening elevations of serum potassium.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    ventricular fibrillation / Early / 0-1.0
    atrial fibrillation / Early / 0-1.0
    stroke / Early / 0-1.0
    bradycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    ventricular tachycardia / Early / 0-1.0
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / 0-1.0
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / 0-1.0
    AV block / Early / 0-1.0
    visual impairment / Early / 0-1.0
    azotemia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    vasculitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    oliguria / Early / Incidence not known
    teratogenesis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperkalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    angina / Early / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-1.0
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 0-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 0-1.0
    peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / 0-1.0
    memory impairment / Delayed / 0-1.0
    confusion / Early / 0-1.0
    depression / Delayed / 0-1.0
    migraine / Early / 0-1.0
    ataxia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-1.0
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    erythema / Early / 0-1.0
    gout / Delayed / 0-1.0
    blurred vision / Early / 0-1.0
    conjunctivitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 1.0
    edema / Delayed / 1.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperbilirubinemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    infection / Delayed / 8.0-8.0
    dizziness / Early / 3.0-3.0
    back pain / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    nasal congestion / Early / 2.0-2.0
    flatulence / Early / 0-1.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    xerostomia / Early / 0-1.0
    dental pain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-1.0
    arthralgia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 0-1.0
    muscle cramps / Delayed / 1.0-1.0
    weakness / Early / 0-1.0
    vertigo / Early / 0-1.0
    hypoesthesia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    drowsiness / Early / 0-1.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 0-1.0
    tremor / Early / 0-1.0
    libido decrease / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0-1.0
    rhinitis / Early / 0-1.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 1.0-1.0
    fever / Early / 0-1.0
    photosensitivity / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 0-1.0
    ecchymosis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    alopecia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    rash / Early / 0-1.0
    flushing / Rapid / 0-1.0
    nocturia / Early / 0-1.0
    increased urinary frequency / Early / 0-1.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 0-1.0
    ocular irritation / Rapid / 0-1.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 1.0
    nausea / Early / 1.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.0
    myalgia / Early / 1.0
    fatigue / Early / 1.0
    asthenia / Delayed / 1.0
    insomnia / Early / 1.0
    headache / Early / 1.0
    cough / Delayed / 1.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 1.0
    dysgeusia / Early / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acarbose: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Isometheptene has sympathomimetic properties. Patients taking antihypertensive agents may need to have their therapy modified. Careful blood pressure monitoring is recommended.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may potentiate the hypotension seen with aldesleukin, IL 2.
    Alemtuzumab: (Moderate) Alemtuzumab may cause hypotension. Careful monitoring of blood pressure and hypotensive symptoms is recommended especially in patients with ischemic heart disease and in patients on antihypertensive agents.
    Aliskiren: (Major) Most patients receiving the combination of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAAS inhibitors particularly in patients with CrCl < 60 mL/min. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren is combined with another RAAS inhibitor. Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with ARBs in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Major) Most patients receiving the combination of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAAS inhibitors particularly in patients with CrCl < 60 mL/min. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren is combined with another RAAS inhibitor. Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with ARBs in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Most patients receiving the combination of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAAS inhibitors particularly in patients with CrCl < 60 mL/min. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren is combined with another RAAS inhibitor. Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with ARBs in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Most patients receiving the combination of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAAS inhibitors particularly in patients with CrCl < 60 mL/min. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren is combined with another RAAS inhibitor. Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with ARBs in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Major) Most patients receiving the combination of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAAS inhibitors particularly in patients with CrCl < 60 mL/min. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren is combined with another RAAS inhibitor. Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with ARBs in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Alkalinizing Agents: (Major) Products containing a potassium salt, including citric acid; potassium citrate; sodium citrate, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium concentrations, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Alprostadil: (Minor) The concomitant use of systemic alprostadil injection and antihypertensive agents, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers, or ARBs), may cause additive hypotension. Caution is advised with this combination. Systemic drug interactions with the urethral suppository (MUSE) or alprostadil intracavernous injection are unlikely in most patients because low or undetectable amounts of the drug are found in the peripheral venous circulation following administration. In those men with significant corpora cavernosa venous leakage, hypotension might be more likely. Use caution with in-clinic dosing for erectile dysfunction (ED) and monitor for the effects on blood pressure. However, in clinical trials with alprostadil intracavernous injection, anti-hypertensive agents had no apparent effect on the safety and efficacy of alprostadil.
    Amifostine: (Major) Patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists should be closely monitored during amifostine infusions due to additive effects. Patients receiving amifostine at doses recommended for chemotherapy should have antihypertensive therapy interrupted 24 hours preceding administration of amifostine. If the antihypertensive cannot be stopped, patients should not receive amifostine.
