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  • CLASSES

    First Generation Antihistamines
    Sedatives, Other
    Topical Antihistamines

    DEA CLASS

    OTC, Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral, topical, and parenteral first-generation, sedating antihistamine
    Used to treat minor allergic reactions and seasonal allergies; also used as a sleep aid and premedication for some histamine-inducing regimens
    Potential for abuse and overdose; higher than recommended systemic doses can cause serious heart problems, seizures, coma, or death

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Aid to Sleep, Alka-Seltzer Plus Allergy, Aller-G-Time, Altaryl, Banophen, Benadryl, Benadryl Allergy, Benadryl Allergy Children's, Benadryl Allergy Dye Free, Benadryl Allergy Kapgel, Benadryl Allergy Ultratab, Benadryl Children's Allergy, Benadryl Children's Allergy Fastmelt, Benadryl Children's Perfect Measure, Benadryl Itch Stopping, Compoz Nighttime Sleep Aid, Diphedryl, DIPHEN, Diphen AF, Diphenhist, ElixSure Allergy, Genahist, Geri-Dryl, Hydramine, Itch Relief, M-Dryl, Nighttime Sleep Aid, Nytol, PediaCare Children's Allergy, PediaCare Nighttime Cough, PediaClear Children's Cough, PHARBEDRYL, Q-Dryl, Siladryl Allergy, Simply Sleep, Sleep Tabs, Sleepinal, Sominex, Sominex Maximum Strength, Tusstat, Unisom, Valu-Dryl, Vanamine PD, Vicks Qlearquil Nighttime Allergy Relief, Vicks ZzzQuil Nightime Sleep-Aid

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Aid to Sleep/Alka-Seltzer Plus Allergy/Aller-G-Time/Banophen/Benadryl Allergy/Benadryl Allergy Kapgel/Benadryl Allergy Ultratab/Diphedryl/Diphenhist/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride/Genahist/Nytol/Simply Sleep/Sleep Tabs/Sominex/Sominex Maximum Strength/Vicks Qlearquil Nighttime Allergy Relief Oral Tab: 25mg, 50mg
    Altaryl/Banophen/Benadryl Allergy/Benadryl Allergy Children's/Benadryl Children's Allergy/Benadryl Children's Perfect Measure/DIPHEN/Diphen AF/Diphenhist/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride/ElixSure Allergy/Genahist/Geri-Dryl/Hydramine/M-Dryl/PediaCare Children's Allergy/PediaCare Nighttime Cough/PediaClear Children's Cough/Q-Dryl/Siladryl Allergy/Tusstat/Vanamine PD/Vicks ZzzQuil Nightime Sleep-Aid Oral Sol: 1mL, 5mL, 6.25mg, 12.5mg, 30mL, 50mg
    Altaryl/Banophen/Benadryl Allergy/Benadryl Allergy Children's/Benadryl Children's Allergy/Benadryl Children's Perfect Measure/DIPHEN/Diphen AF/Diphenhist/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride/ElixSure Allergy/Genahist/Geri-Dryl/Hydramine/M-Dryl/PediaCare Children's Allergy/PediaCare Nighttime Cough/Q-Dryl/Siladryl Allergy/Tusstat Oral Liq: 5mL, 12.5mg
    Banophen/Benadryl Allergy/Benadryl Allergy Dye Free/Diphedryl/Diphenhist/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride/Genahist/Geri-Dryl/PHARBEDRYL/Q-Dryl/Sleepinal/Unisom/Valu-Dryl/Vicks ZzzQuil Nightime Sleep-Aid Oral Cap: 25mg, 50mg
    Benadryl Children's Allergy/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Oral Tab Chew: 12.5mg
    Benadryl/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Intramuscular Inj Sol: 1mL, 50mg
    Benadryl/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 50mg
    Benadryl/Diphenhydramine/Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride/Itch Relief Topical Cream: 2%
    Unisom Oral Tab Orally Dis: 25mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the prevention and treatment of allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, or pruritus; also for treating symptoms (e.g., rhinorrhea, sneezing) associated with allergic rhinitis or the common cold, and for cough caused by minor throat and bronchial irritation.
    For prevention and treatment of allergic or hypersensitivity reactions including allergic rhinitis, urticaria, pruritus, and angioedema, or as an adjunct to epinephrine for anaphylaxis under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    25 to 50 mg PO 3 to 4 times per day, at 4 to 6 hour intervals, as needed. Max: 300 mg/day.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    1 to 1.5 mg/kg/dose (Max: 25 to 50 mg/dose) PO 3 to 4 times daily, up to 5 mg/kg/day (Max: 300 mg/day).

    Intravenous or Intramuscular dosage
    Adults

    10 to 50 mg IV or IM every 4 to 6 hours, as needed. Single doses of 100 mg may be given if required. Max: 400 mg/day.

    Adolescents

    25 to 50 mg/dose IV or IM every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Max: 400 mg/day).

    Infants and Children

    1 to 2 mg/kg/dose (Max: 50 mg/dose) IV or IM every 4 to 8 hours as needed, up to 5 mg/kg/day (Max: 200 mg/day).

    For non-prescription self-treatment of symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis or the common cold.
    Oral dosage (tablets or capsules, chewable tablets, or oral liquids, e.g., Benadryl products, non-prescription)
    Adults and Adolescents

    25 to 50 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed. Max: 300 mg per 24 hours.

    Children 6 to 12 years

    12.5 to 25 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed. Max: 150 mg per 24 hours.

    For non-prescription self-treatment of cough caused by minor throat and bronchial irritation.
    Oral dosage
    Adults and Adolescents

    25 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed. Max: 150 mg per 24 hours.

    Children 6 to 12 years

    12.5 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed. Max: 75 mg per 24 hours.

    For the prevention and treatment of motion sickness or vertigo.
    Oral dosage
    Adults and Adolescents

    For nonprescription use, 25 to 50 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed, not to exceed 300 mg in 24 hours.

    Children 6 to 12 years

    For nonprescription use, 12.5 to 25 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed, not to exceed 150 mg in 24 hours.

    Intravenous and intramuscular dosage
    Adults and Adolescents

    10 to 50 mg IV or IM initially. Usually repeated every 6 hours as needed, not to exceed 400 mg per 24 hours.

    Children 6 to 12 years

    1 to 1.5 mg/kg IV or IM every 6 hours as needed, not to exceed 300 mg/24 hours.

    For the treatment of insomnia.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    50 mg PO at bedtime as needed. Lower dosages may be used at advice of prescriber.

    Geriatric Adults

    The usual adult dose is 50 mg at bedtime; a lower initial dose is advisable in geriatric patients. The U.S. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates the use of sedative/hypnotics in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Not a medication of choice for the treatment of insomnia in the elderly. Max: 25 mg/day PO in residents meeting treatment criteria, except when documentation is provided showing that higher doses are necessary to maintain/improve functional status. Use sleep medications in accordance with approved product labeling. If used routinely and beyond the manufacturer's recommendations for duration of use, attempt a quarterly taper unless clinically contraindicated.

    Children and Adolescents 12 years and older

    50 mg PO at bedtime as needed. Lower dosages may be used at advice of prescriber. The FDA recommends that non-prescription sleep-aid products not be used for sedation in pediatric patients of any age (Public Health Advisory, January 2008).

    For the treatment of parkinsonism or Parkinson's disease.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 25 mg PO 3 times per day; dose may be increased to 50 mg 4 times per day.

    Intravenous or Intramuscular dosage
    Adults

    10 to 50 mg IV or IM initially. Usually repeated every 6 hours as needed, not to exceed 400 mg per 24 hours.

