PDR MEMBER LOGIN:
  • PDR Search

    Required field
  • Advertisement
  • CLASSES

    Monoclonal Antibodies that Target VEGF

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Intravenous human monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGFR2
    Used for advanced gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma, metastatic NSCLC, and hepatocellular cancer
    Severe infusion reactions have occurred; premedicate all patients with IV diphenhydramine or equivalent; add acetaminophen and dexamethasone (or equivalent) for patients with a previous grade 1 or 2 infusion reaction

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Cyramza

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Cyramza Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 10mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of gastric cancer or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
    For the treatment of advanced or metastatic gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing chemotherapy, as monotherapy.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    8 mg/kg IV infusion over 60 minutes every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. If the first infusion is tolerated, all subsequent infusions may be administered over 30 minutes. All patients should receive premedication with an IV histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine); for patients who have had a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, premedicate with an H1-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone (or equivalent), and acetaminophen prior to each ramucirumab infusion. In a multinational, randomized, double-blind study (REGARD), treatment with ramucirumab significantly improved overall survival (5.2 months vs. 3.8 months) and progression-free survival (2.1 months vs. 1.3 months) compared with placebo plus best supportive care in patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer.[57042]

    For the treatment of advanced or metastatic gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing chemotherapy, in combination with paclitaxel.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    8 mg/kg IV infusion over 60 minutes every 2 weeks in combination with paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 IV on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. If the first infusion is tolerated, all subsequent infusions may be administered over 30 minutes. All patients should receive premedication with an IV histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine); for patients who have had a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, premedicate with an H1-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone (or equivalent), and acetaminophen prior to each ramucirumab infusion. Administer ramucirumab prior to paclitaxel. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial (RAINBOW), treatment with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel significantly improved overall survival (9.6 months vs. 7.4 months), progression-free survival (4.4 months vs. 2.9 months), and objective response rate (28% vs. 16%) compared with paclitaxel plus placebo in patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer who had previously been treated with platinum- and fluoropyrimidine- containing chemotherapy.[57042]

    For the treatment non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
    For the treatment of metastatic NSCLC with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy, in combination with docetaxel.
    NOTE: Patients with EGFR-positive or ALK-positive tumors should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these mutations prior to treatment with ramucirumab.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    10 mg/kg IV infusion over 60 minutes in combination with docetaxel (75 mg/m2 IV) on day 1, every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity; study sites in East Asia administered docetaxel at a reduced dose (60 mg/m2) due to an increased incidence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Administer ramucirumab prior to docetaxel. If the first infusion is tolerated, all subsequent infusions may be administered over 30 minutes. All patients should receive premedication with an IV histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine); for patients who have had a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, premedicate with an H1-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone (or equivalent), and acetaminophen prior to each ramucirumab infusion. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial (REVEL), treatment with ramucirumab in combination with docetaxel significantly improved overall survival (10.5 months vs. 9.1 months) and progression-free survival (4.5 months vs. 3 months) compared with docetaxel plus placebo in patients with NSCLC that progressed on or after one platinum-based therapy for locally advanced or metastatic disease; the objective response was 23% versus 14%, respectively.[57042] [64217]

    For the first-line treatment of metastatic NSCLC in patients whose tumors have epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutations, in combination with erlotinib.
    NOTE: If EGFR exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutations are not detected in a plasma specimen, test tumor tissue if available. Information on FDA-approved tests for the detection of EGFR mutations in NSCLC is available at http://www.fda.gov/CompanionDiagnostics.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    10 mg/kg IV over 60 minutes every 2 weeks in combination with erlotinib (150 mg PO once daily) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. If the first infusion is tolerated, all subsequent infusions may be administered over 30 minutes. All patients should receive premedication with an IV histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine); for patients who have had a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, premedicate with an H1-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone (or equivalent), and acetaminophen prior to each ramucirumab infusion. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial (the RELAY study), treatment with ramucirumab in combination with erlotinib significantly improved the median progression-free survival (PFS) compared with erlotinib plus placebo in patients with previously untreated metastatic NSCLC with EGFR exon 19 deletions or exon 21 substitution mutations (19.4 months vs. 12.4 months). The objective response rate was 76% for a median duration of 18 months in the ramucirumab arm compared with 75% for a median duration of 11.1 months in the placebo arm. At the time of the final PFS analysis, data for overall survival were not mature.

