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  • CLASSES

    Oral Bisphosphonates

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral second-generation bisphosphonate; weekly or daily regimens available for selected conditions
    Used primarily for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in both men and postmenopausal women; also effective for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis
    Also used for the management of Paget's disease

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Binosto, Fosamax

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Alendronate Sodium/Alendronic Acid/Fosamax Oral Sol: 70mg, 75mL
    Alendronate Sodium/Alendronic Acid/Fosamax Oral Tab: 5mg, 10mg, 35mg, 40mg, 70mg
    Binosto Oral Tab Effrv: 70mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Once daily regimen for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoporosis in men.
    Oral dosage (tablets for daily administration)
    Adult men and postmenopausal females

    10 mg PO once daily. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. The optimal treatment duration has not been determined; reevaluate treatment on a periodic basis. For those patients at low risk for fracture, consider stopping alendronate after 3 to 5 years. After discontinuation of therapy, continue to periodically reassess fracture risk. Bisphosphonates are a first-line therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women; alendronate is additionally effective in men with osteoporosis.

    Once-weekly regimen for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoporosis in men.
    Oral dosage (weekly tablets, oral solution, or effervescent-tablets for oral solution)
    Adult men and postmenopausal females

    70 mg PO once weekly. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. The optimal treatment duration has not been determined; reevaluate treatment on a periodic basis. For those patients at low risk for fracture, consider stopping alendronate after 3 to 5 years. After discontinuation of therapy, continue to periodically reassess fracture risk. Bisphosphonates are a first-line therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women; alendronate is additionally effective in men with osteoporosis.

    Once daily regimen for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women.
    Oral dosage (tablets for daily administration)
    Adults

    5 mg PO once daily. For postmenopausal women who are not taking estrogen hormonal replacement, the dose is 10 mg PO daily. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. For use in patients taking systemic corticosteroids (i.e., equivalent to prednisone 7.5 mg/day PO or more). The optimal treatment duration has not been determined; reevaluate treatment on a periodic basis. For those patients at low risk for fracture, consider stopping alendronate after 3 to 5 years. After discontinuation of therapy, continue to periodically reassess fracture risk. Per guidelines, only use in patients with moderate to high risk for fracture; not recommended if low fracture risk.

    For osteoporosis prophylaxis.
    Once-weekly regimen for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
    Oral dosage (weekly tablets)
    Adult postmenopausal females

    35 mg PO once weekly. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. The optimal treatment duration has not been determined; reevaluate treatment on a periodic basis. For those patients at low risk for fracture, consider stopping alendronate after 3 to 5 years. After discontinuation of therapy, continue to periodically reassess fracture risk.

    Once daily regimen for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
    Oral dosage (tablets for daily administration)
    Adult postmenopausal females

    5 mg PO once daily. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. The optimal treatment duration has not been determined; reevaluate treatment on a periodic basis. For those patients at low risk for fracture, consider stopping alendronate after 3 to 5 years. After discontinuation of therapy, continue to periodically reassess fracture risk.

    For prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women.
    Oral dosage (tablets for daily administration)
    Adults


    5 mg PO once daily. For postmenopausal women who are not taking estrogen hormonal replacement, the dose is 10 mg PO daily. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. For use in patients taking systemic corticosteroids (i.e., equivalent to prednisone 7.5 mg/day PO or more). The optimal treatment duration has not been determined; reevaluate treatment on a periodic basis. For those patients at low risk for fracture, consider stopping alendronate after 3 to 5 years. After discontinuation of therapy, continue to periodically reassess fracture risk. Per guidelines, only use in patients with moderate to high risk for fracture; not recommended if low fracture risk.