    For the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.
    Intravenous or Intramuscular dosage
    Adults

    10 to 50 mg IV or IM initially. Usually repeated every 6 hours as needed, not to exceed 400 mg per 24 hours.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    1 to 2 mg/kg/dose (Max: 50 mg/dose) IV or IM every 6 hours as needed, up to 5 mg/kg/day (Max: 300 mg/day).

    Oral dosage
    Adults

    25 to 50 mg PO, usually 3 to 4 times daily. Max: 300 mg/day.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    1 to 1.5 mg/kg/dose (Max: 25 to 50 mg/dose) PO 3 to 4 times daily, up to 5 mg/kg/day (Max: 300 mg/day).

    For the treatment of local reactions to insect bites or stings, allergic contact dermatitis, or Rhus dermatitis due to poison ivy/oak/sumac.
    Topical dosage
    Adults, including the Geriatric

    Topical application of H-1-antagonists is discouraged because of questionable efficacy and the possibility of sensitivity reactions, especially from prolonged or repeated use. However, diphenhydramine cream and lotion are available for external application, applied 3 to 4 times per day for up to 7 days.

    For the treatment of acute peripheral vestibular nystagmus†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    25 to 50 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours for up to 48 hours has been recommended. It is advisable to individualize the dosage based upon clinical response and tolerability.

    For the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea/vomiting†.
    Oral dosage
    Adult pregnant females

    25 mg to 50 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours. Diphenhydramine is a second-line pharmacologic option if the patient is still experiencing persistent symptoms after a trial of nonpharmacologic options and pyridoxine taken alone or in combination with doxylamine.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Maximum doses are indication-specific; do not exceed product labeling. The following are general guidelines:

    Adults

    300 mg/day PO; 400 mg/day IV or IM.

    Geriatric

    300 mg/day PO; 400 mg/day IV or IM.

    Adolescents

    300 mg/day PO; 400 mg/day IV or IM.

    Children

    5 mg/kg/24 hours PO,IV, or IM, not to exceed 300 mg/day; OTC use is not recommended in children < 6 years.

    Infants

    5 mg/kg/24 hours IV or IM. Safety and efficacy have not been established for PO formulations. OTC use is not recommended.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Dosage reduction may be warranted for patients with hepatic impairment; diphenhydramine is extensively metabolized in the liver.

    Renal Impairment

    No dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    NOTE:

    Oral Administration

    Diphenhydramine may be administered without regard to meals.

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Use a calibrated, spoon, dropper, or cup to measure dosage.

    Injectable Administration

    Diphenhydramine is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Do not use subcutaneously or perivascularly.
    Maximum concentration for injection is 50 mg/mL.
    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

    Intravenous Administration

    Infuse intravenously over 10—15 minutes. Maximum infusion rate is 25 mg/minute.

    Intramuscular Administration

    Inject deeply into a large muscle (i.e., upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus or lateral part of the thigh).

    Topical Administration

    External use only; do NOT administer orally or use on mucous membranes.
    Apply gently to affected area.
    Topical products may contain camphor; toxic if ingested. Advise patients to use only as directed on product labeling.
    To decrease the likelihood of an administration route error, store topical preparations separately from oral products and advise patients to do the same.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in a cool, dry place
    Aid to Sleep:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Alka-Seltzer Plus Allergy:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Aller-G-Time :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Altaryl:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Banophen :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Benadryl:
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    - Store in carton until time of use
    Benadryl Allergy:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Benadryl Allergy Children's :
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Benadryl Allergy Dye Free:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Benadryl Allergy Kapgel:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Benadryl Allergy Quick Dissolve:
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 59 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in a dry place
    Benadryl Allergy Ultratab:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Benadryl Children's Allergy:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Benadryl Children's Allergy Fastmelt:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Benadryl Children's Perfect Measure:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Benadryl Itch Stopping:
    - Storage information not provided in labeling
    Ben-Tann :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Compoz Nighttime Sleep Aid:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Diphedryl :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    DIPHEN:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Diphen AF :
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Diphenhist:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    DiphenMax :
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Dytan:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    ElixSure Allergy:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Genahist :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Geri-Dryl:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Hydramine:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Itch Relief :
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    M-Dryl:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Nighttime Sleep Aid:
    - Avoid excessive humidity
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Nytol:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    PediaCare Children's Allergy:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    PediaCare Nighttime Cough:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    PediaClear Children's Cough:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    PHARBEDRYL:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Q-Dryl:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Quenalin :
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store below 86 degrees F
    Siladryl Allergy:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Silphen :
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store below 86 degrees F
    Simply Sleep :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Sleep Tabs:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Sleepinal:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    Sominex:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Sominex Maximum Strength:
    - Avoid excessive humidity
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Triaminic Allergy Thin Strip:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Triaminic Cough and Runny Nose Strip:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Tusstat:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    - Store in carton until contents are used
    Unisom:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Uni-Tann:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Valu-Dryl :
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a dry place
    Vanamine PD:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Vicks Qlearquil Nighttime Allergy Relief:
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Vicks ZzzQuil Nightime Sleep-Aid:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Avoid excessive humidity
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Use antihistamines such as diphenhydramine with caution in patients with asthma. The anticholinergic activity of H1-antagonists may result in thickened bronchial secretions in the respiratory tract thereby aggravating an acute asthmatic attack or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although antihistamines should be avoided during an acute asthmatic attack, these anticholinergic effects do not preclude the use of antihistamines in all asthmatic or COPD patients, particularly if the above respiratory symptom is not a primary component of the illness. Because diphenhydramine exhibits a significant amount of anticholinergic activity, the use of an H1-antagonist with less anticholinergic activity is preferable when therapy is indicated.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Diphenhydramine should be used cautiously in young children; most non-prescription oral products are labeled only for use in children 6 years and older. The FDA recommends against the use of diphenhydramine for sedation in pediatric patients of any age. While prescription use of diphenhydramine is approved for the treatment of allergic reactions and other conditions in infants and children as young as 1 month, the drug must be used with caution since a paradoxical CNS stimulation can occur. In general, sedating antihistamines should not be used in neonates due to the possibility of paradoxical CNS stimulation or seizures. There have been a number of cases of respiratory depression, sleep apnea, and SIDS in children receiving phenothiazine antihistamines. The mechanism of this reaction is not yet known; therefore, sedating antihistamines should be used with extreme caution in children with a family history of SIDS or sleep apnea. In January 2007, the CDC warned caregivers and healthcare providers of the risk for serious injury or fatal overdose from the administration of cough and cold products to children and infants less than 2 years of age. This warning followed an investigation of the deaths of three (3) infants less than 6 months of age that were attributed to the inadvertent inappropriate use of these products. The symptoms preceding these deaths have not been clearly defined, and there is a lack of conclusive data describing the exact cause of death. The report estimated that 1,519 children less than 2 years of age were treated in emergency departments during 2004 to 2005 for adverse events related to cough and cold medications. In October 2007, the FDA Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee and the Pediatric Advisory Committee recommended that nonprescription cough and cold products containing pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, brompheniramine, phenylephrine, clemastine, or guaifenesin not be used in children less than 6 years of age. In January 2008, the FDA issued a Public Health Advisory recommending that OTC cough and cold products not be used in infants and children less than 2 years. The FDA recommends that if these products are used, labels should be read carefully, caution should be used when administering multiple products, and only measuring devices specifically designed for use with medications should be used. While some combination cough/cold products containing these ingredients are available by prescription only and are not necessarily under scrutiny by the FDA, clinicians should thoroughly assess each patient's use of similar products, both prescription and nonprescription, to avoid duplication of therapy and the potential for inadvertent overdose.