    For the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
    For the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in patients with disease progression on or after prior therapy with bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and a fluoropyrimidine, in combination with irinotecan, folinic acid (leucovorin), and fluorouracil (FOLFIRI).
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    8 mg/kg IV over 60 minutes on day 1 prior to FOLFIRI administration, every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. FOLFIRI consists of irinotecan 180 mg/m2 IV over 90 minutes and folinic acid (leucovorin) 400 mg/m2 IV administered simultaneously over 120 minutes on day 1, followed by fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 IV bolus over 2 to 4 minutes on day 1, followed by fluorouracil 2,400 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion over 46 to 48 hours. If the first infusion is tolerated, all subsequent infusions may be administered over 30 minutes. All patients should receive premedication with an IV histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine); for patients who have had a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, premedicate with an H1-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone (or equivalent), and acetaminophen prior to each ramucirumab infusion. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial (RAISE), treatment with ramucirumab plus FOLFIRI significantly improved overall survival (13.3 months vs. 11.7 months) and progression-free survival (5.7 months vs. 4.5 months) compared with placebo plus FOLFIRI in patients with mCRC who had progressed on or after prior therapy with bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and a fluoropyrimidine.[57042]

    For the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.
    For the treatment of advanced hepatocellular cancer in patients with an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) of 400 ng/mL or more and have previously been treated with sorafenib.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    8 mg/kg IV infusion over 60 minutes every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. If the first infusion is tolerated, all subsequent infusions may be administered over 30 minutes. All patients should receive premedication with an IV histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine); for patients who have had a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, premedicate with an H1-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone (or equivalent), and acetaminophen prior to each ramucirumab infusion. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial (REACH-2), treatment with ramucirumab significantly improved median overall survival (8.5 months vs. 7.3 months) and progression-free survival (2.8 months vs. 1.6 months) compared with placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer and AFP 400 ng/mL or more, who had disease progression on or after prior sorafenib therapy or were intolerant to sorafenib. The overall response rate was 4.6% versus 1.1%, respectively; all responses were partial responses.[57042]

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    10 mg/kg IV per single dose.

    Geriatric

    10 mg/kg IV per single dose.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A; total bilirubin 1.1 to 3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] and any AST, OR or total bilirubin within ULN and AST greater than ULN): No dosage adjustment needed.
    Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B or C): Use ramucirumab only if the potential benefits of treatment outweigh the risks of clinical deterioration. Specific recommendations for dosage adjustment are not available, but clinical deterioration was reported in patients with Child Pugh B or C hepatic impairment treated with ramucirumab monotherapy.

    Renal Impairment

    No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Injectable Administration

    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if it is discolored or if foreign particulate matter is present.

    Intravenous Administration

    Reconstitution:
    Withdraw the appropriate volume from a single-use vial of ramucirumab (10 mg/mL) and add to a bag of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection to a final volume of 250 mL.
    Do not dilute ramucirumab with other medications or electrolytes. Do not use dextrose-containing solutions.
    Mix diluted solution by gentle inversion. Do not shake.
    The diluted solution is stable for no more than 24 hours at 2 to 8 degrees C (36 to 46 degrees F) or for 4 hours at room temperature (below 25 degrees C or 77 degrees F). Do not freeze.[57042]
     
    Infusion:
    Administer using an infusion pump through a separate infusion line. Use of a protein-sparing 0.22-micron filter is recommended.
    Infuse the first dose over 60 minutes. If the first infusion is tolerated, subsequent doses may be infused over 30 minutes.
    Do not administer as an IV push or bolus.
    Flush the IV line with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection at the end of each infusion.[57042]

