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    Cardiac Dopaminergic Agents

    BOXED WARNING

    Extravasation

    Infuse dopamine into a large vein whenever possible to prevent extravasation into tissue adjacent to the infusion site. Large veins of the antecubital fossa are preferred over veins in the dorsum of the hand or ankle. Use less suitable infusion sites only if the patient's condition requires immediate attention; switch to more suitable sites as rapidly as possible. Continuously monitor the infusion site for free flow. If extravasation occurs, infiltrate the affected area with phentolamine as soon as possible; administer the solution liberally throughout the ischemic area using a fine hypodermic needle. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and noticeable local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours of extravasation.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Intravenous dopaminergic and adrenergic agonist
    Used for various shock states
    Not recommended for treatment or prevention of acute renal failure

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Intropin

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Dopamine/Dopamine Hydrochloride/Dopamine Hydrochloride, Dextrose/Dopamine, Dextrose/Intropin Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 40mg, 80mg, 160mg, 200-5%, 400-5%, 800-5%

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For hemodynamic support or treatment of hypotension during distributive shock (e.g., septic shock, cardiogenic shock, anaphylactic shock, neurogenic shock), open-heart surgery, or renal failure.
    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage
    Adults

    2 to 5 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion, initially. Titrate by 5 to 10 mcg/kg/minute until desired hemodynamic and/or renal response is attained.[32400] Usual dosage: 2 to 20 mcg/kg/minute. Max: 50 mcg/kg/minute. However, infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction or arrhythmias. Guidelines consider dopamine an alternative to norepinephrine in settings where norepinephrine is not available for patients with septic shock.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    1 to 5 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion, initially. Titrate by 2.5 to 5 mcg/kg/minute until desired hemodynamic response is attained. Usual Max: 15 to 20 mcg/kg/minute. Infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction.

    Neonates†

    1 to 5 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion, initially. Titrate by 2.5 to 5 mcg/kg/minute until desired hemodynamic response is attained. Usual Max: 15 to 20 mcg/kg/minute. Infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction.

    For the treatment of chronic heart failure.
    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage
    Adults

    2 to 5 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion, initially. Titrate by 5 to 10 mcg/kg/minute until goal hemodynamic and/or renal response is attained. Usual dose: 5 to 15 mcg/kg/minute. Max: 50 mcg/kg/minute. However, infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction or arrhythmias. Inotropic support is recommended to maintain systemic perfusion and preserve end-organ performance until definitive therapy is initiated or the acute precipitating problem resolves. Short-term, inotropic support may be reasonable in hospitalized patients presenting with documented severe systolic dysfunction with low blood pressure and significantly depressed cardiac output. Consider long-term inotropic support as palliative therapy for symptom control in patients with stage D heart failure refractory to optimal medical and device therapy who are awaiting mechanical circulatory support (MCS) or cardiac transplant or are not eligible for MCS or transplant.

    For the treatment of symptomatic bradycardia† unresponsive to atropine and/or external pacing.
    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage
    Adults

    2 to 10 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion, initially. Titrate by 5 mcg/kg/minute every 2 minutes until goal hemodynamic response is attained. Max: 50 mcg/kg/minute. However, infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction or arrhythmias.

    For the treatment of hypotension that may occur after return of spontaneous circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation† after cardiac arrest†.
    Continuous Intravenous or Intraosseous† Infusion dosage
    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    1 to 5 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV or IO infusion, initially. Titrate by 2.5 to 5 mcg/kg/minute until desired hemodynamic response is attained. Usual Max: 15 to 20 mcg/kg/minute. Infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction.

    Neonates

    1 to 5 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV or IO infusion, initially. Titrate by 2.5 to 5 mcg/kg/minute until desired hemodynamic response is attained. Usual Max: 15 to 20 mcg/kg/minute. Infusion rates more than 20 mcg/kg/minute may result in vasoconstriction.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    50 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion.

    Geriatric

    50 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion.

    Adolescents

    20 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion.

    Children

    20 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion.

    Infants

    20 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion.

    Neonates

    20 mcg/kg/minute continuous IV infusion.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Injectable Administration

    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if the solution is darker than slightly yellow or discolored in any other way.
    A sulfur dioxide odor may occur upon removal of the Viaflex Plus containers from the overwrap; this does not pose risk to the clinician or patient using the product.
    Correct hypovolemia before dopamine administration.