    Pregnancy

    Parenteral diphenhydramine is typically the parenteral antihistamine of choice in managing acute or severe allergic reactions during pregnancy. The routine use of sedating antihistamines is generally not recommended in the last 2 weeks of pregnancy due to a possible association between these drugs and retrolental fibroplasia in premature neonates. Non-pharmacologic methods (e.g., fluids and rest) are recommended to be tried first for symptomatic relief of colds or allergies during pregnancy. Pregnant patients should see their health care professional for a proper diagnosis and for treatment recommendations before taking medications. Diphenhydramine should be administered during pregnancy only when the benefits of therapy outweigh the potential risks to the fetus, and use should be limited to short-term, 'as needed' administration under the prescription of a qualified health-care professional. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology consider loratadine an acceptable alternative for allergy symptoms in pregnancy, preferably after the first trimester, when first generation antihistamines are usually not tolerated. Diphenhydramine has been used to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, but such use should occur under the advice and supervision of a qualified health care professional. ACOG guidelines and opinions allow for use of diphenhydramine as a second-line pharmacologic option in treatment algorithms for nausea/vomiting due to pregnancy; nonpharmacologic options and pyridoxine taken alone or in combination with doxylamine are first-line.

    Breast-feeding

    Topical diphenhydramine use does not carry any particular caution in breast-feeding women; avoid application to the breast area in a lactating woman. Use all forms of oral diphenhydramine with caution in breast-feeding women. The use of injectable diphenhydramine is contraindicated in breast-feeding due to the higher risks associated with antihistamine use in infants, particularly neonates and premature neonates. Small, single or occasional doses of diphenhydramine, when necessary, would not be expected to cause adverse effects in breast-fed infants. However, larger doses or prolonged use may cause adverse effects in the breast-fed infant or decrease the mother's milk supply, particularly when used in combination with a sympathomimetic (such as pseudoephedrine) or before lactation is well established. In one telephone follow-up study, mothers reported irritability and colicky symptoms in 10% of infants exposed to various antihistamines and drowsiness was reported in 1.6% of infants. No reactions were reported as requiring medical attention. In this study, drowsiness was reported in one infant of 12 exposed to diphenhydramine breast-milk. In general, many first-generation antihistamines are not recommended for use during lactation, since irritability, drowsiness, unusual excitement or other infant effects might be observed. Antihistamines can lower basal prolactin secretion and may interfere with the establishment of lactation. Consider treatment alternatives when possible. Loratadine may be considered as an alternative for the treatment of allergy symptoms. Because of its lack of sedation and low milk concentrations, maternal use would not be expected to cause adverse effects in breast-fed babies and loratadine is considered usually compatible with breast-feeding. The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology also recommends loratadine at the lowest dose as a preferred antihistamine in breast-feeding women. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Closed-angle glaucoma, contact lenses, increased intraocular pressure

    Diphenhydramine should be avoided, if possible, in patients with closed-angle glaucoma and an antihistamine with less anticholinergic effects should be substituted. Increased intraocular pressure may occur from the anticholinergic actions of the drug, precipitating an acute attack of glaucoma. Other ocular effects resulting from the anticholinergic effects of diphenhydramine include dry eyes or blurred vision. This may be of significance in the elderly and wearers of contact lenses.

    Bladder obstruction, GI obstruction, ileus, prostatic hypertrophy, urinary retention

    Diphenhydramine has substantial anticholinergic effects and a worsening of symptoms may be seen in patients with bladder obstruction, GI obstruction or ileus, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or urinary retention. These precautions are most significant when using H1-antagonists from the ethanolamine group such as diphenhydramine. The elderly are more susceptible to the anticholinergic effects of drugs since there is a decline in endogenous cholinergic activity that occurs with age.

    Hepatic disease

    Diphenhydramine is extensively metabolized in the liver. Metabolism may be reduced in the presence of hepatic impairment. Those with significant hepatic disease receiving H1-antagonists should be monitored for liver function and side effects. Dosage reduction may be required in these patients.

    Cardiac disease, hypertension

    The quinidine-like local anesthetic and anticholinergic effects of first-generation H1-antagonists are responsible for the adverse cardiac effects which have been observed including tachycardia, ECG changes, hypotension, and arrhythmias. Although these cardiovascular effects are uncommon, sedating antihistamines should be used conservatively in patients with cardiac disease or hypertension.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Diphenhydramine can cause drowsiness. Patients receiving diphenhydramine should be advised to avoid driving or operating machinery until the effects of the drug are known.

    Accidental exposure, potential for overdose or poisoning

    Diphenhydramine has the potential for overdose or poisoning with incorrect use. Serious adverse events, including death, have been reported after the ingestion of large oral doses of diphenhydramine during the "Benadryl Challenge", a social media "challenge" aimed at young people. Taking larger than recommended systemic doses can cause serious heart problems, seizures, coma, and death. Additionally, numerous reports of adverse events, some severe, have been reported after the accidental exposure via ingestion of topical diphenhydramine gel. Although all forms of diphenhydramine have potential for overdose or poisoning with incorrect use, liquid topical preparations contain a significantly greater concentration of active ingredient. For example, a 2% topical formulation equals diphenhydramine 100 mg/5 mL, whereas oral liquid preparations typically contain diphenhydramine 12.5 mg/5 mL. Similarities in topical gel and oral liquid product packaging may contribute to consumer confusion. Health care practitioners are encouraged to reduce the potential for overdose or poisoning by counseling patients on the route of administration and indication whenever OTC products are recommended and to store all medicine in a secure location.