    Amiloride: (Major) Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    Amiodarone: (Minor) Coadministration of losartan with amiodarone may result in increased exposure to losartan but decreased concentrations of the active metabolite. The conversion of losartan to its active metabolite is primarily mediated by CYP2C9; amiodarone is an inhibitor of CYP2C9. When coadministered with another inhibitor of CYP2C9, the AUC of the active metabolite of losartan was decreased by 40%, but the AUC of losartan increased by 70%.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent use of amobarbital with antihypertensive agents may lead to hypotension. Monitor for decreases in blood pressure during times of coadministration.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Amyl Nitrite: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nitrates with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Angiotensin II: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may decrease the response to angiotensin II.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Major) Most patients receiving the combination of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of these drugs together. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes. Combination therapy has been associated with an increased risk of diarrhea, hypotension, syncope, hyperkalemia, and renal dysfunction resulting in dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine, and death. In the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET), the combination of ramipril 10 mg/day and telmisartan 80 mg/day did not provide a significant benefit in the prevention of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure compared to ramipril alone. There was, however, a significantly increased rate of renal dysfunction associated with combination therapy (13.5%) compared to ramipril (10.2%) or telmisartan (10.6%) alone and a significantly increased rate of hyperkalemia with combination therapy compared to ramipril (5.6% vs. 3.3%; p<0.001). Additionally, there was a significantly higher number of patients who discontinued therapy due to adverse reactions, including hypotensive symptoms (4.8% vs. 1.7%; p<0.001), syncope (0.3% vs. 0.2%; p=0.03), diarrhea (0.5% vs. 0.1%; p<0.001), and renal impairment (1.1% vs. 0.7%; p<0.001), from combination therapy compared to ramipril alone. In a separate analysis of the ONTARGET renal outcomes, the rate of the composite primary renal outcome of dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine, and death was similar with ramipril and telmisartan alone (13.5% vs. 13.6%, respectively), but was significantly higher with combination therapy (14.5%) compared to ramipril (p=0.037). In the CHARM-Added program, the combination of candesartan and an ACE-inhibitor resulted in an increased incidence of hypotension (22.6% vs. 13.8%), renal dysfunction (15% vs. 9%), and hyperkalemia (9.5% vs. 3.5%) compared to placebo combined with an ACE inhibitor. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury. Patients receiving concomitant therapy with ACE inhibitors and ARBs should be closely monitored for renal dysfunction, hypotension, and hyperkalemia.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Patients receiving apomorphine may experience orthostatic hypotension, hypotension, and/or syncope. Extreme caution should be exercised if apomorphine is used concurrently with antihypertensive agents, or vasodilators such as nitrates.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Alpha blockers as a class may reduce heart rate and blood pressure. While no specific drug interactions have been identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials, it is theoretically possible that additive blood pressure reductions could occur when apraclonidine is combined with the use of antihypertensive agents. Patients using cardiovascular drugs concomitantly with apraclonidine should have their pulse and blood pressure monitored periodically.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if losartan and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently, and monitor for an increase in losartan-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Losartan is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of losartan. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important. Aprepitant is also a CYP2C9 inducer and losartan is a CYP2C9 substrate. Administration of a CYP2C9 substrate, tolbutamide, on days 1, 4, 8, and 15 with a 3-day regimen of oral aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) decreased the tolbutamide AUC by 23% on day 4, 28% on day 8, and 15% on day 15. The AUC of tolbutamide was decreased by 8% on day 2, 16% on day 4, 15% on day 8, and 10% on day 15 when given prior to oral administration of aprepitant 40 mg on day 1, and on days 2, 4, 8, and 15. The effects of aprepitant on tolbutamide were not considered significant.
    Aripiprazole: (Minor) Aripiprazole may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, asenapine can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use of antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of asenapine and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Atazanavir: (Minor) Caution is warranted when atazanavir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for elevated losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; atazanavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Minor) Caution is warranted when atazanavir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for elevated losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; atazanavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Minor) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with losartan as there is a potential for increased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Phenobarbital causes a reduction of approximately 20 percent in the AUC of losartan and its metabolite. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
    Baclofen: (Moderate) Baclofen has been associated with hypotension. Concurrent use with baclofen and antihypertensive agents may result in additive hypotension. Dosage adjustments of the antihypertensive medication may be required.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Phenobarbital causes a reduction of approximately 20 percent in the AUC of losartan and its metabolite. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Benzphetamine can increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of angiotensin II receptor antagonists. This represents a pharmacodynamic, and not a pharmacokinetic, interaction. Close monitoring of blood pressure, especially in patients who are taking antihypertensive agents, may be needed.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering losartan with boceprevir due to an increased potential for losartan-related adverse events. If losartan dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of losartan. Losartan is partially metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; boceprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated losartan plasma concentrations.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Although no specific interactions have been documented, bosentan has vasodilatory effects and may contribute additive hypotensive effects when given with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Losartan has no effect on plasma concentrations of bosentan. However, bosentan may theoretically induce the metabolism of losartan via CYP2C9 isoenzymes (clinical significance unknown).
    Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Due to brexpiprazole's antagonism at alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Cabergoline: (Minor) Cabergoline has minimal affinity for adrenergic receptors; however, it has been associated with hypotension in some instances. Cabergoline should be used cautiously in those receiving antihypertensive agents.
    Calcium Phosphate, Supersaturated: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Capecitabine: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of capecitabine with losartan is necessary, and monitor for an increase in losartan-related adverse reactions. Losartan is a CYP2C9 substrate; capecitabine and/or its metabolites are thought to be inhibitors of CYP2C9. In a drug interaction study, the mean AUC of another CYP2C9 substrate, S-warfarin (single dose), significantly increased after coadministration with capecitabine; the maximum observed INR value also increased by 91%.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Orthostatic vital signs should be monitored in patients who are at risk for hypotension, such as those receiving cariprazine in combination with antihypertensive agents. Atypical antipsychotics may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope, most commonly during treatment initiation and dosage increases. Patients should be informed about measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning, or rising slowly from a seated position. Consider a cariprazine dose reduction if hypotension occurs.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chloroprocaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) At high concentrations in vitro, clopidogrel inhibits the activity of CYP2C9.Thus, clopidogrel could increase plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by this isoenzyme, such as losartan. Although there are no in vivo data with which to predict the magnitude or clinical significance of this potential interaction, caution should be used when losartan is coadministered with clopidogrel.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Clozapine used concomitantly with the antihypertensive agents can increase the risk and severity of hypotension by potentiating the effect of the antihypertensive drug.
    Cobicistat: (Minor) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with losartan as there is a potential for increased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when elvitegravir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for decreased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP2C9; elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer. (Minor) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with losartan as there is a potential for increased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when elvitegravir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for decreased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP2C9; elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer. (Minor) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with losartan as there is a potential for increased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Cocaine: (Major) Use of cocaine with antihypertensive agents may increase the antihypertensive effects of the antihypertensive medications or may potentiate cocaine-induced sympathetic stimulation.
    Cod Liver Oil: (Moderate) Fish oil supplements may cause mild, dose-dependent reductions in systolic or diastolic blood pressure in untreated hypertensive patients. Relatively high doses of fish oil are required to produce any blood pressure lowering effect. Additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents. (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Co-Enzyme Q10, Ubiquinone: (Moderate) Co-enzyme Q10, ubiquinone (CoQ10) may lower blood pressure. CoQ10 use in combination with antihypertensive agents may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients who choose to take CoQ10 concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring. Patients should be advised to inform their prescriber of their use of CoQ10.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) There is potential for additive hypotensive effects when conivaptan is coadministered with antihypertensive agents.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Coadministration of cyclosporine and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, like losartan, may increase the risk of hyperkalemia and reduced renal function. In response to cyclosporine-induced renal afferent vasoconstriction and glomerular hypoperfusion, angiotensin II is required to maintain an adequate glomerular filtration rate. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) could reduce renal function acutely. Several cases of acute renal failure have been associated with the addition of enalapril to cyclosporine therapy in renal transplant patients. Also, cyclosporine can cause hyperkalemia, and inhibition of angiotensin II leads to reduced aldosterone concentrations, which can increase the serum potassium concentration. Closely monitor renal function and serum potassium concentrations in patients receiving cyclosporine concurrently with losartan.
    Dabrafenib: (Moderate) The concomitant use of dabrafenib, a CYP29 inducer and losartan, a CYP2C9 substrate, may result in decreased levels of losartan; avoid concomitant use if possible. If another agent cannot be substituted and coadministration of these agents is unavoidable, monitor patients closely for loss of losartan efficacy.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Darunavir: (Minor) Caution is warranted when darunavir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for elevated losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; darunavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Minor) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with losartan as there is a potential for increased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Minor) Caution is warranted when darunavir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for elevated losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; darunavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Minor) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with losartan as there is a potential for increased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Minor) Caution is warranted when darunavir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for elevated losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A4; darunavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of losartan with ritonavir may result in elevated losartan plasma concentrations. Losartan is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Delavirdine: (Minor) Inhibitors of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme, such as delavirdine, have potential to inhibit the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite E-3174. The importance of theoretical CYP2C9 interactions has not been established; monitor therapeutic response to individualize losartan dosage.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Dexmethylphenidate can reduce the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive agents, including angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Periodic evaluation of blood pressure is advisable during concurrent use of dexmethylphenidate and antihypertensive agents, particularly during initial coadministration and after dosage increases of dexmethylphenidate.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Quinidine can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents due to the potential for additive hypotension.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects can occur with the concomitant administration of diazoxide with other antihypertensive agents. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. The manufacturer advises that IV diazoxide should not be administered to patients within 6 hours of receiving beta-blockers, hydralazine, methyldopa, minoxidil, nitrites, prazosin, reserpine, or other antihypertensive agents.