    STORAGE

    Cyramza:
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Do not freeze
    - Protect from light
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    - Store in original package until time of use

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Anticoagulant therapy, bleeding, GI bleeding, GI perforation

    Ramucirumab increased the risk of hemorrhage and GI bleeding, including severe and sometimes fatal bleeding events. Patients with gastric cancer receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) were excluded from ramucirumab clinical studies; therefore, the risk of GI bleeding in this population is unknown. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving concomitant chronic NSAID therapy, anti-platelet therapy (other than once-daily aspirin), or therapeutic anticoagulant therapy, those with a recent history of gross hemoptysis, and patients with evidence of major airway invasion by cancer or intratumor cavitation were excluded from clinical studies; therefore, the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage in these patients is unknown. Permanently discontinue ramucirumab in patients who experience severe (grade 3 or 4) bleeding. Anti-angiogenic therapy, including ramucirumab, can also increase the risk of GI perforation; permanently discontinue ramucirumab if this occurs.

    Impaired wound healing, surgery

    Impaired wound healing can occur in patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors such as ramucirumab. Therefore, ramucirumab therapy should be suspended 28 days prior to elective surgery; do not administer ramucirumab for at least 2 weeks following major surgery and until adequate wound healing. The safety of resuming ramucirumab after the resolution of wound healing complications has not been established.

    Infusion-related reactions

    Infusion-related reactions have been reported with the use of ramucirumab in clinical trials including rigors/tremors, back pain/spasms, chest pain and/or tightness, chills, flushing, dyspnea, wheezing, hypoxia, and paresthesias; in severe cases, symptoms included bronchospasm, supraventricular tachycardia, and hypotension. Premedicate all patients with an IV histamine-1 receptor antagonist (e.g., diphenhydramine) prior to each infusion; add dexamethasone (or equivalent) and acetaminophen prior to each infusion in patients who have experienced a prior grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reactions. Monitor patients during the infusion for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions; have resuscitation equipment available. Reduce the infusion rate by 50% for grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reactions; permanently discontinue ramucirumab for grade 3 or 4 infusion-related reactions.[57042]

    Cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke

    Serious and sometimes fatal arterial thromboembolic events including myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and stroke have been reported in ramucirumab clinical trials. Permanently discontinue ramucirumab in patients who experience an arterial thromboembolic event.

    Hypertension

    Use ramucirumab with caution in patients with pre-existing hypertension. Severe hypertension has been reported in patients receiving treatment with ramucirumab in clinical trials. Blood pressure should be controlled prior to initiation of treatment, and monitored every 2 weeks during treatment, or more frequently as indicated. If patients experience severe hypertension, hold ramucirumab therapy until blood pressure is controlled. Permanently discontinue ramucirumab in patients with hypertensive crisis, hypertensive encephalopathy, or if clinically significant hypertension is unable to be controlled with medical therapy.[57042]

    Biliary cirrhosis, hepatic disease

    Use ramucirumab in patients with caution in patients with mild to moderate hepatic disease (total bilirubin within the upper limit of normal (ULN) and AST greater than ULN, OR total bilirubin 1.1 to 3 times ULN and any AST). Clinical deterioration, manifested by new or worsening encephalopathy, ascites, or hepatorenal syndrome, was reported in patients with Child-Pugh B or C biliary cirrhosis treated with ramucirumab monotherapy; use ramucirumab in these patients only if the potential benefits of treatment outweigh the risks of clinical deterioration. Based on safety data in patients with hepatocellular cancer, the pooled incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome was also higher for patients with Child-Pugh A liver disease who received ramucirumab compared to patients who received placebo.[57042]

    Human anti-human antibody (HAHA)