    Intravenous Administration

    Dilution
    Dilute dopamine concentrate for injection with a compatible IV solution (i.e., 5% Dextrose Injection, 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose and Lactated Ringer's Injection, Lactated Ringer's Injection) to yield a concentration of 200 to 1,600 mcg/mL.[31920]
    Do not add dopamine to Sodium Bicarbonate Injection or other alkaline intravenous solutions since the drug is inactivated in alkaline solution.
    ASHP Recommended Standard Concentrations for Adult Continuous Infusions: 1,600 mcg/mL or 3,200 mcg/mL.[64020]
    Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)/Vermont Oxford Network (VON) Recommended Standard Concentration for Neonatal Infusions: 1,600 mcg/mL.[51889]
    Concentrations up to 6,400 mcg/mL have been reported.
    Storage: Dilutions are stable for 24 hours.[31920]
     
    Continuous IV Infusion
    Administer using a controlled infusion device.
    Infuse into a large vein whenever possible to prevent extravasation into tissue adjacent to the infusion site. Large veins of the antecubital fossa are preferred over veins in the dorsum of the hand or ankle. Use less suitable infusion sites only if the patient's condition requires immediate attention; switch to more suitable sites as rapidly as possible. Continuously monitor the infusion site for free flow. Do not administer via umbilical artery catheter (UAC).[52020]
    Avoid inadvertent bolus administration or inadvertent interruption of the infusion, particularly during line changes, when flushing the line, or during syringe/bag changes.
    Do not administer solutions containing dextrose through the same administration set as blood, as it may result in pseudoagglutination or hemolysis.
    Monitor urine flow, cardiac output, and blood pressure; titrate to patient response.
    Consider dosage reduction or temporary suspension of the infusion for decreased urine flow, increased tachycardia, or the development of new arrhythmias.
    Upon discontinuation, gradually decrease the dose while expanding blood volume with intravenous fluids to avoid hypotension.
     
    Extravasation Management
    NOTE: Extravasation management instructions are provided in the product labeling; instructions are not specific to pediatric patients and may require adjustments for some patients (e.g., smaller volumes for neonates and infants).
    If extravasation occurs, infiltrate the site with 10 to 15 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection containing 5 to 10 mg of phentolamine.
    Use a syringe with a fine hypodermic needle and liberally infiltrate throughout the ischemic area.
    Administer phentolamine solution as quickly as possible after extravasation to minimize tissue damage; sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and noticeable local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours of extravasation.[32400]

    Other Injectable Administration

    Intraosseous Administration
    NOTE: Dopamine is not FDA-approved for intraosseous administration.
    During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the same dosage may be given via the intraosseous route if IV access is unsuccessful or not feasible.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Intropin:
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Asthma, corn hypersensitivity, sulfite hypersensitivity

    Solutions containing dextrose (e.g., premixed bags) may be contraindicated in patients with corn hypersensitivity. Certain formulations of dopamine contain sodium bisulfite. Sodium bisulfite is a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions, including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe episodes in certain susceptible people, such as patients with sulfite hypersensitivity or asthma.[32400]

    Pheochromocytoma, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia

    Dopamine is contraindicated in patients with pheochromocytoma or uncorrected tachyarrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Reduce the dopamine dose if an increased number of ectopic beats is observed.

    Hypovolemia

    Correct hypovolemia before dopamine administration. Monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP) or left ventricular filling pressure may be helpful in detecting and treating hypovolemia.

    Occlusive vascular disease, Raynaud's phenomenon, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)

    If a disproportionate rise in diastolic pressure occurs (i.e., decreased pulse pressure), decrease the dopamine infusion rate and monitor the patient for further evidence of predominant vasoconstrictor activity, unless such an effect is desired. Monitor patients with a history of occlusive vascular disease (e.g., atherosclerosis, arterial embolism, Raynaud's phenomenon, diabetic endarteritis, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)) for changes in the color or temperature of the skin in the extremities. If such changes occur, weigh the benefits of continued dopamine use against the risk of possible necrosis. This condition may be reversed by either decreasing the rate or discontinuing the infusion.