    Diethylpropion: (Moderate) Diethylpropion has vasopressor effects and may limit the benefit of angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Although leading drug interaction texts differ in the potential for an interaction between diethylpropion and this group of antihypertensive agents, these effects are likely to be clinically significant and have been described in hypertensive patients on these medications.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Caution should be exercised when administering digoxin with drugs that may cause a significant deterioration in renal function including angiotensin II receptor antagonists. A decline in glomerular filtration or tubular secretion may impair the excretion of digoxin. Close monitoring of serum digoxin concentrations is essential to avoid enhanced toxicity.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Dronedarone is metabolized by and is an inhibitor of CYP3A. Losartan is a substrate for CYP3A4. The concomitant administration of dronedarone and CYP3A substrates may result in increased exposure of the substrate and should, therefore, be undertaken with caution.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium. The concurrent use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if ARBs are used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium. The concurrent use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if ARBs are used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium. The concurrent use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if ARBs are used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Efavirenz: (Minor) Efavirenz inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and may inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 including losartan.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Minor) Efavirenz inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and may inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 including losartan.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Minor) Efavirenz inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and may inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 including losartan.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Minor) Administering losartan with grazoprevir may result in elevated losartan plasma concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of adverse events.
    Elvitegravir: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when elvitegravir is administered with losartan as there is a potential for decreased losartan concentrations. Losartan is a substrate of CYP2C9; elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Enflurane: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics, such as ephedrine, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Blood pressure and heart rates should be monitored closely to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved.
    Eplerenone: (Major) Monitor serum potassium and serum creatinine concentrations within 3 to 7 days of initiating coadministration of eplerenone and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs). Hyperkalemia risk is increased when eplerenone is used with ARBs. Patients who develop hyperkalemia may continue eplerenone with proper dose adjustment; eplerenone dose reduction decreases potassium concentrations.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists can enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Erythromycin: (Minor) Losartan is metabolized to an active metabolite E-3174. The AUC of this active metabolite of oral losartan is not affected by erythromycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor; however, the AUC of losartan is increased by 30%.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Minor) Losartan is metabolized to an active metabolite E-3174. The AUC of this active metabolite of oral losartan is not affected by erythromycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor; however, the AUC of losartan is increased by 30%.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Estrogens can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; patients who are receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with hormonal contraceptives should be monitored for antihypertensive effectiveness.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; patients who are receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with hormonal contraceptives should be monitored for antihypertensive effectiveness.
    Etomidate: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Minor) At therapeutic concentrations, fenofibric acid is a mild-to-moderate inhibitor of CYP2C9. Concomitant use of fenofibric acid with CYP2C9 substrates, such as losartan, has not been formally studied. Fenofibric acid may theoretically increase plasma concentrations of CYP2C9 substrates and could lead to toxicity for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Monitor the therapeutic effect of losartan during coadministration with fenofibric acid.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Co-enzyme Q10, ubiquinone (CoQ10) may lower blood pressure. CoQ10 use in combination with antihypertensive agents may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients who choose to take CoQ10 concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring. Patients should be advised to inform their prescriber of their use of CoQ10. (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Inhibitors of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme have potential to inhibit the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite E-3174. Fluconazole has been shown to increase the AUC of losartan and E-3174 by 69% and 41%, respectively. Monitor therapeutic response to individualize losartan dosage.
    Fluoxetine: (Minor) Inhibitors of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme, such as fluoxetine, have potential to inhibit the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite. Monitor therapeutic response to individualize losartan dosage.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents. (Minor) Inhibitors of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme, such as fluoxetine, have potential to inhibit the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite. Monitor therapeutic response to individualize losartan dosage.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Inhibitors of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme, such as fluvoxamine, have the potential to inhibit the conversion of losartan, a prodrug, to its active metabolite. No specific management recommendations are currently available. Monitor therapeutic response to individualize losartan dosage to desired blood pressure or other therapeutic goals.
    Fosphenytoin: (Minor) In a study of 16 healthy volunteers, phenytoin inhibited the CYP2C9-mediated conversion of losartan to its active metabolite. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, a reduced clinical effect of losartan is possible via reduced formation of a metabolite which significantly contributes to the efficacy of losartan. A similar interaction might be expected with fosphenytoin.
    Fospropofol: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    General anesthetics: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) In general, antipsychotics like haloperidol should be used cautiously with antihypertensive agents due to the possibility of additive hypotension.