    For the treatment of Paget's disease.
    Oral dosage (tablets for daily administration)
    Adults

    40 mg PO once daily for 6 months. Supplement calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate. Retreatment may be considered after a 6-month post-treatment evaluation period, based on increases in serum alkaline phosphatase.[28644] Alendronate is associated with histologic and radiologic evidence of disease improvement, but guidelines suggest that retreatment with alendronate may be necessary within 2 to 6 years. Guidelines also recommend a single dose of zoledronic acid preferentially due to the rare need for retreatment within 5 years, but the alendronate regimen is also an acceptable option. There are long-term data for reducing pain and lytic lesions and improving quality of life.[63474]

    For the treatment of malignant hypercalcemia†.
    Intravenous dosage†
    Adults

    Safety and efficacy have not been established. This dosage form is not available in the U.S. Doses of 5 mg, 7.5 mg, or 10 mg of alendronate IV infusion over 2 to 6 hours appear to be effective. While doses of 12.5 and 15 mg have also been studied, they may not provide any significant benefit over lower doses in terms of achieving serum calcium reduction.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    10 mg/day PO or 70 mg/week PO for osteoporosis. For Paget's disease 40 mg/day PO for 6 months.

    Geriatric

    10 mg/day PO or 70 mg/week PO for osteoporosis. For Paget's disease 40 mg/day PO for 6 months.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    No dosage adjustment is needed.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl 35 mL/minute or more: No dosage adjustment is needed.
    CrCl less than 35 mL/minute: Not recommended.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Administer after the patient has risen for the day. The patient should be sitting or standing. Do not administer alendronate to the patient while the patient is lying down.
    Administer with plain water only and at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other medications of the day. At least 30 minutes should elapse after an alendronate dose before taking any other drugs.
    To avoid esophageal irritation, the patient should not lie down for at least 30 minutes after the dose and until after their first food of the day.
    Alendronate should not be administered at bedtime or before the patient has risen for the day.
    Missed dose of a daily regimen: Instruct the patient not to take a dose later in the day. Instruct the patient to skip the missed dose and to return to the usual schedule the next morning. They should not take 2 doses on the same day.
    Missed doses of a once-weekly dose regimen: If a once-weekly dose is missed, instruct the patient to take the dose on the morning after they remember. They should not take 2 doses on the same day but should return to taking 1 dose once a week, as originally scheduled on their chosen day.[28644] [52249]

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Tablets:
    Administer in the morning with a full glass of plain water (180 to 240 mL or 6 to 8 ounces).

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Oral Solution:
    Use oral syringe or other calibrated device for accurate dosage.
    Administer in the morning with at least 60 mL (2 ounces) of water.
     
    Effervescent tablets for oral solution:
    Dissolve 1 tablet in 120 mL (4 ounces) of plain, unflavored, room temperature water only.
    After completion of the effervescence, wait at least 5 minutes and then stir the solution for approximately 10 seconds and have the patient ingest.

    Injectable Administration

    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

    Intravenous Administration

    NOTE: Alendronate is not approved by the FDA for intravenous administration. An intravenous product is not available in the U.S.
    Dilute dose in 250 mL or 500 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
    Do not mix with any other drug products.
    An IV infusion time of 2 to 6 hours has been recommended.

    STORAGE

    Binosto:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    - Store in original package until time of use
    Fosamax:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Achalasia, dysphagia, esophageal stricture, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), GI disease, GI perforation, hiatal hernia, inability to stand or sit upright

    A history of GI disease is an independent risk factor for the development of GI adverse reactions during alendronate therapy. Severe reactions requiring hospitalization have occurred. Alendronate should be used with caution in patients with esophageal and GI disease, including dysphagia, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatal hernia, duodenitis, ulcers, or GI perforation. Alendronate is contraindicated in patients with abnormalities of the esophagus that delay esophageal emptying such as esophageal stricture or achalasia. Alendronate is contraindicated in patients who are at an increased risk of aspiration. Further, use is contraindicated in patients with an inability to stand or sit upright for at least 30 minutes after dose administration as the risk of esophagitis and esophageal ulceration/erosion appears to be greater in patients who lay down after taking this medicine. Prescribers and health care professionals should closely monitor patients for any signs or symptoms an esophageal reaction. Advise patients to discontinue alendronate and seek medical attention if they develop dysphagia, odynophagia, or retrosternal pain. The risk of esophageal reactions increases in patients who do not follow the administration instructions. It is very important that patients understand and follow these instructions; direct observation may be required in those who cannot independently follow dosing instructions due to mental disability. In 2011, the FDA announced an ongoing review of data from published studies to evaluate whether use of oral bisphosphonate drugs is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. There have been conflicting findings from studies evaluating this risk. At the time of the announcement, the FDA states that the benefits of oral bisphosphonate drugs in reducing the risk of serious fractures in people with osteoporosis continue to outweigh their potential risks.