    Treatment-emergent human anti-human antibody (HAHA) was detected in 3% of patients treated with ramucirumab in clinical trials (n = 2,890); neutralizing antibodies were detected in 16% of these patients. Results may be influenced by several factors, including sample handling, the timing of sample collection, drug interference, concomitant medication, and the underlying disease. Comparison of the incidence of antibodies to ramucirumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.[57042]

    Proteinuria, renal disease

    Use ramucirumab with caution in patients with renal disease; severe proteinuria including nephrotic syndrome has been reported with ramucirumab therapy. Monitor proteinuria by urine dipstick and/or urinary protein creatinine ratio. If the urine dipstick is 2+ or greater, perform a 24-hour urine collection for protein measurement. An interruption of therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be needed for proteinuria or in the setting of nephrotic syndrome.

    Encephalopathy

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES), also known as Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS), has been reported with ramucirumab use. Symptoms of PRES include seizures, headache, nausea/vomiting, blindness, and altered mental status. Permanently discontinue ramucirumab therapy if PRES is suspected or diagnosed; this syndrome may be confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Hypothyroidism, thyroid disease

    Use ramucirumab with caution in patients with a history of pre-existing thyroid disease; mild (grade 1 or 2) hypothyroidism has been reported with ramucirumab treatment. Monitor thyroid function during treatment with ramucirumab.

    Pregnancy

    Pregnancy should be avoided by females of reproductive potential during ramucirumab treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose. Although there are no adequately controlled studies in pregnant women, ramucirumab can cause fetal harm or death when administered during pregnancy based on its mechanism of action. In mice, loss of the VEGFR gene resulted in embryofetal death, and these fetuses lacked organized blood vessels and blood islands in the yolk sac. In other models, VEGFR2 signaling was associated with the development and maintenance of endometrial and placental vascular function, successful blastocyst implantation, maternal and feto-placental vascular differentiation, and development during early pregnancy in rodents and non-human primates. Disruption of VEGF signaling has also been associated with developmental anomalies, including poor development of the cranial region, forelimbs, forebrain, heart, and blood vessels.[57042]

    Contraception requirements, infertility, pregnancy testing, reproductive risk

    Counsel patients about the reproductive risk and contraception requirements during ramucirumab treatment. Ramucirumab can be teratogenic if taken by the mother during pregnancy. Females of reproductive potential should avoid pregnancy and use effective contraception during and for at least 3 months after treatment with ramucirumab. Females of reproductive potential should undergo pregnancy testing prior to initiation of ramucirumab. Women who become pregnant while receiving ramucirumab should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Although there are no data regarding the effect of ramucirumab on human fertility, infertility has been observed in animal studies.