    Halothane: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Hawthorn, Crataegus laevigata: (Moderate) Hawthorn, Crataegus laevigata may lower peripheral vascular resistance. Hawthorn use in combination with antihypertensive agents like the angiotensin II receptor antagonists may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients receiving hawthorn concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nitrates with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Major) Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Major) Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as triamterene, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Idelalisib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with losartan, a CYP3A substrate, as losartan toxicities may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, iloperidone can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use with antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of iloperidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists can enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly.
    Imatinib: (Minor) Imatinib, STI-571 is a potent inhibitor of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme and may inhibit the conversion of losartan to its more active metabolite E-3174. Monitor patients response to therapy closely if imatinib is added or discontinued in a patient receiving losartan.
    Incretin Mimetics: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) The effects of indapamide may be additive when administered with other antihypertensive agents or diuretics. In some patients, this may be desirable, but orthostatic hypotension may occur. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists tend to reverse the potassium loss, but not the serum uric acid rise associated with thiazide diuretic monotherapy.
    Insulins: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease.
    Intravenous Lipid Emulsions: (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with losartan may result in increased serum concentrations of losartan. Losartan is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when isocarboxazid is combined with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of isocarboxazid with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider during concurrent use of isocarboxazid and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist.
    Isoflurane: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Moderate) Rifampin significantly induces the metabolism of losartan and its more potent metabolite, E-3174, resulting in a decrease in the AUC and half-life of both compounds; monitor for potential loss of losartan activity.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Moderate) Rifampin significantly induces the metabolism of losartan and its more potent metabolite, E-3174, resulting in a decrease in the AUC and half-life of both compounds; monitor for potential loss of losartan activity.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) The pharmacologic effects of isoproterenol may cause an increase in blood pressure. If isoproterenol is used concomitantly with antihypertensives, the blood pressure should be monitored as the administration of isoproterenol can compromise the effectiveness of antihypertensive agents.
    Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nitrates with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Isosorbide Mononitrate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nitrates with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as losartan. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9; losartan is metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2C9. Co-administration of ivacaftor with CYP3A and CYP2C9 substrates,such as losartan, can theoretically increase losartan exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Ketamine: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Levodopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Levomilnacipran has been associated with an increase in blood pressure. The effectiveness of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may be diminished during concurrent use of levomilnacipran. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Lithium: (Major) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) should be used very cautiously, if at all, in patients already receiving lithium. The risk of lithium toxicity is increased in patients receiving medications that may affect kidney function, such ARBs. These drugs decrease lithium clearance, possibly as a result of sodium depletion which leads to increased renal tubular reabsorption of lithium. If combination therapy cannot be avoided, begin with lower doses of lithium and be alert for evidence of lithium toxicity (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, drowsiness, dysarthria, tremor, confusion, lethargy, ECG changes, etc.). Consider reducing the lithium dosage in previously established patients and monitor lithium concentrations and patient response and tolerability. Conversely, clinicians should be alert to the possibility of loss of lithium effectiveness if ARBs are discontinued in a patient stabilized on lithium. According to the Beers Criteria, concurrent use of lithium and ACE inhibitors may result in a clinically important drug interaction particularly in older adults; the panel recommends avoiding concurrent use due to an increased risk of lithium toxicity. If the combination is medically necessary, monitoring of lithium concentrations is recommended.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Coadministration of furosemide and Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in severe hypotension and deterioration in renal function, including renal failure. Hyponatremia or hypovolemia predisposes patients to acute hypotensive episodes following initiation of ACE inhibitor therapy. While ACE inhibitors and loop diuretics are routinely administered together in the treatment of heart failure, if an ACE inhibitor is to be administered to a patient receiving furosemide, initial doses should be conservative.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of losartan with ritonavir may result in elevated losartan plasma concentrations. Losartan is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Concomitant use of losartan and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter the therapeutic effects of losartan; caution and close monitoring of blood pressure are advised if these drugs are used together. Losartan is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9 and is also a substrate of CYP3A4. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce and/or inhibit CYP2C9. Although induction of losartan through the CYP3A pathway may lead to decreased drug efficacy, the net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on CYP2C9-mediated metabolism is not clear. Monitor the patient for decreased losartan efficacy or increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as losartan. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9; losartan is metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2C9. Co-administration of ivacaftor with CYP3A and CYP2C9 substrates,such as losartan, can theoretically increase losartan exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
    Meglitinides: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; monitor patients receiving concurrent therapy to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Metformin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control. (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of metformin by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. ARBs may rarely reduce renal function, a risk factor for reduced renal clearance of metformin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be monitored for changes in renal function and glycemic control.