    Geriatric

    Geriatric patients may be at increased risk for the development of adverse GI reactions during alendronate therapy. Increased age has been identified as an independent risk factor particularly for GI perforations, ulcers, or bleeding, but not necessarily esophageal events. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates the use of medications in residents of long-term care facilities. The OBRA guidelines state that bisphosphonates must be taken according to very specific directions, including time of day, position, and timing relative to other medications and food. Patients receiving these medications should be monitored closely for GI complications (e.g., esophageal or gastric erosion). Potential adverse effects of bisphosphonates include dysphagia, esophagitis, gastritis, or esophageal and gastric ulcers, particularly when used in combination with oral corticosteroids, aspirin, or other NSAIDs.

    Hypocalcemia, vitamin D deficiency

    Preexistent hypocalcemia must be corrected before initiating alendronate therapy. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency must also be corrected. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D during treatment are essential. This is most important for patients with Paget's disease who are to receive alendronate. Alendronate can decrease serum calcium and phosphate in these patients, who may have a higher rate of bone turnover.

    Renal failure, renal impairment

    About 50% of a single IV dose of alendronate is excreted in the urine. Studies in animals indicated that any alendronate not deposited in bone was rapidly excreted. Renal failure in animals led to increased amounts of alendronate in plasma, kidney, spleen, and tibia. No human study results are available, but it is likely that patients with severe renal impairment will accumulate alendronate. No dosage adjustment is recommended by the manufacturer if creatinine clearance is > 35 mL/min (mild to moderate renal insufficiency). Until further evidence is available, alendronate is not recommended for patients with creatinine clearance < 35 mL/min (renal failure).

    Children, infants, neonates

    Alendronate is not FDA approved for use in neonates, infants, children, or adolescents. Bisphosphonates have been used successfully in children for treatment of specific disease states (i.e., hypercalcemia of malignancy, idiopathic or glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget's disease). The efficacy and safety of alendronate in children aged 4—18 years of age with osteogenesis imperfecta has been evaluated. In a 2-year study, 109 patients were randomized to either 5 mg of alendronate once daily (weight < 40 kg) or 10 mg of alendronate once daily (weight >= 40 kg), and 30 patients were randomized to placebo. The mean change in BMD Z-score from baseline was 1.3 in the alendronate-treated groups and 0.1 in the placebo group; treatment with alendronate did not reduce fracture rates. Of the patients who sustained a radiologically-confirmed fracture by month 12 of the study, 16% of alendronate-treated compared with only 9% of placebo-treated patients had delayed fracture healing or fracture non-union when assessed radiographically at month 24. In addition, at month 24, patients treated with alendronate demonstrated decreased bone turnover and delayed mineralization time. There were no differences between the alendronate-treated and the placebo-treated patients with respect to bone pain. Extreme caution must be used to ensure appropriate use in children; excessive doses of bisphosphonates may compromise skeletal quality during growth, despite concomitant increases in bone density. In a case report, inappropriate and excessive doses of pamidronate in a child resulted in osteopetrosis (abnormally dense and misshapen bone predisposed to fracture).[27622] It may be advisable to monitor biochemical markers of skeletal turnover when bisphosphonates are used in children to help assure clinicians that skeletal resorption is not excessively suppressed.

    Pregnancy

    There are no studies of alendronate use during pregnancy. It is prudent to avoid alendronate use during pregnancy unless the potential benefit to the mother justifies any possible risk to the fetus.[28644] [52249] Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from which they are gradually released over a period of years. The amount of bisphosphonate incorporated into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation, is directly related to the dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. There are no data on fetal risk in humans. However, there is a theoretical risk of fetal harm, predominantly skeletal, if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on the risk has not been studied. Bisphosphonates do cause fetal harm (predominantly skeletal) in animals, suggesting the uptake of bisphosphonates into fetal bone is greater than into maternal bone. Animal reproductive studies indicate alendronate may induce fetal skeletal changes, a decrease in maternal serum calcium and protracted parturition, as well as a possible effect on fetal viability.[28644] [52249]