    Breast-feeding

    Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ramucirumab, advise women to discontinue breast-feeding during treatment and for 2 months after the final dose. It is not known whether ramucirumab is present in human milk, although many drugs are excreted in human milk.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    hypertension / Early / 6.0-24.0
    hyponatremia / Delayed / 3.0-16.0
    asthenia / Delayed / 0-14.0
    fatigue / Early / 5.0-14.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-11.0
    neutropenia / Delayed / 0-8.0
    stomatitis / Delayed / 0-7.0
    bleeding / Early / 2.0-5.0
    hypokalemia / Delayed / 0-5.0
    GI bleeding / Delayed / 2.6-4.3
    ascites / Delayed / 0-4.0
    GI obstruction / Delayed / 0-3.0
    proteinuria / Delayed / 0-3.0
    GI perforation / Delayed / 0-2.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 0-2.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-2.0
    hypocalcemia / Delayed / 0-2.0
    peripheral edema / Delayed / 0-2.0
    back pain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    infusion-related reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (hand and foot syndrome) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hypoalbuminemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    lacrimation / Early / 0-1.0
    headache / Early / 0-1.0
    hepatic encephalopathy / Delayed / 0-0.5
    nephrotic syndrome / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    leukoencephalopathy / Delayed / 0-0.1
    bronchospasm / Rapid / Incidence not known
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombotic microangiopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
    pneumothorax / Early / Incidence not known
    aortic dissection / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    antibody formation / Delayed / 0.5-3.0
    hypothyroidism / Delayed / 0-3.0
    encephalopathy / Delayed / 0-0.1
    wheezing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypoxia / Early / Incidence not known
    supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) / Early / Incidence not known
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    impaired wound healing / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysphonia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    alopecia / Delayed / 0-34.0
    nausea / Early / 0-19.0
    insomnia / Early / 0-11.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-10.0
    fever / Early / 0-10.0
    rash / Early / 0-4.2
    chills / Rapid / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tremor / Early / Incidence not known
    infection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysgeusia / Early / Incidence not known
    weight loss / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Clozapine: (Major) It is unclear if concurrent use of other drugs known to cause neutropenia (e.g., antineoplastic agents) increases the risk or severity of clozapine-induced neutropenia. Because there is no strong rationale for avoiding clozapine in patients treated with these drugs, consider increased absolute neutrophil count (ANC) monitoring and consult the treating oncologist.
    Palifermin: (Moderate) Palifermin should not be administered within 24 hours before, during infusion of, or within 24 hours after administration of antineoplastic agents.
    Penicillamine: (Major) Do not use penicillamine with antineoplastic agents due to the increased risk of developing severe hematologic and renal toxicity.
    Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative, PPD: (Moderate) Immunosuppressives may decrease the immunological response to tuberculin purified protein derivative, PPD. This suppressed reactivity can persist for up to 6 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Consider deferring the skin test until completion of the immunosuppressive therapy.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Pregnancy should be avoided by females of reproductive potential during ramucirumab treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose. Although there are no adequately controlled studies in pregnant women, ramucirumab can cause fetal harm or death when administered during pregnancy based on its mechanism of action. In mice, loss of the VEGFR gene resulted in embryofetal death, and these fetuses lacked organized blood vessels and blood islands in the yolk sac. In other models, VEGFR2 signaling was associated with the development and maintenance of endometrial and placental vascular function, successful blastocyst implantation, maternal and feto-placental vascular differentiation, and development during early pregnancy in rodents and non-human primates. Disruption of VEGF signaling has also been associated with developmental anomalies, including poor development of the cranial region, forelimbs, forebrain, heart, and blood vessels.[57042]

    Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ramucirumab, advise women to discontinue breast-feeding during treatment and for 2 months after the final dose. It is not known whether ramucirumab is present in human milk, although many drugs are excreted in human milk.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Ramucirumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2; kinase insert domain-containing receptor; KDR), preventing the binding of ligands VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. As a result, ramucirumab inhibits ligand-stimuluated activation of VEGFR2, inhibiting ligand-induced proliferation, and migration of human endothelial cells. Ramucirumab inhibited angiogenesis in an in vivo animal model. Ramucirumab works differently than bevacizumab, another VEGF inhibitor, in that bevacizumab binds to the ligand, VEGF, preventing it from binding to VEGFR2/KDR; bevacizumab also decreases VEGF levels after binding. Ramucirumab binds to VEGF2, preventing the VEGF ligands from binding, and does not affect initial levels of VEGF. The mechanism of binding to VEGFR2 rather than VEGF may also induce less resistance, since endothelial cells are genetically stable.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Ramucirumab is administered by intravenous infusion. Ramucirumab is administered by intravenous infusion. Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, the mean volume of distribution at steady state was 5.4 L (CV, 15%). The mean clearance of ramucirumab is 0.015 L/hour (CV, 30%) and the mean elimination half-life is 14 days (CV, 20%). Steady-state concentrations were achieved at approximately 12 weeks. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of ramucirumab are similar for patients across cancer types.[57042] The drug is eliminated by saturable receptor-mediated clearance.[57057]
     
    Affected Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and drug transporters: None reported.[57042]

    Intravenous Route

    Ramucirumab systemic exposure increased dose proportionally at doses of 8 mg/kg and above.