    Methamphetamine: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Methohexital: (Moderate) Concurrent use of methohexital and antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Methylphenidate can reduce the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Periodic evaluation of blood pressure is advisable during concurrent use of methylphenidate and antihypertensive agents, particularly during initial coadministration and after dosage increases of methylphenidate.
    Miglitol: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Milnacipran has been associated with an increase in blood pressure. The effectiveness of antihypertensive agents may be diminished during concurrent use of milnacipran. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Milrinone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents could lead to additive hypotension when administered with milrinone. Titrate milrinone dosage according to hemodynamic response.
    Mitotane: (Major) Use caution if mitotane and losartan are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of losartan and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and losartan is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of losartan. Another strong CYP3A inducer, rifampin, decreased the AUC and half-life of losartan by 35% and 50%, respectively. In addition, rifampin decreased the AUC and half-life for the active metabolite of losartan, E-3174, by 40% and 50%, respectively.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Nateglinide: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Nefazodone: (Minor) Although relatively infrequent, nefazodone may cause orthostatic hypotension in some patients; this effect may be additive with antihypertensive agents. Blood pressure monitoring is recommended. Dependent upon clinical response, dosage adjustments of either drug may be necessary.
    Nesiritide, BNP: (Major) The potential for hypotension may be increased when coadministering nesiritide with antihypertensive agents.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise.
    Nitrates: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nitrates with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Nitroglycerin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nitrates with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may occur when nitroprusside is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. Dosages should be adjusted carefully, according to blood pressure.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including selective COX-2 inhibitors) may alter the response to Angiotensin II receptor blockers due to inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandins. Among NSAIDs, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam may have the greatest pressor effect, while the effects of sulindac and nabumetone may be significantly less. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, coadministration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may result in further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of losartan with ritonavir may result in elevated losartan plasma concentrations. Losartan is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Oxymetazoline: (Major) The vasoconstricting actions of oxymetazoline, an alpha adrenergic agonist, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for changes in blood pressure.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Paliperidone may cause orthostatic hypotension, thereby enhancing the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Orthostatic vital signs should be monitored in patients receiving paliperidone and angiotensin II receptor antagonists who are susceptible to hypotension.
    Pazopanib: (Moderate) Pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and losartan, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of losartan. Use caution when administering these drugs concomitantly.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Pentoxifylline has been used concurrently with antihypertensive drugs (beta blockers, diuretics) without observed problems. Small decreases in blood pressure have been observed in some patients treated with pentoxifylline; periodic systemic blood pressure monitoring is recommended for patients receiving concomitant antihypertensives. If indicated, dosage of the antihypertensive agents should be reduced.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when phenelzine is combined with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of phenelzine with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider during concurrent use of phenelzine and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
    Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Phenobarbital causes a reduction of approximately 20 percent in the AUC of losartan and its metabolite. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving phenylephrine at recommended doses do not appear at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Phenytoin: (Minor) Phenytoin may inhibit the CYP2C9-mediated conversion of losartan to its active metabolite. A reduced clinical effect of losartan is possible via reduced formation of a metabolite which significantly contributes to the efficacy of losartan.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes; Ascorbic Acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
    Potassium: (Major) Potassium salts should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients. Also, use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
    Pramlintide: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of pramlintide by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with pramlintide should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) razosin is well-known to produce a 'first-dose' phenomenon. Some patients develop significant hypotension shortly after administration of the first dose. The first dose response (acute postural hypotension) of prazosin may be exaggerated in patients who are receiving beta-adrenergic blockers, diuretics, or other antihypertensive agents. Concomitant administration of prazosin with other antihypertensive agents is not prohibited, however. This can be therapeutically advantageous, but lower dosages of each agent should be used.
    Procainamide: (Moderate) Procainamide can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Intravenous administration of procainamide is more likely to cause hypotensive effects.
    Procaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Propofol: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure.
    Quinidine: (Moderate) Quinidine can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents due to the potential for additive hypotension.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when rasagiline is combined with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during coadministration. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Repaglinide: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Rifampin: (Moderate) Rifampin significantly induces the metabolism of losartan and its more potent metabolite, E-3174, resulting in a decrease in the AUC and half-life of both compounds; monitor for potential loss of losartan activity.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Risperidone may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the hypotensive effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Lower initial doses or slower dose titration of risperidone may be necessary in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists concomitantly.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of losartan with ritonavir may result in elevated losartan plasma concentrations. Losartan is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; ritonavir is an inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when selegiline is combined with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during coadministration. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Sevoflurane: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents.
    SGLT2 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Silodosin: (Moderate) During clinical trials with silodosin, the incidence of dizziness and orthostatic hypotension was higher in patients receiving concomitant antihypertensive treatment. Thus, caution is advisable when silodosin is administered with antihypertensive agents.
    Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. In addition, use caution in patients receiving drugs where hypokalemia is a particular risk.