    Extravasation

    Infuse dopamine into a large vein whenever possible to prevent extravasation into tissue adjacent to the infusion site. Large veins of the antecubital fossa are preferred over veins in the dorsum of the hand or ankle. Use less suitable infusion sites only if the patient's condition requires immediate attention; switch to more suitable sites as rapidly as possible. Continuously monitor the infusion site for free flow. If extravasation occurs, infiltrate the affected area with phentolamine as soon as possible; administer the solution liberally throughout the ischemic area using a fine hypodermic needle. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and noticeable local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours of extravasation.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Abrupt discontinuation of dopamine may result in significant hypotension. When discontinuing the dopamine infusion, it may be necessary to gradually decrease the dopamine dose while expanding blood volume.

    Hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis

    Identify and correct hypoxemia, hypercapnia, respiratory acidosis, and metabolic acidosis before and concurrently with the administration of dopamine. These conditions may reduce the effectiveness of and/or increase the incidence of adverse effects of dopamine.

    Geriatric

    In general, dosage selection for a geriatric patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range because of the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or drug therapy. Clinical experience has not identified differences in responses to dopamine between geriatric and younger patients.[32400]

    Umbilical vessel administration

    Use caution if umbilical vessel administration of dopamine becomes necessary in the neonate. Vasospastic events have been reported when dopamine was infused through umbilical vessels.

    Labor, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Use dopamine during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk of the fetus. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with dopamine in pregnant women, and it is not known if dopamine crosses the placental barrier. Animal studies have shown maternal toxicity including mortality, decreased weight gain, and pharmacotoxic signs; mortality, decreased body weight gain, and slight increases in cataract formation have been observed in the offspring of pregnant rats given dopamine during gestation. If vasopressor drugs are used to correct hypotension or are added to a local anesthetic solution in labor or obstetric delivery, the interaction with some oxytocic drugs may cause severe hypertension.[32400]

    Breast-feeding

    Use caution when administering dopamine to a breast-feeding woman. It is not known whether dopamine is excreted in human milk.[32400]