    Anticholinergic medications, geriatric

    Geriatric patients are more susceptible to the anticholinergic effects of diphenhydramine. The anticholinergic effects of diphenhydramine may be additive with other anticholinergic medications, particularly in the elderly. Guidelines suggest that clinicians not use diphenhydramine as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia, including in elderly adults; chronic use should be avoided. The Beers expert panel considers treatment of acute emergent conditions such as a severe allergic reaction an acceptable use of diphenhydramine in the geriatric patient when necessary. According to the Beers Criteria, first generation sedating antihistamines are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients; avoid use as they are highly anticholinergic, there is reduced clearance in advanced age, tolerance develops when used as hypnotics, and there is a greater risk of anticholinergic effects (e.g., confusion, dry mouth, constipation) and toxicity compared to younger adults. Avoid drugs with strong anticholinergic properties in geriatric patients with the following conditions due to the potential for exacerbation of the condition or adverse effects: dementia/cognitive impairment (adverse CNS effects), delirium/high risk of delirium (possible new-onset or worsening delirium), or lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia in men (urinary retention or hesitancy). The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities; cough, cold, and allergy medications should be used only for a limited duration (less than 14 days) unless there is documented evidence of enduring symptoms that cannot otherwise be alleviated. First-generation antihistamines have strong anticholinergic properties and are not considered medications of choice in older individuals. If appropriate and effective, topical diphenhydramine may be considered for allergic reactions involving the skin instead of oral diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine is considered inappropriate for use as an anxiolytic by the OBRA guidelines. The OBRA guidelines provide criteria for use and tapering requirements for sedating antihistamines used as sedative/hypnotics, such as diphenhydramine, which is found in some non-prescription sleep aids.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactic shock / Rapid / Incidence not known
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    contact dermatitis / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    neuritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    euphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    excitability / Early / Incidence not known
    constipation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known
    urinary retention / Early / Incidence not known
    wheezing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    atopic dermatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    drowsiness / Early / 22.1-22.1
    restlessness / Early / 1.0-10.0
    asthenia / Delayed / 4.4-4.4
    headache / Early / 2.5-2.5
    dizziness / Early / 2.5-2.5
    xerostomia / Early / 4.9
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    tinnitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    psychomotor impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tremor / Early / Incidence not known
    insomnia / Early / Incidence not known
    irritability / Delayed / Incidence not known
    agitation / Early / Incidence not known
    diarrhea / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspepsia / Early / Incidence not known
    xerophthalmia / Early / Incidence not known
    diplopia / Early / Incidence not known
    mydriasis / Early / Incidence not known
    menstrual irregularity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nasal congestion / Early / Incidence not known
    nasal dryness / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    photosensitivity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    chills / Rapid / Incidence not known
    rash / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if dichloralphenazone is used concomitantly with any of the sedating H1 blockers. Use caution with this combination. Dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Moderate) Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity. Coadministration of pentazocine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may affect CNS function significantly. Therefore, psychotropic pharmacodynamic interactions could occur following concomitant administration of drugs with significant CNS activity. Use with caution.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Alosetron: (Moderate) Alosetron, if combined with drugs that possess anticholinergic properties like sedating H1 blockers, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstruction/impaction or paralytic ileus.
    Amantadine: (Moderate) Medications with significant anticholinergic activity may potentiate the anticholinergic effects of amantadine, and may increase the risk of antimuscarinic-related side effects. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of ambenonium may be diminished when coadministered with drugs known to exhibit anticholinergic properties including sedating H1-blockers. When concurrent use cannot be avoided, monitor the patient for reduced ambenonium efficacy.
    Amikacin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Aminoglycosides: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Amobarbital: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Amoxapine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when amoxapine is used concomitantly with drugs are known to possess relatively significant antimuscarinic properties, including sedating H1-blockers. Antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature Additive sedation may also occur.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Apomorphine causes significant somnolence. Concomitant administration of apomorphine and diphenhydramine could result in additive depressant effects. Careful monitoring is recommended during combined use. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) No specific drug interactions were identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials. Theoretically, apraclonidine might potentiate the effects of CNS depressant drugs such as the anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including barbiturates or benzodiazepines.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Minor) Use caution if diphenhydramine and aprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for a possible decrease in the efficacy of diphenhydramine. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares the same drug interactions. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2C9 substrate and aprepitant is a CYP2C9 inducer. Administration of a CYP2C9 substrate, tolbutamide, on days 1, 4, 8, and 15 with a 3-day regimen of oral aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) decreased the tolbutamide AUC by 23% on day 4, 28% on day 8, and 15% on day 15. The AUC of tolbutamide was decreased by 8% on day 2, 16% on day 4, 15% on day 8, and 10% on day 15 when given prior to oral administration of aprepitant 40 mg on day 1, and on days 2, 4, 8, and 15. The effects of aprepitant on tolbutamide were not considered significant. When a 3-day regimen of aprepitant (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg) given to healthy patients on stabilized chronic warfarin therapy (another CYP2C9 substrate), a 34% decrease in S-warfarin trough concentrations was noted, accompanied by a 14% decrease in the INR at five days after completion of aprepitant.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Moderate) Lumefantrine is an inhibitor and diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme; therefore, coadministration may lead to increased diphenhydramine concentrations. Concomitant use warrants caution due to the potential for increased side effects.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Diphenhydramine may potentiate the arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Using drugs that can cause CNS depression, such as sedating H1-blockers, concomitantly with asenapine may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with anticholinergic properties, like sedating H1-blockers and orphenadrine, are used concomitantly. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, a significant CNS depressant. Carisoprodol can cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness, may occur if carisoprodol is taken with sedating H1-blockers. Utilize appropriate caution if carisoprodol is coadministered with another CNS depressant.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, a significant CNS depressant. Carisoprodol can cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness, may occur if carisoprodol is taken with sedating H1-blockers. Utilize appropriate caution if carisoprodol is coadministered with another CNS depressant.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for elevated diphenhydramine and cobicistat concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate of CYP2C9. Cobicistat is an substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Atropine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and hyoscyamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Azelastine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of azelastine and sedating H1-blockers due to risk for additive CNS depression.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of azelastine and sedating H1-blockers due to risk for additive CNS depression.
    Baclofen: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when sedating H1-blockers are combined with other CNS depressants including skeletal muscle relaxants, such as baclofen.
    Barbiturates: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and belladonna use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Benzodiazepines: (Moderate) Coadministration can potentiate the CNS effects (e.g., increased sedation or respiratory depression) of either agent. Use caution with this combination.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and hyoscyamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers. This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Benztropine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and benztropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Drugs that possess antimuscarinic properties, such as diphenhydramine, are pharmacologic opposites of bethanechol. These agents should not be used with bethanechol except when the specific intent is to counteract excessive actions of one or the other.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and glycopyrrolate use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Bupivacaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Diphenhydramine may potentiate the arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Reserve concomitant prescribing of buprenorphine and diphenhydramine for use in patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. Gradually tapering a patient off other CNS depressants or decreasing to the lowest effective dose is preferred in most cases of patients being treated for opioid use disorder. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose. Also monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility during concomitant use. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Reserve concomitant prescribing of buprenorphine and diphenhydramine for use in patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. Gradually tapering a patient off other CNS depressants or decreasing to the lowest effective dose is preferred in most cases of patients being treated for opioid use disorder. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose. Also monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility during concomitant use. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Butabarbital: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Butorphanol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of butorphanol with sedating H1-blockers can potentiate the effects of butorphanol on CNS and/or respiratory depression. Use together with caution. If a CNS depressant needs to be used with butorphanol, use the smallest effective dose and the longest dosing frequency of butorphanol.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cannabidiol and sedating H1-blockers. CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of cannabidiol.
    Capecitabine: (Minor) Use caution if coadministration of capecitabine with diphenhydramine is necessary, and monitor for an increase in diphenhydramine-related adverse reactions. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2C9 substrate; capecitabine and/or its metabolites are thought to be inhibitors of CYP2C9. In a drug interaction study, the mean AUC of another CYP2C9 substrate, S-warfarin (single dose), significantly increased after coadministration with capecitabine; the maximum observed INR value also increased by 91%.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metaxalone with other CNS depressants can potentiate the sedative effects of either agent.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including sedating h1-blockers.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of cariprazine, caution should be used when cariprazine is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications including benzodiazepines and other anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics like diphenhydramine.
    Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, a significant CNS depressant. Carisoprodol can cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness, may occur if carisoprodol is taken with sedating H1-blockers. Utilize appropriate caution if carisoprodol is coadministered with another CNS depressant.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cenobamate and sedating H1-blockers. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of cetirizine and sedating H1-blockers. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of cetirizine and sedating H1-blockers. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when chlorpromazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription allergy, sleep, and cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Chlorzoxazone: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression is possible if chlorzoxazone is used concomitantly with other CNS depressants including sedating H1-blockers. Additive effects of sedation and dizziness can occur, which can impair the ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness. Dosage adjustments of one or both medications may be necessary.
    Clobazam: (Moderate) Clobazam, a benzodiazepine, may cause drowsiness or other CNS effects. Additive drowsiness may occur when clobazam is combined with CNS depressants such as sedating H1-blockers. In addition, caution is recommended when administering clobazam with medications extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 such as diphenhydramine because clobazam has been shown to inhibit CYP2D6 in vivo and may increase concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Clozapine exhibits clinically significant anticholinergic effects and sedation that may be additive with other medications that may cause anticholinergic effects and sedation, including antihistamines such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines and to avoid tasks requiring mental alertness until they are aware of the effects of the combination.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for elevated diphenhydramine and cobicistat concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate of CYP2C9. Cobicistat is an substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and promethazine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and promethazine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    COMT inhibitors: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of cyclobenzaprine and diphenhydramine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Dantrolene: (Moderate) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect (e.g., drowsiness) may occur when dantrolene is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Daratumumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for elevated diphenhydramine and cobicistat concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate of CYP2C9. Cobicistat is an substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for elevated diphenhydramine and cobicistat concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate of CYP2C9. Cobicistat is an substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenhydramine with ritonavir may result in elevated plasma concentrations of diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 substrate, and ritonavir is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Desloratadine: (Minor) Although desloratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of desloratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Although desloratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of desloratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Advise patients that concurrent use of deutetrabenazine and drugs that can cause CNS depression, such as diphenhydramine, may have additive effects and worsen drowsiness or sedation.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Co-administration of dexmedetomidine with sedating antihistamines is likely to lead to an enhancement of CNS depression.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of some antihistamines, such as the sedating H1-blockers (i.e., diphenhydramine). This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Caution is recommended when administering quinidine with medications extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 such as diphenhydramine because quinidine inhibits CYP2D6 and may increase concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme.
    Dicyclomine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and dicyclomine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers, such as diphenhydramine, may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including disopyramide. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and donepezil should be avoided if possible. Donepezil inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of donepezil.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and donepezil should be avoided if possible. Donepezil inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of donepezil.
    Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) Doxercalciferol is converted in the liver to its active metabolites. Although not specifically studied, cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors including diphenhydramine may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol, thereby decreasing the formation of the active metabolite and thus, decreasing efficacy. Patients should be monitored for a decrease in efficacy if products containing diphenhydramine are coadministered with doxercalciferol.
    Doxorubicin Liposomal: (Minor) Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. However, these drugs are often used together in treatment.