    Spironolactone: (Major) Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Moderate) St. John's Wort appears to induce several isoenzymes of the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme system and could decrease the efficacy of some medications metabolized by these enzymes including losarten.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) Monitor for hyperkalemia if concomitant use of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and trimethoprim is necessary. Hyperkalemia may be more significant in patients receiving IV trimethoprim. For those patients at higher risk of hyperkalemia (e.g., the elderly, patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, and those with renal dysfunction), consideration of an alternate antibiotic may be warranted. Trimethoprim has a potassium-sparing effect on the distal nephron and may induce hyperkalemia, especially in those with pre-existing risk factors.
    Sulfonamides: (Minor) Inhibitors of the hepatic CYP2C9 isoenzyme, such as sulfonamides, have potential to inhibit the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite. Monitor therapeutic response to individualize losartan dosage.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Telotristat Ethyl: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of telotristat ethyl and losartan is necessary, as the systemic exposure of losartan may be decreased resulting in reduced efficacy. If these drugs are used together, monitor patients for suboptimal efficacy of losartan; consider increasing the dose of losartan if necessary. Losartan is a CYP3A4 substrate. The mean Cmax and AUC of another sensitive CYP3A4 substrate was decreased by 25% and 48%, respectively, when coadministered with telotristat ethyl; the mechanism of this interaction appears to be that telotristat ethyl increases the glucuronidation of the CYP3A4 substrate.
    Tetracaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents. Use extreme caution with the concomitant use of tetracaine and antihypertensive agents.
    Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as losartan. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of CYP3A and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9; losartan is metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2C9. Co-administration of ivacaftor with CYP3A and CYP2C9 substrates,such as losartan, can theoretically increase losartan exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Thiazolidinediones: (Moderate) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. In addition, angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been associated with a reduced incidence in the development of new-onset diabetes in patients with hypertension or other cardiac disease. Patients receiving an ARB in combination with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Thiopental: (Moderate) Concurrent use of thiopental and alpha-blockers or antihypertensive agents increases the risk of developing hypotension.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Thiothixene should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Additive hypotensive effects are possible.
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of tizanidine with antihypertensive agents can result in significant hypotension. Caution is advised when tizanidine is to be used in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive therapy.
    Tolvaptan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations after initiation of tolvaptan therapy in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Tolvaptan therapy results in an acute reduction in extracellular fluid volume which may result in increased serum potassium. In clinical studies, hyperkalemia was reported at a rate 1% to 2% higher when tolvaptan was administered with angiotensin II receptor blockers than when angiotensin II receptor blockers were administered with placebo.
    Tranylcypromine: (Severe) The use of hypotensive agents and tranylcypromine is contraindicated by the manufacturer of tranylcypromine because the effects of hypotensive agents may be markedly potentiated.
    Trazodone: (Minor) Due to additive hypotensive effects, patients receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with trazodone may have excessive hypotension. Decreased dosage of the antihypertensive agent may be required when given with trazodone.
    Triamterene: (Major) Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as triamterene, should be used with caution in patients taking drugs that may increase serum potassium levels such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Concurrent use can cause hyperkalemia, especially in elderly patients or patients with impaired renal function. Coadministration may also result in increases in serum creatinine in heart failure patients.
    Trimethoprim: (Moderate) Monitor for hyperkalemia if concomitant use of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and trimethoprim is necessary. Hyperkalemia may be more significant in patients receiving IV trimethoprim. For those patients at higher risk of hyperkalemia (e.g., the elderly, patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, and those with renal dysfunction), consideration of an alternate antibiotic may be warranted. Trimethoprim has a potassium-sparing effect on the distal nephron and may induce hyperkalemia, especially in those with pre-existing risk factors.
    Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of vemurafenib and losartan may result in altered concentrations of losartan. Vemurafenib is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and an inducer of CYP3A4. Losartan is a substrate of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Use caution and monitor patients for toxicity and efficacy.
    Vigabatrin: (Minor) Vigabatrin is not significantly metabolized; however, it is an inducer of CYP2C9. In theory, decreased exposure of drugs that are extensively metabolized by CYP2C9, such as losartan, may occur during concurrent use of vigabatrin.
    Voriconazole: (Minor) Coadministration of losartan with voriconazole may result in increased exposure to losartan but decreased concentrations of the active metabolite. The conversion of losartan to its active metabolite is primarily mediated by CYP2C9; voriconazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C9. When coadministered with another inhibitor of CYP2C9, the AUC of the active metabolite of losartan was decreased by 40%, but the AUC of losartan increased by 70%.
    Yohimbine: (Moderate) Yohimbine can increase blood pressure and therefore can antagonize the therapeutic action of antihypertensive agents. Use with particular caution in hypertensive patients with high or uncontrolled blood pressure.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) Zafirlukast inhibits the CYP2C9 isoenzymes and should be used cautiously in patients stabilized on drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, such as losartan.