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    atrial fibrillation / Early / Incidence not known
    ventricular fibrillation / Early / Incidence not known
    ventricular tachycardia / Early / Incidence not known
    bradycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    tissue necrosis / Early / Incidence not known
    azotemia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    angina / Early / Incidence not known
    premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) / Early / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral vasoconstriction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    premature atrial contractions (PACs) / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    gooseflesh / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acarbose: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acebutolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Aclidinium; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when formoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Albiglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Albuterol: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Alpha-blockers: (Major) In general, alpha-blockers should not be used during dopamine infusion. The undesired peripheral vasoconstriction observed with high-dose dopamine is opposed by alpha-adrenergic blockers. The renal, mesenteric, or cerebral vasodilatory properties resulting from dopaminergic-receptor stimulation are not affected by alpha-blockers .
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ambrisentan: (Major) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of vasodilators when administered concomitantly. Patients should be monitored for reduced efficacy if taking ambrisentan with a sympathomimetic.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Amoxapine: (Major) Concomitant use of amoxapine with sympathomimetics should be avoided whenever possible; use with caution when concurrent use cannot be avoided. One drug information reference suggests that cyclic antidepressants potentiate the pharmacologic effects of direct-acting sympathomimetics, but decrease the pressor response to indirect-acting sympathomimetics, however, the data are not consistent.
    Arformoterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when arformoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Atenolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly. (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Atomoxetine: (Major) Due to the potential for additive increases in blood pressure and heart rate, atomoxetine should be used cautiously with vasopressors, such as dopamine. Consider monitoring the patients blood pressure and heart rate at baseline and regularly if vasopressors are coadministered with atomoxetine.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly. (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Beta-blockers: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Betaxolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Bethanechol offsets the effects of sympathomimetics at sites where sympathomimetic and cholinergic receptors have opposite effects.
    Bisoprolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly. (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bosentan: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with bosentan. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including bosentan. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Bretylium: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and heart rate closely when sympathomimetics are administered with bretylium. The pressor and arrhythmogenic effects of catecholamines are enhanced by bretylium.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bromocriptine: (Moderate) The combination of bromocriptine with dopamine may cause headache, tachycardia, other cardiovascular abnormalities, seizures, and other serious effects. Concurrent use of bromocriptine and dopamine should be approached with caution. One case report documented worsening headache, hypertension, premature ventricular complexes, and ventricular tachycardia in a post-partum patient receiving bromocriptine for lactation suppression who was subsequently prescribed acetaminophen; dichloralphenazone; isometheptene for a headache. A second case involved a post-partum patient receiving bromocriptine who was later prescribed phenylpropanolamine; guaifenesin and subsequently developed hypertension, tachycardia, seizures, and cerebral vasospasm.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when formoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when formoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate: (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Canagliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) Drugs known to be metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), such as dopamine, should be administered cautiously to patients receiving COMT inhibitors. Concomitant use may result in increased heart rates, possibly arrhythmias, and excessive changes in blood pressure.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Cardiac glycosides: (Major) Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides with sympathomimetics can cause arrhythmias because sympathomimetics enhance ectopic pacemaker activity. Caution is warranted during co-administration of digoxin and sympathomimetics.
    Carteolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Carvedilol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Major) Sympathomimetics, such as dopamine, can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of clonidine when administered concomitantly.Patients should be monitored for loss of blood pressure control. (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Clonidine: (Major) Sympathomimetics, such as dopamine, can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of clonidine when administered concomitantly.Patients should be monitored for loss of blood pressure control.
    Cocaine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of additional vasoconstrictor agents with cocaine. If unavoidable, prolonged vital sign and ECG monitoring may be required. Myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported after concomitant administration of topical intranasal cocaine and vasoconstrictor agents during nasal and sinus surgery. The risk for nervousness, irritability, convulsions, and other cardiac arrhythmias may increase during coadministration.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Colchicine: (Minor) The response to sympathomimetics may be enhanced by colchicine.
    COMT inhibitors: (Moderate) Drugs known to be metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), such as dopamine, should be administered cautiously to patients receiving COMT inhibitors. Concomitant use may result in increased heart rates, possibly arrhythmias, and excessive changes in blood pressure.
    Dapagliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Desmopressin: (Moderate) Although the pressor activity of desmopressin is very low compared to its antidiuretic activity, large doses of desmopressin should be used with other pressor agents like dopamine only with careful patient monitoring.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Diethylpropion: (Major) Diethylpropion has vasopressor effects. Coadministration with other vasopressors may have the potential for serious cardiac adverse effects such as hypertensive crisis and cardiac arrhythmias.
    Digitoxin: (Major) Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides with sympathomimetics can cause arrhythmias because sympathomimetics enhance ectopic pacemaker activity. Caution is warranted during co-administration of digoxin and sympathomimetics.
    Digoxin: (Major) Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides with sympathomimetics can cause arrhythmias because sympathomimetics enhance ectopic pacemaker activity. Caution is warranted during co-administration of digoxin and sympathomimetics.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Dihydroergotamine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Concurrent use of dronabinol, THC with sympathomimetics may result in additive hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity. Dronabinol, THC has been associated with occasional hypotension, hypertension, syncope, and tachycardia. In a study of 7 adult males, combinations of IV cocaine and smoked marijuana, 1 g marijuana cigarette, 0 to 2.7% delta-9-THC, increased the heart rate above levels seen with either agent alone, with increases plateauing at 50 bpm.
    Dulaglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dyphylline: (Moderate) Use of sympathomimetics with dyphylline should be approached with caution. Coadministration may lead to adverse effects, such as tremors, insomnia, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Dyphylline; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Use of sympathomimetics with dyphylline should be approached with caution. Coadministration may lead to adverse effects, such as tremors, insomnia, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Empagliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Enflurane: (Major) Enflurane can sensitize the myocardium to the effects of sympathomimetics, which can increase the risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension. Use of enflurane with a sympathomimetic should be approached with caution.
    Entacapone: (Moderate) Drugs known to be metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), such as dopamine, should be administered cautiously to patients receiving COMT inhibitors. Concomitant use may result in increased heart rates, possibly arrhythmias, and excessive changes in blood pressure.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Nicotine use may potentiate the effects of the adrenergic agonists and the ergot alkaloids. If significant changes in nicotine intake occur, the dosages of these drugs may need adjustment.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Nicotine use may potentiate the effects of the adrenergic agonists and the ergot alkaloids. If significant changes in nicotine intake occur, the dosages of these drugs may need adjustment.
    Epoprostenol: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with epoprostenol. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including epoprostenol. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Ergoloid Mesylates: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Ergonovine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Ergot alkaloids: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Ergotamine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension. (Moderate) Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants.
    Ertugliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Esmolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Exenatide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should also be used when salmeterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as vilanterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as vilanterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when formoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when formoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Ginger, Zingiber officinale: (Minor) In vitro studies have demonstrated the positive inotropic effects of certain gingerol constituents of ginger; but it is unclear if whole ginger root exhibits these effects clinically in humans. It is theoretically possible that excessive doses of ginger could affect the action of inotropes; however, no clinical data are available.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when formoterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Green Tea: (Moderate) Some, but not all, green tea products contain caffeine. Caffeine should be avoided or used cautiously with dopamine. CNS stimulants and sympathomimetics are associated with adverse effects such as nervousness, irritability, insomnia, and cardiac arrhythmias.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of guanabenz when administered concomitantly. Patients should be monitored for loss of blood pressure control.
    Haloperidol: (Minor) Dopamine infusions intended to improve renal perfusion can be ineffective due to haloperidol's dopamine receptor blockade.
    Halothane: (Major) Halothane can produce ventricular arrhythmias and hypertension when used concomitantly with dopamine.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Major) Sympathomimetics, such as dopamine, can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of methyldopa when administered concomitantly. Blood pressure should be monitored closely to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved. (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Iloprost: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with iloprost. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including iloprost. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Incretin Mimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Indacaterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of vasodilators when administered concomitantly. Patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Insulins: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Iobenguane I 131: (Major) Discontinue sympathomimetics for at least 5 half-lives before the administration of the dosimetry dose or a therapeutic dose of iobenguane I-131. Do not restart sympathomimetics until at least 7 days after each iobenguane I-131 dose. Drugs that reduce catecholamine uptake or deplete catecholamine stores, such as sympathomimetics, may interfere with iobenguane I-131 uptake into cells and interfere with dosimetry calculations resulting in altered iobenguane I-131 efficacy.
    Ionic Contrast Media: (Major) The intravascular injection of a contrast medium should never be made after the administration of vasopressors since they strongly potentiate neurologic effects. Serious neurologic sequelae, including permanent paralysis, have been reported after cerebral arteriography, selective spinal arteriography, and arteriography of vessels supplying the spinal cord.
    Ipratropium; Albuterol: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Isocarboxazid: (Contraindicated) In general, sympathomimetics should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Ketamine: (Moderate) Closely monitor vital signs when ketamine and dopamine are coadministered; consider dose adjustment individualized to the patient's clinical situation. Dopamine may enhance the sympathomimetic effects of ketamine.
    Labetalol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Levalbuterol: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Levobetaxolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Levobunolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Levothyroxine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Linezolid: (Major) Linezolid may enhance the hypertensive effect of dopamine. Initial doses of dopamine should be reduced and subsequent dosing titrated to desired response. Closely monitor blood pressure during coadministration. Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak, reversible nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Therefore, linezolid has the potential for interaction with adrenergic agents, such as dopamine.
    Liothyronine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Liraglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased by the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of loxapine. Dopamine infusions intended to improve renal perfusion can be ineffective due to loxapine's dopamine receptor blockade.
    Macitentan: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with macitentan. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including macitentan. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Use maprotiline and sympathomimetics together with caution and close clinical monitoring. Regularly assess blood pressure, heart rate, the efficacy of treatment, and the emergence of sympathomimetic/adrenergic adverse events. Carefully adjust dosages as clinically indicated. Maprotiline has pharmacologic activity similar to tricyclic antidepressant agents and may cause additive sympathomimetic effects when combined with agents with adrenergic/sympathomimetic activity.
    Mecamylamine: (Major) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by mecamylamine. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Meglitinides: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Mesoridazine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Metaproterenol: (Major) Caution and close observation should also be used when metaproterenol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Methyldopa: (Major) Sympathomimetics, such as dopamine, can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of methyldopa when administered concomitantly. Blood pressure should be monitored closely to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved.
    Methylergonovine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Moderate) Methylphenidate derivatives can potentiate the actions of both exogenous (such as dopamine and epinephrine) and endogenous (such as norepinephrine) vasopressors. It is advisable to monitor cardiac function if these medications are coadministered. Vasopressors include medications such as epinephrine, dopamine, midodrine, and non-prescription medications such as pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine.