    Breast-feeding

    Alendronate should be used with caution during breast-feeding.[28644] [52249] It is not known if alendronate is excreted into human milk. The effects of alendronate on a breastfed infant are not known. Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from which they are gradually released over a period of years. The amount of bisphosphonate incorporated into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation for potential excretion into breast milk, is directly related to the dose and duration of bisphosphonate use.[28644] [52249] Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    Phosphonate hypersensitivity

    Alendronate should be used cautiously in patients with known phosphonate hypersensitivity. Alendronate is contraindicated in patients with alendronate hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity to any of the components in the formulation.

    Sunlight (UV) exposure

    Alendronate may cause a rash that is worsened by sunlight (UV) exposure. However, patients should be advised that inadequate sunlight exposure can increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency.

    Anemia, chemotherapy, coagulopathy, corticosteroid therapy, dental disease, dental work, infection

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw has been reported in patients with cancer receiving treatment regimens which included bisphosphonates (most commonly pamidronate and zoledronic acid), but also occasionally in patients receiving chronic oral bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis including alendronate. The risk may increase with duration of exposure to the bisphosphonate. In patients with cancer receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, many patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids. The majority of reported cases have been associated with dental procedures, such as tooth extraction, and many of these patients had signs of local infection including osteomyelitis; however, cases have appeared spontaneously. It would be prudent for all patients including those with concomitant risk factors (e.g. anemia, cancer, chemotherapy, coagulopathy, corticosteroid therapy, dental disease, infection, poor oral hygiene) initiating bisphosphonate therapy to receive a dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry and correction of dental complications prior to beginning treatment. Preventive measures such as these as well as continued regular follow-up with a dentist during bisphosphonate therapy are recommended by the American Academy of Oral Medicine as the best way to minimize the risk of osteonecrosis. Invasive dental procedures should be avoided, if possible, during treatment, but if they are necessary, should be performed by an experienced dentist with close patient follow-up. If osteonecrosis of the jaw does develop during bisphosphonate therapy, it should be noted that dental surgery may exacerbate the condition. For patients requiring dental work, no data are available to suggest whether discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment reduces the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. In addition, discontinuing the bisphosphonate once osteonecrosis develops is controversial as the estimated half-life of bisphosphonates in the bone is years.