    Ziprasidone: (Minor) Ziprasidone is a moderate antagonist of alpha-1 receptors and may cause orthostatic hypotension with or without tachycardia, dizziness, or syncope. Additive hypotensive effects are possible if ziprasidone is used concurrently with antihypertensive agents.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Losartan is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category D. Once pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan therapy as soon as possible. Women of child-bearing age should be made aware of the potential risk and losartan should only be given after careful counseling and consideration of individual risks and benefits. When used during the second and third trimesters, drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists) reduce fetal renal function and increase fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Other potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. Retrospective data indicate that first trimester use of ACE inhibitors has been associated with a potential risk of birth defects. However, a large observational study (n = 465,754) found that the risk of birth defects was similar in infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, in infants exposed to other antihypertensives during the first trimester, and in those whose mothers were hypertensive but were not treated. Infants born to mothers with hypertension, either treated or untreated, had a higher risk of birth defects than those born to mothers without hypertension. The authors concluded that the presence of hypertension likely contributed to the development of birth defects rather than the use of medications. In rare cases when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue losartan unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. It should be noted that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe newborns with histories of in utero exposure to losartan for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, blood pressure and renal perfusion support may be required, as well as exchange transfusion or dialysis to reverse hypotension and/or support decreased renal function.

    According to the manufacturer, it is not known whether losartan is excreted into human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made to discontinue breast-feeding or discontinue losartan therapy. Losartan has not been evaluated by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); however, the ACE inhibitors captopril and enalapril are classified by the AAP as usually compatible with breast-feeding and may represent preferable alternatives in some patients. In addition, benazepril and quinapril are excreted in human breast milk in very small quantities ; therefore, a clinically significant risk to a breast-feeding infant is not expected. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action: Losartan and its longer acting active metabolite (E-3174) are specific and selective AT1 receptor antagonists. While ACE inhibitors inhibit the actions of angiotensin II by preventing its formation from angiotensin I, losartan interferes with the binding of formed angiotensin II to its endogenous receptor. The active metabolite, E-3174, is 10—40 times more potent than losartan and is primarily responsible for the therapeutic effects of losartan. E-3174 directly antagonizes the actions of angiotensin II by reversibly and non-competitively binding to the AT1 receptor. Losartan and its metabolite have no agonist activity at the AT1 receptor. Angiotensin II is the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin system and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Besides being a potent vasoconstrictor, Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal gland. Thus, by blocking the effects of angiotensin II, losartan decreases systemic vascular resistance without a marked change in heart rate. Type 1 angiotensin (AT1) receptors are found in many tissues, including vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland. AT2 receptors are also found in many tissues, although their relationship to cardiovascular hemostasis is not known. The affinity of losartan and its metabolite is about 1000-fold greater for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor. Neither losartan or its metabolite inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme, other hormone receptors, or ion channels. Losartan is associated with dose-related antiproteinuric effects. Losartan, but not its metabolite, has modest dose-related uricosuric properties.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Losartan is administered orally. Losartan and its active metabolite are highly protein bound, mainly to albumin. The free fraction in plasma of losartan is 1.3% and 0.2% for its metabolite. Losartan does not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Approximately 35% an oral dose is renally excreted; overall 4% is excreted unchanged and 6% as the active metabolite (E-3174) is excreted in the urine. Approximately 60% of a dose is excreted in the feces. The terminal half-life is 2 hours for losartan and 6 hours for its active metabolite. The maximal effects usually occur within the first week of therapy, although in some studies maximal effect has occurred after 3—6 weeks of treatment.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters:  CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19
    Losartan is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4. It has also been reported to have some inhibitory affinity for CYP2C19. Metabolism results in both active and inactive metabolites. In 1% of patients, less than 1% of the active drug is metabolized to its active metabolite, compared to 14% in the majority of patients. 

    Oral Route

    Losartan is well absorbed, but undergoes substantial first-pass metabolism. The systemic bioavailability for losartan tablets is approximately 35%; about 14% of an oral dose is carboxylated in the liver to its active metabolite. Oral bioavailability is approximately 2 times higher in patients with hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite (E-3174) are linear over the dose range up to 200 mg; however, the antihypertensive dose-response curve is nonlinear, with proportionally small decreases in blood pressure attained with increased dosage. Peak serum concentrations occur at 1 hour and 3—4 hours, respectively for the parent drug and metabolite. Maximum serum concentrations are similar for losartan and its metabolite, but the AUC for the metabolite is approximately 4 times greater. Food decreases the maximum concentration and slightly (approximately 10%) decreases the AUC. The bioavailability of losartan and its active metabolite in adults are similar for the tablets and a extemporaneously compounded suspension (see Administration section).