    Doxorubicin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP2D6. However, these drugs are often used together in treatment.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with antihistamines is necessary. Concurrent use of dronabinol, THC with antihistamines may result in additive drowsiness, hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Dronedarone is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Diphenhydramine is a substrate for CYP2D6. The concomitant administration of dronedarone and CYP2D6 substrates may result in increased exposure of the substrate and should, therefore, be undertaken with caution.
    Droperidol: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers have additive or potentiating sedative and other CNS effects with droperidol. Following administration of droperidol, lower doses of the other CNS depressant may need to be used.
    Dutasteride; Tamsulosin: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of diphenhydramine with tamsulosin is necessary, especially at a tamsulosin dose higher than 0.4 mg, as the systemic exposure of tamsulosin may be increased resulting in increased treatment-related adverse reactions including hypotension, dizziness, and vertigo. Tamsulosin is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as diphenhydramine. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Eliglustat: (Major) In extensive or intermediate CYP2D6 metabolizers (EMs or IMs), coadministration of scheduled diphenhydramine and eliglustat requires dosage reduction of eliglustat to 84 mg PO once daily during the course of antihistamine treatment; however coadministration of eliglustat with both diphenhydramine and a strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitor is contraindicated. It is unclear whether a single dose of diphenhydramine warrants modification of eliglustat therapy. Diphenhydramine is a substrate and moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6; eliglustat is a substrate and inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a CYP3A substrate. Coadministration of eliglustat with CYP2D6 inhibitors, such as diphenhydramine, may increase eliglustat exposure and the risk of serious adverse events (e.g., QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias); the effects of a single diphenhydramine dose are unknown. In addition, coadministration of eliglustat with CYP2D6 substrates (e.g., diphenhydramine) may result in increased concentrations of the concomitant drug; monitor patients closely for anticholinergic adverse events.
    Elvitegravir: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when elvitegravir is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for decreased diphenhydramine concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate of CYP2C9, while elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for elevated diphenhydramine and cobicistat concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate of CYP2C9. Cobicistat is an substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Caution is warranted when elvitegravir is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for decreased diphenhydramine concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate of CYP2C9, while elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for elevated diphenhydramine and cobicistat concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate of CYP2C9. Cobicistat is an substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Caution is warranted when elvitegravir is administered with diphenhydramine as there is a potential for decreased diphenhydramine concentrations. Diphenhydramine is a substrate of CYP2C9, while elvitegravir is a CYP2C9 inducer.
    Entacapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Diphenhydramine may potentiate the arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine.
    Esketamine: (Moderate) Closely monitor patients receiving esketamine and diphenhydramine for sedation and other CNS depressant effects. Instruct patients who receive a dose of esketamine not to drive or engage in other activities requiring alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) A reduction in the dose of eszopiclone and concomitantly administered CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, should be considered to minimize additive sedative effects. In addition, the risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased during co-administration of eszopiclone and other CNS depressants, which may decrease the ability to perform tasks requiring full mental alertness such as driving.
    Ethanol: (Major) Advise patients to avoid alcohol consumption while taking CNS depressants. Alcohol consumption may result in additive CNS depression.
    Etomidate: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of fenfluramine and diphenhydramine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Minor) At therapeutic concentrations, fenofibric acid is a weak inhibitor of CYP2C19 and a mild-to-moderate inhibitor of CYP2C9. Concomitant use of fenofibric acid with CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 substrates, such as diphenhydramine, has not been formally studied. Fenofibric acid may theoretically increase plasma concentrations of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 substrates and could lead to toxicity for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Monitor the therapeutic effect of diphenhydramine during coadministration with fenofibric acid.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Flavoxate: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and flavoxate use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Flibanserin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of flibanserin with CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, may increase the risk of CNS depression (e.g., dizziness, somnolence) compared to the use of flibanserin alone. Patients should avoid activities requiring full alertness (e.g., operating machinery or driving) until at least 6 hours after each dose and until they know how flibanserin affects them.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Additive sedative effects may be seen when fluphenazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription allergy, sleep, and cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Food: (Major) Advise patients to avoid cannabis use while taking CNS depressants due to the risk for additive CNS depression and potential for other cognitive adverse reactions.
    Gabapentin: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of diphenhydramine and gabapentin. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and galantamine should be avoided if possible. Galantamine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of galantamine.
    Gentamicin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and glycopyrrolate use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and glycopyrrolate use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Haloperidol can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants such as diphenhydramine, a sedating H1-blocker. Additive anticholinergic effects may occur. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or CNS effects may also occur.
    Heparin: (Minor) Antihistamines may partially counteract the anticoagulant actions of heparin, according to the product labels. However, this interaction is not likely of clinical significance since heparin therapy is adjusted to the partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and other clinical parameters of the patient.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and homatropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Hydromorphone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and hyoscyamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and hyoscyamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with iloperidone, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when iloperidone is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and glycopyrrolate use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Isocarboxazid: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and sedating H1-blockers is contraindicated due to increased anticholinergic effects.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) Monitor hemodynamic parameters during concomitant isoproterenol and diphenhydramine use; dosage adjustments may be necessary. Diphenhydramine may potentiate the effects of isoproterenol.
    Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as diphenhydramine. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Kanamycin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Ketamine: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lasmiditan and sedating H1-blockers. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Lemborexant: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lemborexant and sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and sedating H1-blockers may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS effects. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if lemborexant is taken with other CNS depressants. Patients should generally avoid nonprescription antihistamine products that are marketed as sleep-aids concurrently with lemborexant.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of cetirizine and sedating H1-blockers. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Levorphanol: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Lidocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Diphenhydramine may potentiate the arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine.
    Lofexidine: (Major) Monitor for excessive sedation during coadministration of diphenhydramine and lofexidine due to the potential for additive CNS depressant effects. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or performing any other tasks requiring mental alertness until the effects of the combination are known.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenhydramine with ritonavir may result in elevated plasma concentrations of diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 substrate, and ritonavir is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Loratadine: (Minor) Although loratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of loratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Although loratadine is considered a 'non-sedating' antihistamine, dose-related sedation has been noted. For this reason, it would be prudent to monitor for drowsiness during concurrent use of loratadine with CNS depressants such as other H1-blockers.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers are associated with anticholinergic effects and sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having anticholinergic activity and CNS depressant properties such as traditional antipsychotic agents, including loxapine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Luliconazole: (Moderate) Theoretically, luliconazole may increase the side effects of diphenhydramine, which is a CYP2C19 substrate. Monitor patients for adverse effects of diphenhydramine, such as CNS depression. In vitro, therapeutic doses of luliconazole inhibit the activity of CYP2C19 and small systemic concentrations may be noted with topical application, particularly when applied to patients with moderate to severe tinea cruris. No in vivo drug interaction trials were conducted prior to the approval of luliconazole.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Concomitant use of diphenhydramine and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter diphenhydramine exposure; monitor for diphenhydramine efficacy and adverse events. Diphenhydramine is partially metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce CYP2C19 and induce and/or inhibit CYP2C9. Although induction of diphenhydramine through the CYP2C19 pathway may lead to decreased drug efficacy, the net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on CYP2C9-mediated metabolism is not clear.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as diphenhydramine. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and diphenhydramine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when maprotiline is used concomitantly with other commonly used drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects, such as diphenhydramine, a sedating H1-blocker.
    Meclizine: (Major) The anticholinergic and sedative effects of meclizine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with antimuscarinic activity, including other sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Melatonin: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of melatonin and sedating H1-blockers due to the risk for additive CNS depression.
    Meperidine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and promethazine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) The CNS-depressant effects of meprobamate can be potentiated with concomitant administration of other drugs known to cause CNS depression including sedating H1-blockers.
    Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metaxalone with other CNS depressants can potentiate the sedative effects of either agent.
    Methadone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Amphetamines may pharmacodynamically counteract the sedative properties of sedating H1-blockers. This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia. Alternatively, if a patient is receiving an amphetamine for treatment of narcolepsy, the combination with a sedating antihistamine may reverse the action of the amphetamine. Coadminister with caution and monitor for altered response to drug therapy.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and hyoscyamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Methocarbamol: (Moderate) Methocarbamol may cause additive CNS depression if used concomitantly with other CNS depressants such as sedating H1-blockers. Combination therapy can cause additive effects of sedation and dizziness, which can impair the patient's ability to undertake tasks requiring mental alertness. Dosage adjustments of either or both medications may be necessary.
    Methohexital: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and methscopolamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Metoclopramide: (Minor) Combined use of metoclopramide and other CNS depressants, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, can increase possible sedation.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Monitor for metoprolol-related adverse reactions, including bradycardia and hypotension, during coadministration with diphenhydramine. Concomitant use may increase metoprolol serum concentrations which would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol. Metoprolol is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for metoprolol-related adverse reactions, including bradycardia and hypotension, during coadministration with diphenhydramine. Concomitant use may increase metoprolol serum concentrations which would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol. Metoprolol is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) Metyrapone may cause dizziness and/or drowsiness. Other drugs that may also cause drowsiness, such as sedating H1-blockers, should be used with caution. Additive drowsiness and/or dizziness is possible.
    Metyrosine: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of metyrosine with sedating H1-blockers can result in additive sedative effects.
    Minocycline: (Minor) Injectable minocycline contains magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mirabegron: (Moderate) Mirabegron is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 isoenzymes such as diphenhydramine may be increased when co-administered with mirabegron. Diphenhydramine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of diphenhydramine and mirtazapine due to the risk for additive CNS depression.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Mitotane can cause sedation, lethargy, vertigo, and other CNS side effects. Concomitant administration of mitotane and CNS depressants, including sedating h1-blockers, may cause additive CNS effects.
    Molindone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when sedating h1-blockers are combined with other CNS depressants including molindone.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and sedating H1-blockers is contraindicated due to increased anticholinergic effects.
    Morphine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nabilone with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the effects of nabilone on respiratory depression.
    Nalbuphine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Monitor for increased toxicity as well as increased therapeutic effect of nebivolol if coadministered with diphenhydramine; adjust the nebivolol dose according to blood pressure response. Concomitant use may increase the exposure of nebivolol. Nebivolol is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor for increased toxicity as well as increased therapeutic effect of nebivolol if coadministered with diphenhydramine; adjust the nebivolol dose according to blood pressure response. Concomitant use may increase the exposure of nebivolol. Nebivolol is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when sedating H1-blockers are combined with other CNS depressants including nefazodone.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenhydramine with ritonavir may result in elevated plasma concentrations of diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 substrate, and ritonavir is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic effects that may be clinically significant. Clinicians should keep this in mind when using antimuscarinics and other medications with anticholinergic activity in combination with olanzapine. Some medications exhibit additive anticholinergic effects include sedating H1-blockers. Olanzapine may also cause additive sedation with many of these drugs.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic effects that may be clinically significant. Clinicians should keep this in mind when using antimuscarinics and other medications with anticholinergic activity in combination with olanzapine. Some medications exhibit additive anticholinergic effects include sedating H1-blockers. Olanzapine may also cause additive sedation with many of these drugs.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic effects that may be clinically significant. Clinicians should keep this in mind when using antimuscarinics and other medications with anticholinergic activity in combination with olanzapine. Some medications exhibit additive anticholinergic effects include sedating H1-blockers. Olanzapine may also cause additive sedation with many of these drugs.
    Oliceridine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenhydramine with ritonavir may result in elevated plasma concentrations of diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 substrate, and ritonavir is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Opiate Agonists: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Opicapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Diphenhydramine is metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6; oritavancin is a weak inducer of CYP2D6 and a weak CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 inhibitor. Coadministration may result in altered diphenhydramine plasma concentrations. If these drugs are administered concurrently, monitor for diphenydramine toxicity, such as drowsiness, or decreased effectiveness.
    Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with anticholinergic properties, like sedating H1-blockers and orphenadrine, are used concomitantly. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Oxybutynin: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and oxybutynin use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Oxymorphone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Coadministration of drugs with CNS depressant effects, including paliperidone and diphenhydramine, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Monitor for signs and symptoms of CNS depression and advise patients to avoid driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until they know how this combination affects them.
    Papaverine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of papaverine with potent CNS depressants such as diphenhydramine could lead to enhanced sedation.
    Paromomycin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in paroxetine-related adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, if concomitant use with diphenhydramine is necessary. Concomitant use may increase paroxetine exposure and risk for additive anticholinergic adverse effects. Paroxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Peginterferon Alfa-2b: (Moderate) Monitor for adverse effects associated with increased exposure to diphenhydramine if peginterferon alfa-2b is coadministered. Peginterferon alfa-2b is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, while diphenhydramine is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrate.
    Pentazocine: (Moderate) Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity. Coadministration of pentazocine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity. Coadministration of pentazocine with sedating H1-blockers may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation.
    Pentobarbital: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Perampanel: (Moderate) Co-administration of perampanel with CNS depressants, including ethanol, may increase CNS depression. The combination of perampanel (particularly at high doses) with ethanol has led to decreased mental alertness and ability to perform complex tasks (such as driving), as well as increased levels of anger, confusion, and depression; similar reactions should be expected with concomitant use of other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when perphenazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription allergy, sleep, and cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when perphenazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription allergy, sleep, and cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Pertuzumab; Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Phenelzine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and sedating H1-blockers is contraindicated due to increased anticholinergic effects.
    Phenobarbital: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates. (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and hyoscyamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and scopolamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Monitor for increased CNS effects if topiramate is coadministered with diphenhydramine. Although not specifically studied, coadministration of CNS depressant drugs with topiramate may potentiate CNS depression, such as dizziness or cognitive adverse reactions, or other centrally mediated effects of these agents.
    Pimozide: (Moderate) Due to the effects of pimozide on cognition, it should be used cautiously with other CNS depressants including sedating antihistamines. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with anticholinergic effects and sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with pimozide. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Pitolisant: (Major) Avoid coadministration of pitolisant with diphenhydramine as the effect of pitolisant may be decreased. Pitolisant increases histamine concentrations in the brain; therefore, H1-receptor antagonists like diphenhydramine, may reduce pitolisant efficacy.
    Plazomicin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Pramipexole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of pramipexole with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the sedation effects of pramipexole.
    Pregabalin: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of diphenhydramine and pregabalin. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Diphenhydramine may potentiate the arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine.
    Primidone: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Procarbazine: (Moderate) Use procarbazine and sedating H1-blockers together with caution; additive central nervous system depression may occur.
    Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when Prochlorperazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription allergy, sleep, and cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and promethazine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and promethazine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and promethazine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Propantheline: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and propantheline use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Propofol: (Minor) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when they are combined with general anesthetics.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and quetiapine. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Quinidine: (Moderate) Caution is recommended when administering quinidine with medications extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 such as diphenhydramine because quinidine inhibits CYP2D6 and may increase concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme.
    Ramelteon: (Moderate) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as ramelteon.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and sedating H1-blockers (sedating antihistamines) may result in additive sedation, anticholinergic effects, or hypotensive reactions. Rasagiline may be less likely to produce these interactions than other MAOIs, due to MAO-B selectivity. However, consider alternatives therapy to antihistamines where possible. If alternative combinations are not available, these medications may be used together with close monitoring. Many non-prescription products for coughs, colds, allergy, hay fever or insomnia contain sedating antihistamines. Patients receiving rasagiline should be counseled that it is essential to consult their healthcare provider or pharmacist prior to the use of any non-prescription products. Patients should also be advised against driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until they know how this combination affects them.
    Remifentanil: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Due to the primary CNS effects of risperidone, caution is advisable when risperidone is given with other centrally acting medications including sedating H1-blockers such as diphenhydramine. This combination is commonly used in clinical practice; however, additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur. Patients should be informed of the risk of driving or performing other tasks requiring mental alertness until the effects of these medicines are known.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenhydramine with ritonavir may result in elevated plasma concentrations of diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 substrate, and ritonavir is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Rituximab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of sedating H1-blockers and rivastigmine should be avoided if possible. Rivastigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine, and improves the availability of acetylcholine. Sedating H1-blockers may exhibit significant anticholinergic activity, thereby interfering with the therapeutic effect of rivastigmine.
    Rolapitant: (Major) Use caution if diphenhydramine and rolapitant are used concurrently, and monitor for diphenhydramine-related adverse effects. Consider if another antihistamine would be a better choice for treatment. Diphenhydramine is a CYP2D6 substrate and rolapitant is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor; the inhibitory effect of rolapitant is expected to persist beyond 28 days for an unknown duration. Exposure to another CYP2D6 substrate, following a single dose of rolapitant increased about 3-fold on Days 8 and Day 22. The inhibition of CYP2D6 persisted on Day 28 with a 2.3-fold increase in the CYP2D6 substrate concentrations, the last time point measured.
    Ropinirole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ropinirole with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the sedation effects of ropinirole.
    Rotigotine: (Major) Concomitant use of rotigotine with other CNS depressants, such as diphenhydramine, can potentiate the sedation effects of rotigotine.
    Safinamide: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Scopolamine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and scopolamine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Secobarbital: (Major) Because diphenhydramine can cause pronounced sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as barbiturates.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of diphenhydramine and selegiline due to the risk for additive CNS depression.
    Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by concurrent medications, including H1-blockers. False study results are possible; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of procedure results.
    Sodium Iodide: (Moderate) Antihistamines may alter sodium iodide I-131 pharmacokinetics and dynamics for up to 1 week after administration. In addition, medications that decrease salivation increase the time of radiation exposure to salivary glands. Consider discontinuing sedating H1-blockers prior to sodium iodide I-131 administration.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with antimuscarinic properties like solifenacin are used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics, such as diphenhydramine.
    Streptomycin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Sufentanil: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Suvorexant: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of suvorexant and sedating antihistamines (H1-blockers). Dosage adjustments of suvorexant and sedating H1-blockers may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS effects. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if suvorexant is taken with other CNS depressants. Patients should generally avoid nonprescription antihistamine products that are marketed as sleep-aids concurrently with suvorexant.
    Tamsulosin: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of diphenhydramine with tamsulosin is necessary, especially at a tamsulosin dose higher than 0.4 mg, as the systemic exposure of tamsulosin may be increased resulting in increased treatment-related adverse reactions including hypotension, dizziness, and vertigo. Tamsulosin is a CYP2D6 substrate and diphenhydramine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor.
    Tapentadol: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Tasimelteon: (Moderate) Because sedating H1-blockers cause sedation, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when it is combined with other CNS depressants including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, such as tasimelteon.
    Tetrabenazine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of tetrabenazine and drugs that can cause CNS depression, such as diphenhydramine, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension.
    Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Increased monitoring is recommended if ivacaftor is administered concurrently with CYP2C9 substrates, such as diphenhydramine. In vitro studies showed ivacaftor to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. Co-administration may lead to increased exposure to CYP2C9 substrates; however, the clinical impact of this has not yet been determined.
    Thalidomide: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of thalidomide with opiate agonists; antihistamines; antipsychotics; anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics; and other central nervous system depressants due to the potential for additive sedative effects.
    Thioridazine: (Contraindicated) Diphenhydramine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 and the use of thioridazine concomitantly with CYP2D6 inhibitors is contraindicated due to the possible risk of QT prolongation and subsequent arrhythmias, or other serious side effects, occurring from elevated serum concentrations of thioridazine. Also, additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when thioridazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Consider if an alternative to diphenhydramine would be appropriate for the patient's condition.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when antipsychotics, such as thiothixene, are used concomitantly with other drugs such as sedating H1-blockers. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of diphenhydramine and tizanidine due to the risk for additive CNS depression.
    Tobramycin: (Minor) Diphenhydramine may mask vestibular symptoms (e.g. dizziness, tinnitus, or vertigo) that are associated with ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Antiemetics block the histamine or acetylcholine response that causes nausea due to vestibular emetic stimuli such as motion.
    Tolcapone: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including sedating H1-blockers, due to the possibility of additive sedation. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Monitor for increased CNS effects if topiramate is coadministered with diphenhydramine. Although not specifically studied, coadministration of CNS depressant drugs with topiramate may potentiate CNS depression, such as dizziness or cognitive adverse reactions, or other centrally mediated effects of these agents.
    Tramadol: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of opioids and diphenhydramine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and sedating H1-blockers is contraindicated due to increased anticholinergic effects.
    Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) H1-blockers (antihistamines), when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of diphenhydramine and trazodone due to the risk for additive CNS depression.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation, urinary retention, and reduced gastric motility during coadministration of diphenhydramine and tricyclic antidepressants. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic effects.
    Trifluoperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic and sedative effects may be seen when Trifluoperazine is used with first generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Patients should be informed to read non-prescription allergy, sleep, and cough and cold product labels carefully for additional interacting antihistamines.
    Trihexyphenidyl: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and trihexyphenidyl use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Trimethobenzamide: (Moderate) The concurrent use of trimethobenzamide with other medications that cause CNS depression, like the sedating h1-blockers, may potentiate the effects of either trimethobenzamide or the sedating h1-blocker.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when trospium is used concomitantly with drugs that are known to possess relatively significant antimuscarinic properties, including sedating H1-blockers. Clinicians should note that additive antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function and temperature regulation. While CNS-related side effects such as drowsiness and blurred vision are not typically noted with trospium, they may occur in some patients.
    Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of vemurafenib and diphenhydramine may result in increased diphenhydramine concentrations. Vemurafenib is a CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6 inhibitor and diphenhydramine is a substrate of these isoenzymes. Patients should be monitored for toxicity and sedation.
    Vigabatrin: (Moderate) Vigabatrin may cause somnolence and fatigue. Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with vigabatrin, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when vigabatrin is given with sedating H1-blockers.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of vilazodone, caution should be used when vilazodone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics. Also, Cyproheptadine is an antagonist of serotonin in the CNS, a property which may oppose some of the pharmacologic effects of vilazodone. Cyproheptadine has been used for the management of orgasm dysfunction caused by the serotonergic antidepressants and for the adjunctive treatment of serotonin syndrome; however, a reversal of antidepressant effects may occur when cyproheptadine is given in a routine manner along with the antidepressant. Clinically, cyproheptadine reportedly has interfered with the antidepressant and anti-bulimia actions of fluoxetine, but more data are needed to confirm a direct drug-drug interaction.
    Zaleplon: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of sedating H1-blockers and zaleplon due to the risk for additive CNS depression and next-day psychomotor impairment; dose adjustments may be necessary.
    Ziconotide: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers are CNS depressant medications that may increase drowsiness, dizziness, and confusion that are associated with ziconotide.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur with ziprasidone.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of sedating H1-blockers and zolpidem due to the risk for additive CNS depression and next-day psychomotor impairment; dose adjustments may be necessary. Limit the dose of Intermezzo sublingual tablets to 1.75 mg/day.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Parenteral diphenhydramine is typically the parenteral antihistamine of choice in managing acute or severe allergic reactions during pregnancy. The routine use of sedating antihistamines is generally not recommended in the last 2 weeks of pregnancy due to a possible association between these drugs and retrolental fibroplasia in premature neonates. Non-pharmacologic methods (e.g., fluids and rest) are recommended to be tried first for symptomatic relief of colds or allergies during pregnancy. Pregnant patients should see their health care professional for a proper diagnosis and for treatment recommendations before taking medications. Diphenhydramine should be administered during pregnancy only when the benefits of therapy outweigh the potential risks to the fetus, and use should be limited to short-term, 'as needed' administration under the prescription of a qualified health-care professional. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology consider loratadine an acceptable alternative for allergy symptoms in pregnancy, preferably after the first trimester, when first generation antihistamines are usually not tolerated. Diphenhydramine has been used to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, but such use should occur under the advice and supervision of a qualified health care professional. ACOG guidelines and opinions allow for use of diphenhydramine as a second-line pharmacologic option in treatment algorithms for nausea/vomiting due to pregnancy; nonpharmacologic options and pyridoxine taken alone or in combination with doxylamine are first-line.