    Cardiac disease, heart failure, hypertension, sodium restriction

    Each alendronate effervescent tablet contains 650 mg of sodium, which is equivalent to approximately 1650 mg of salt (NaCl). When possible, use of the effervescent tablet formulation should be avoided in patients that require sodium restriction, including patients with heart failure, hypertension, and other cardiac disease.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / 0.1-1.5
    peptic ulcer / Delayed / 0-1.1
    atrial fibrillation / Early / Incidence not known
    GI perforation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal stricture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    uveitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    visual impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    osteonecrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bone fractures / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hypocalcemia / Delayed / 18.0-18.0
    hypophosphatemia / Delayed / 10.0-10.0
    constipation / Delayed / 0-3.1
    melena / Delayed / 0-1.3
    gastritis / Delayed / 0.2-1.1
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    oral ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophagitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    lymphopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bone pain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    erythema / Early / Incidence not known
    ocular inflammation / Early / Incidence not known
    conjunctivitis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    abdominal pain / Early / 0.9-6.6
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 0.4-6.0
    flatulence / Early / 0-4.1
    nausea / Early / 0-3.6
    dyspepsia / Early / 1.1-3.6
    diarrhea / Early / 0-3.1
    gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / 0.7-2.8
    headache / Early / 0-2.6
    muscle cramps / Delayed / 0-1.1
    vomiting / Early / 0.2-1.0
    dysgeusia / Early / 0.1-0.5
    pyrosis (heartburn) / Early / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    dizziness / Early / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    arthralgia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    photosensitivity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    alopecia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    rash / Early / Incidence not known
    ocular pain / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from aluminum-containing medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Aluminum hydroxide will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any aluminum containing product.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from aluminum-containing medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Aluminum hydroxide will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any aluminum containing product.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from aluminum-containing medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Aluminum hydroxide will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any aluminum containing product.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from aluminum-containing medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Aluminum hydroxide will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any aluminum containing product.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from aluminum-containing medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Aluminum hydroxide will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any aluminum containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any aluminum containing product.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) When the intravenous formulation of alendronate is used for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, combination therapy with loop diuretics should be used with caution in order to avoid hypocalcemia. In patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy, the initial treatment typically includes the use of loop diuretics, in combination with saline hydration, however, diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia and dehydration.
    Calcium Acetate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium Chloride: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium Gluconate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Calcium; Vitamin D: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Because gastric ulceration and GI bleeding have been reported in patients taking deferasirox, use caution when coadministering with other drugs known to increase the risk of peptic ulcers or gastric hemorrhage including alendronate.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) When the intravenous formulation of alendronate is used for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, combination therapy with loop diuretics should be used with caution in order to avoid hypocalcemia. In patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy, the initial treatment typically includes the use of loop diuretics, in combination with saline hydration, however, diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia and dehydration.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from iron-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Iron will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from iron-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Iron will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Food: (Major) Absorption of alendronate is very poor; oral bioavailability is less than 1%. Because of this, food interactions can be very significant. Alendronate oral absorption becomes almost negligible if alendronate is taken within 2 hours of breakfast. Even orange juice or coffee can reduce bioavailability by about 60%. To achieve maximum possible bioavailability alendronate must be taken in the fasting state and at least 2 hours before a standard breakfast.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) When the intravenous formulation of alendronate is used for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, combination therapy with loop diuretics should be used with caution in order to avoid hypocalcemia. In patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy, the initial treatment typically includes the use of loop diuretics, in combination with saline hydration, however, diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia and dehydration.
    H2-blockers: (Moderate) Although the clinical significance has not been determined, the bioavailability of oral alendronate is doubled by concomitant administration of intravenous ranitidine. Investigations have not been undertaken to determine if other H2-antagonists have a similar effect on bioavailability. Patients should be closely monitored when H2-blockers are coadministered as they may affect the bioavailability of alendronate, possibly leading to a higher likelihood of developing adverse effects while taking alendronate.
    Hetastarch; Dextrose; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Oral magnesium-containing products may significantly reduce the absorption of alendronate. All medications should be administered at least 30 minutes after an alendronate dose to help prevent these absorption interactions. Some recommend that divalent cation-containing products should preferentially be taken at least 2 hours after oral bisphosphonates or at a completely different time of day. (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Iron Salts: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from iron-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Iron will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Iron Sucrose, Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of alendronate with oral iron sucrose, sucroferric oxyhydroxide may interfere with the absorption of alendronate. To minimize the potential for this interaction, consider separating the administration of the two drugs and monitor for clinical response to alendronate.
    Iron: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from iron-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Iron will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Lanthanum Carbonate: (Moderate) To limit absorption problems, the oral bisphosphonates should not be taken within 2 hours of dosing with lanthanum carbonate. Oral drugs known to interact with cationic antacids, like the oral bisphosphonates, may also be bound by lanthanum carbonate. Separating times of administration will maximize absorption and clinical benefit of the bisphosphonate. Separate the times of administration appropriately. Monitor the patient's clinical status and bone density as recommended to ensure the appropriate response to bisphosphonate therapy is obtained.