    Methysergide: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Metoprolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly. (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Miglitol: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Contraindicated) In general, sympathomimetics should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concurrent use of nabilone with sympathomimetics (e.g., amphetamine or cocaine) may result in additive hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity. In a study of 7 adult males, combinations of cocaine (IV) and smoked marijuana (1 g marijuana cigarette, 0 to 2.7% delta-9-THC) increased the heart rate above levels seen with either agent alone, with increases reaching a plateau at 50 bpm.
    Nadolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Nebivolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Nesiritide, BNP: (Major) Nesiritide may have additive inoptropic effects with cardiac glycosides.
    Nicotine: (Moderate) Nicotine use may potentiate the effects of the adrenergic agonists and the ergot alkaloids. If significant changes in nicotine intake occur, the dosages of these drugs may need adjustment.
    Nitrates: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the antianginal effects of nitrates, and can increase blood pressure and/or heart rate. Anginal pain may be induced when coronary insufficiency is present.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Major) Do not administer non-ionic contrast media intra-arterially after the administration of vasopressors since they strongly potentiate neurologic effects.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Opicapone: (Moderate) Drugs known to be metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), such as dopamine, should be administered cautiously to patients receiving COMT inhibitors. Concomitant use may result in increased heart rates, possibly arrhythmias, and excessive changes in blood pressure.
    Oxytocin: (Major) The administration of prophylactic vasopressors with oxytocin can cause severe, persistent hypertension, as the 2 drugs may have a synergistic and additive vasoconstrictive effect. This interaction was noted when oxytocin was given 3 to 4 hours after prophylactic vasoconstrictor in conjuction with caudal anesthesia. The incidence of such an interaction may be decreased if vasopressors are not administered prior to oxytocin.
    Ozanimod: (Major) Coadministration of ozanimod with sympathomimetics such as dopamine is not routinely recommended due to the potential for hypertensive crisis. If coadministration is medically necessary, it is recommended that patients who have been treated with MAO inhibitors, such as ozanimod, within 2 to 3 weeks prior to the administration of dopamine should receive initial doses of dopamine no greater than one-tenth of the usual dose. Closely monitor the patient for hypertension. An active metabolite of ozanimod inhibits MAO-B, which may increase the potential for hypertensive crisis. Dopamine is metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO), inhibition of this enzyme prolongs and potentiates the effect of dopamine. Sympathomimetics may increase blood pressure by increasing norepinephrine concentrations and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are known to potentiate these effects. Concomitant use of ozanimod with pseudoephedrine did not potentiate the effects on blood pressure. However, hypertensive crisis has occurred with administration of ozanimod alone and during coadministration of sympathomimetic medications and other selective or nonselective MAO inhibitors.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties and other effects of dopamine can be decreased by the alpha-adrenergic- and dopamine-blocking effects of paliperidone. Adjust dopamine therapy as clinically indicated to renal, heart rate, blood pressure, or other cardiovascular parameters.
    Penbutolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Pergolide: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ergot alkaloids and vasopressors due to synergistic vasoconstriction and severe hypertension.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Phendimetrazine: (Major) Phendimetrazine is a phenylalkaline sympathomimetic agent. All sympathomimetics and psychostimulants, including other anorexiants, should be used cautiously or avoided in patients receiving phendimetrazine. The combined use of these agents may have the potential for additive side effects, such as hypertensive crisis or cardiac arrhythmia.
    Phenelzine: (Contraindicated) In general, sympathomimetics should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Phentermine: (Major) Because phentermine is a sympathomimetic and anorexic agent (i.e., psychostimulant) it should not be used in combination with other sympathomimetics. The combined use of these agents may have the potential for additive side effects, such as hypertensive crisis or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Major) Because phentermine is a sympathomimetic and anorexic agent (i.e., psychostimulant) it should not be used in combination with other sympathomimetics. The combined use of these agents may have the potential for additive side effects, such as hypertensive crisis or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Phenytoin: (Major) An interaction between dopamine and intravenous phenytoin is not clear. In one case series report, critically-ill patients stablized on dopamine and with adequate volume status who were given IV phenytoin for seizures developed hypotension; some patients developed cardiac arrest. Phenytoin IV is known to cause these particular side effects, so the contribution of dopamine to these events is uncertain. Other reports have not corroborated the combination as having additional risks to patients. Intravenous administration should not exceed 50 mg per minute in adults. In pediatric patients, administer the drug at a rate not exceeding 1 to 3 mg/kg/min or 50 mg per minute, whichever is slower. Although the risk of cardiovascular toxicity increases with infusion rates above the recommended infusion rate, these events have also been reported at or below the recommended infusion rate. Monitor blood pressure, heart rate, and be alert for evidence of hypotension or cardiac effects.
    Pindolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pioglitazone; Glimepiride: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pioglitazone; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pirbuterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should also be used when pirbuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Pramlintide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Probenecid; Colchicine: (Minor) The response to sympathomimetics may be enhanced by colchicine.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Because procarbazine exhibits some monoamine oxidase inhibitory (MAOI) activity, sympathomimetic drugs should be avoided. As with MAOIs, the use of a sympathomimetic drug with procarbazine may precipitate hypertensive crisis or other serious side effects. In the presence of MAOIs, drugs that cause release of norepinephrine induce severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses. In general, do not use a sympathomimetic drug unless clinically necessary (e.g., medical emergencies, agents like dopamine) within the 14 days prior, during or 14 days after procarbazine therapy. If use is necessary within 2 weeks of the MAOI drug, in general the initial dose of the sympathomimetic agent must be greatly reduced. Patients should be counseled to avoid non-prescription (OTC) decongestants and other drug products, weight loss products, and energy supplements that contain sympathomimetic agents.
    Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Phenothiazines can suppress the dopaminergic renal and mesenteric vasodilation induced with low-dose dopamine infusion.
    Propofol: (Moderate) Initially, vasopressors may reduce propofol serum concentrations due to increased metabolic clearance secondary to increased hepatic blood flow. An increase in the propofol dose may be required. Additionally, the vasopressor dose may need to be increased over time due to tachyphylaxis. Thus, these drugs may drive each other in a progressively myocardial depressive loop, which could lead to cardiac arrhythmias or cardiac failure.
    Propranolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly. (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Major) Pseudoephedrine can potentiate the effects and increase the toxicity of other sympathomimetics by adding to their sympathomimetic activity. Although no data are available, pseudoephedrine should be used cautiously in patients using significant quantities of other sympathomimetics.