    Topical diphenhydramine use does not carry any particular caution in breast-feeding women; avoid application to the breast area in a lactating woman. Use all forms of oral diphenhydramine with caution in breast-feeding women. The use of injectable diphenhydramine is contraindicated in breast-feeding due to the higher risks associated with antihistamine use in infants, particularly neonates and premature neonates. Small, single or occasional doses of diphenhydramine, when necessary, would not be expected to cause adverse effects in breast-fed infants. However, larger doses or prolonged use may cause adverse effects in the breast-fed infant or decrease the mother's milk supply, particularly when used in combination with a sympathomimetic (such as pseudoephedrine) or before lactation is well established. In one telephone follow-up study, mothers reported irritability and colicky symptoms in 10% of infants exposed to various antihistamines and drowsiness was reported in 1.6% of infants. No reactions were reported as requiring medical attention. In this study, drowsiness was reported in one infant of 12 exposed to diphenhydramine breast-milk. In general, many first-generation antihistamines are not recommended for use during lactation, since irritability, drowsiness, unusual excitement or other infant effects might be observed. Antihistamines can lower basal prolactin secretion and may interfere with the establishment of lactation. Consider treatment alternatives when possible. Loratadine may be considered as an alternative for the treatment of allergy symptoms. Because of its lack of sedation and low milk concentrations, maternal use would not be expected to cause adverse effects in breast-fed babies and loratadine is considered usually compatible with breast-feeding. The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology also recommends loratadine at the lowest dose as a preferred antihistamine in breast-feeding women. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Diphenhydramine does not prevent the release of histamine, as do cromolyn and nedocromil, but rather competes with free histamine for binding at H1-receptor sites. Diphenhydramine competitively antagonizes the effects of histamine on H1-receptors in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial muscle. Blockade of H1-receptors also suppresses the formation of edema, flare, and pruritus that result from histaminic activity.
     