    Levothyroxine: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of alendronate from levothyroxine and other medications will maximize alendronate absorption and clinical benefit. For example, administering the levothyroxine dose at bedtime can avoid this interaction with alendronate. The bioavailability of alendronate was slightly decreased when alendronate and levothyroxine were co-administered to healthy subjects The mean AUC and Cmax of alendronate decreased by 7% and 9%, respectively. Alendronate should always be administered upon arising for the day and at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other medication of the day. To minimize interactions, levothyroxine is also best taken on an empty stomach with a glass of water.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Moderate) Separating times of administration of alendronate from levothyroxine and other medications will maximize alendronate absorption and clinical benefit. For example, administering the levothyroxine dose at bedtime can avoid this interaction with alendronate. The bioavailability of alendronate was slightly decreased when alendronate and levothyroxine were co-administered to healthy subjects The mean AUC and Cmax of alendronate decreased by 7% and 9%, respectively. Alendronate should always be administered upon arising for the day and at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other medication of the day. To minimize interactions, levothyroxine is also best taken on an empty stomach with a glass of water.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Moderate) Separating times of administration of alendronate from levothyroxine and other medications will maximize alendronate absorption and clinical benefit. For example, administering the levothyroxine dose at bedtime can avoid this interaction with alendronate. The bioavailability of alendronate was slightly decreased when alendronate and levothyroxine were co-administered to healthy subjects The mean AUC and Cmax of alendronate decreased by 7% and 9%, respectively. Alendronate should always be administered upon arising for the day and at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other medication of the day. To minimize interactions, levothyroxine is also best taken on an empty stomach with a glass of water.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) When the intravenous formulation of alendronate is used for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, combination therapy with loop diuretics should be used with caution in order to avoid hypocalcemia. In patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy, the initial treatment typically includes the use of loop diuretics, in combination with saline hydration, however, diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia and dehydration.
    Magnesium Citrate: (Moderate) Do not administer oral magnesium-containing products within 2 hours of oral bisphosphonates; oral magnesium may significantly reduce the absorption of the oral bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, or tiludronate). All medications should be administered at least 30 minutes after an alendronate or risedronate dose, and at least 1 hour after an ibandronate dose to help prevent absorption interactions. Some recommend that divalent cation-containing products should preferentially be taken at least 2 hours after these drugs or at a different time of day.
    Magnesium Salts: (Moderate) Oral magnesium-containing products may significantly reduce the absorption of alendronate. All medications should be administered at least 30 minutes after an alendronate dose to help prevent these absorption interactions. Some recommend that divalent cation-containing products should preferentially be taken at least 2 hours after oral bisphosphonates or at a completely different time of day.
    Magnesium: (Moderate) Oral magnesium-containing products may significantly reduce the absorption of alendronate. All medications should be administered at least 30 minutes after an alendronate dose to help prevent these absorption interactions. Some recommend that divalent cation-containing products should preferentially be taken at least 2 hours after oral bisphosphonates or at a completely different time of day.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Sodium bicarbonate can reduce the absorption of the oral bisphosphonates. Wait at least 30 minutes after oral alendronate, 1 hour after ibandronate, and 2 hours after oral etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before taking a sodium bicarbonatecontaining product.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Pantothenic Acid, Vitamin B5: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from calcium-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Calcium will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any calcium containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Parathyroid Hormone: (Moderate) Coadministration of alendronate with parathyroid hormone (PTH) is not recommended as concomitant use leads to a reduction in the calcium sparing effect, which can interfere with the normalization of serum calcium. The use of PTH alone was superior to use in combination with alendronate in clinical trials. In clinical trials, there was no evidence of synergy between PTH and alendronate. Changes in the volumetric density of trabecular bone, the cortical volume at the hip, and levels of markers of bone turnover suggest that the concurrent use of alendronate may reduce the anabolic effects of PTH. Concurrent use with other bisphosphonates is also controversial. However, sequential use (e.g., PTH followed by anti-resorptive treatment with bisphosphonates) appears to be beneficial and to help maintain beneficial bone effects.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Polycarbophil: (Moderate) Coadministration of alendronate with calcium polycarbophil can interfere with the oral absorption of alendronate; do not administer calcium polycarbophil within 30 minutes of alendronate. Each 625 mg of calcium polycarbophil contains a substantial amount of calcium (approximately 125 mg).
    Polysaccharide-Iron Complex: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from iron-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Iron will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Proton pump inhibitors: (Moderate) Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used and are frequently coadministered in users of oral bisphosphonates. A national register-based, open cohort study of 38,088 elderly patients suggests that those who use proton pump inhibitors in conjunction with alendronate have a dose-dependent loss of protection against hip fracture. While causality was not investigated, the dose-response relationship noted during the study suggested that PPIs may reduce oral alendronate efficacy, perhaps through an effect on absorption or other mechanism, and therefore PPIs may not be optimal agents to control gastrointestinal complaints. It is not yet clear if all bisphosphonates would exhibit a loss of efficacy when PPIs are coadministered, but the results suggest that the interaction may occur across the class.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Sodium bicarbonate can reduce the absorption of the oral bisphosphonates. Wait at least 30 minutes after oral alendronate, 1 hour after ibandronate, and 2 hours after oral etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before taking a sodium bicarbonatecontaining product.
    Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex; ferric pyrophosphate citrate: (Moderate) Separating times of administration of the oral bisphosphonate from iron-containing supplements and medications will maximize absorption and clinical benefit. Iron will interfere with the absorption of the orally administered bisphosphonates alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and tiludronate. At least 30 minutes should elapse after the oral administration of alendronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 1 hour should elapse after the oral administration of ibandronate before taking any iron containing product. At least 2 hours should elapse after the oral administration of etidronate, risedronate, or tiludronate before administering any calcium containing product.
    Sucralfate: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of oral alendronate with aluminum-containing medications (e.g., sucralfate) may interfere with the absorption of alendronate. Separation of administration is advised. At least 30 minutes should elapse after an alendronate dose before taking aluminum-containing drugs.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) When the intravenous formulation of alendronate is used for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, combination therapy with loop diuretics should be used with caution in order to avoid hypocalcemia. In patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy, the initial treatment typically includes the use of loop diuretics, in combination with saline hydration, however, diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia and dehydration.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering an NSAID with a bisphosphonate. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, as well as renal function, during combined use. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, GI ulceration. a risk of nephrotoxicity, and decreased bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no studies of alendronate use during pregnancy. It is prudent to avoid alendronate use during pregnancy unless the potential benefit to the mother justifies any possible risk to the fetus.[28644] [52249] Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from which they are gradually released over a period of years. The amount of bisphosphonate incorporated into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation, is directly related to the dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. There are no data on fetal risk in humans. However, there is a theoretical risk of fetal harm, predominantly skeletal, if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on the risk has not been studied. Bisphosphonates do cause fetal harm (predominantly skeletal) in animals, suggesting the uptake of bisphosphonates into fetal bone is greater than into maternal bone. Animal reproductive studies indicate alendronate may induce fetal skeletal changes, a decrease in maternal serum calcium and protracted parturition, as well as a possible effect on fetal viability.[28644] [52249]