    Quetiapine: (Major) Antipsychotic agents may inhibit the clinical antiparkinsonian response to therapy by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. Quetiapine may also cause additive sedation with drugs like dopamine. In general, however, atypical antipsychotics like quetiapine are less likely to interfere with these therapies than traditional antipsychotic agents.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Racepinephrine: (Major) Racepinephrine is a sympathomimetic drug with agonist actions at both the alpha and beta receptors. Patients using racepinephrine inhalation are advised to avoid other non-prescription products containing sympathomimetics since additive adverse effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system are possible, some which may be undesirable. Side effects such as nausea, tremor, nervousness, difficulty with sleep, and increased heart rate or blood pressure may be additive. Patients should avoid use of non-prescription decongestants, such as phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine, while using racepinephrine inhalations. Patients should avoid dietary supplements containing ingredients that are reported or claimed to have a stimulant or weight-loss effect, such as ephedrine and ephedra, Ma huang, and phenylpropanolamine.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) The concomitant use of rasagiline and sympathomimetics was not allowed in clinical studies; therefore, caution is advised during concurrent use of rasagiline and sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD and weight loss, non-prescription nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants, and weight loss dietary supplements containing Ephedra. Although sympathomimetics are contraindicated for use with other non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), hypertensive reactions generally are not expected to occur during concurrent use with rasagiline because of the selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition of rasagiline at manufacturer recommended doses. One case of elevated blood pressure has been reported in a patient during concurrent use of the recommended dose of rasagiline and ophthalmic tetrahydrozoline. One case of hypertensive crisis has been reported in a patient taking the recommended dose of another MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, in combination with ephedrine. It should be noted that the MAO-B selectivity of rasagiline decreases in a dose-related manner as increases are made above the recommended daily dose and interactions with sympathomimetics may be more likely to occur at these higher doses.
    Reserpine: (Major) Concomitant use of reserpine with direct-acting sympathomimetics can potentiate the vasopressor effects of the sympathomimetic and antagonize the antihypertensive effects of reserpine.
    Riociguat: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Risperidone: (Minor) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of risperidone.
    Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Safinamide: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as dopamine. If concomitant use of safinamide and dopamine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Salmeterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should also be used when salmeterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Selegiline: (Major) Patients who have been treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as selegiline, within two to three weeks prior to the administration of dopamine should receive initial doses of dopamine no greater than one-tenth of the usual dose. Because dopamine is metabolized by monoamine oxidase, inhibition of this enzyme by MAOIs prolongs and potentiates the effect of dopamine.
    Selexipag: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with selexipag. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including selexipag. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Semaglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    SGLT2 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Sibutramine: (Major) Concurrent use of sibutramine with other serotonergic agents may increase the potential for serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Concomitant use of sibutramine and other agents that may raise blood pressure or heart rate have not been evaluated. Sibutramine should be prescribed cautiously in patients who are taking sympathomimetics.
    Solriamfetol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and heart rate during coadministration of solriamfetol, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and vasopressors. Concurrent use of solriamfetol and other medications that increase blood pressure and/or heart rate may increase the risk of such effects. Coadministration of solriamfetol with other drugs that increase blood pressure or heart rate has not been evaluated.
    Sotalol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) St. John's wort, Hypericum Perforatum may reduce the neuronal uptake of monoamines, such as dopamine and should be used cautiously with sympathomimetics or drugs with sympathomimetic-like actions.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Terbutaline: (Major) Concomitant use of sympathomimetics with beta-agonists might result in additive cardiovascular effects such as increased blood pressure and heart rate.
    Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of theophylline or aminophylline with some sympathomimetics can produce excessive stimulation and effects such as nervousness, irritability, or insomnia. Seizures or cardiac arrhythmias are also possible. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of theophylline or aminophylline with sympathomimetics can produce excessive stimulation manifested by skeletal muscle activity, agitation, and hyperactivity.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Thiazolidinediones: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Thioridazine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased by the alpha-adrenergic blocking effect of thiothixene. Because the alpha-blocking effect of thiothixene is weak, a significant interaction is unlikely.
    Thyroid hormones: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Timolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Tolcapone: (Moderate) Drugs known to be metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), such as dopamine, should be administered cautiously to patients receiving COMT inhibitors. Concomitant use may result in increased heart rates, possibly arrhythmias, and excessive changes in blood pressure.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) In general, sympathomimetics should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Treprostinil: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with treprostinil. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including treprostinil. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Major) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may potentiate the pressor response to parenteral sympathomimetic agents, such as dopamine. TCAs inhibit norepinephrine reuptake in adrenergic neurons, resulting in increased stimulation of adrenergic receptors. Clinically, the patient might experience side effects like hypertension, headache, tremor, palpitations, chest pain, or irregular heartbeat. Patients should be closely monitored if use together is unavoidable.
    Trifluoperazine: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of phenothiazines.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as vilanterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the effects of antihypertensives such as metolazone when administered concomitantly.
    Vasodilators: (Moderate) Use sympathomimetic agents with caution in patients receiving therapy for hypertension. Patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure and heart rate, and antagonize the antihypertensive effects of vasodilators when administered concomitantly. Anginal pain may be induced when coronary insufficiency is present.
    Vasopressin, ADH: (Moderate) Monitor hemodynamics and adjust drug doses as needed when vasopressin and dopamine are used concomitantly. Use together is expected to result in an additive effect on mean arterial blood pressure and other hemodynamic parameters.
    Yohimbine: (Major) At high doses, yohimbine may nonselectively inhibit monoamine oxidase and also, at normal doses, activates the sympathetic nervous system via selective central alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonism. Traditional MAOIs can cause serious adverse effects when taken concomitantly with sympathomimetics.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) The vasoconstrictive properties of dopamine infusion can be decreased due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking capability of ziprasidone.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Use caution when administering dopamine to a breast-feeding woman. It is not known whether dopamine is excreted in human milk.[32400]