    H1-antagonists possess anticholinergic properties in varying degrees; ethanolamine derivatives have greater anticholinergic activity than do other antihistamines, which probably accounts for the antidyskinetic action of diphenhydramine. This anticholinergic action appears to be due to a central antimuscarinic effect, which also may be responsible for its antiemetic effects, although the exact mechanism is unknown. Diphenhydramine has a direct suppressive action on the cough center and causes sedation via CNS depression. Topical diphenhydramine provides local relief from insect bites, minor burns, sunburn, or minor abrasions, possibly due to an anesthetic effect resulting from decreased permeability of nerve cell membranes to sodium ions (preventing the transmission of nerve impulses). Following prolonged use of diphenhydramine, tolerance can occur, but this may be beneficial because of reduced sedative effects.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Diphenhydramine may be administered orally, topically, intravenously, or intramuscularly. Less soluble H1-antagonists have a slower onset of action and are less likely to cause toxicity. The duration of action ranges from 4—6 hours. The maximum sedative effect of the drug occurs between 1—3 hours. Diphenhydramine is highly protein-bound. It is widely distributed in body tissues and fluids, and it crosses the placenta and is excreted into breast milk.
     
    Metabolism occurs in the liver to produce diphenylmethoxyacetic acid, which then becomes conjugated; other metabolites are also formed. Plasma half-life is between 2—8 hours. Most unchanged drug and metabolites are excreted renally within 24—48 hours of a dose.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes: CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19
    In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that diphenhydramine is a substrate and inhibitor of CYP2D6 isoenzymes. To a lesser extent, it is also metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 isoenzymes.

    Oral Route

    H1-antagonists are well absorbed from the GI tract, but they have variable solubility, which ultimately affects the onset of action. Onset of action following oral administration of diphenhydramine occurs in 15—30 minutes, with peak concentrations occurring in about 2—4 hours.

    Intramuscular Route

    The onset of antiextrapyramidal effects following an intramuscular injection is 15—30 minutes.