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Dopamine is the metabolic precursor to norepinephrine in the catecholamine synthetic pathway; it has sites of action in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dopamine increases blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) by increasing myocardial contractility and peripheral vasoconstriction. The clinical effects of exogenous dopamine vary depending on the rate of infusion. At low doses (less than 5 mcg/kg/minute), dopamine targets dopaminergic D1 receptors in the renal, mesenteric, coronary, and cerebral vasculature and D2 receptors in the vasculature and renal tissue, promoting vasodilation and increased blood flow to these tissues. At intermediate doses (5 to 10 mcg/kg/minute), dopamine continues to stimulate dopaminergic receptors but also activities beta1-receptors, which results in increased cardiac contractility and chronotropy with a mild increase in systemic vascular resistance. At high doses, dopamine maintains beta activity while preferentially targeting alpha-receptors, resulting in potent vasoconstriction.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Dopamine is administered intravenously. It is widely distributed throughout the body but does not cross the blood-brain barrier to a significant extent. Dopamine is metabolized in the liver, kidneys, and plasma to inactive compounds by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). About 25% of the dose is taken up into adrenergic nerve terminals where it is hydroxylated to form norepinephrine. Excretion occurs in the urine, mainly as metabolites and conjugates. Plasma half-life is about 2 minutes.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes: none

    Intravenous Route

    Onset of action occurs within 5 minutes and persists for less than 10 minutes.