    Alendronate should be used with caution during breast-feeding.[28644] [52249] It is not known if alendronate is excreted into human milk. The effects of alendronate on a breastfed infant are not known. Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from which they are gradually released over a period of years. The amount of bisphosphonate incorporated into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation for potential excretion into breast milk, is directly related to the dose and duration of bisphosphonate use.[28644] [52249] Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Alendronate is a second-generation bisphosphonate that binds to bone hydroxyapatite and specifically inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells. Alendronate reduces bone resorption with no direct effect on bone formation, although the latter process is ultimately reduced because bone resorption and formation are coupled during bone turnover. At the cellular level, alendronate shows preferential localization to sites of bone resorption, specifically under osteoclasts. The osteoclasts adhere normally to the bone surface but lack the ruffled border that is indicative of active resorption. Alendronate does not interfere with osteoclast recruitment or attachment, but it does inhibit osteoclast activity. Studies in mice on the localization of radioactive alendronate in bone showed about 10-fold higher uptake on osteoclast surfaces than on osteoblast surfaces. Bones examined 6 and 49 days after radioactive alendronate administration in rats and mice, respectively, showed that normal bone was formed on top of the alendronate, which was incorporated inside the matrix. While incorporated in bone matrix, alendronate is not pharmacologically active. Thus, alendronate must be continuously administered to suppress osteoclasts on newly formed resorption surfaces. Histomorphometry in baboons and rats showed that alendronate treatment reduces bone turnover (i.e., the number of sites at which bone is remodeled). In addition, bone formation exceeds bone resorption at these remodeling sites, leading to progressive gains in bone mass. [52249] [26651] [50514]
     
    Like other bisphosphonates, the exact mechanism of alendronate's therapeutic effect in patients with Paget's disease has not been established. Paget's disease is a progressive, idiopathic disease of bone. Increasing numbers of unusually large osteoclasts are produced at affected sites. Increased osteoclastic bone resorption follows, which is compensated for by an increase in osteoblastic bone formation, leading to the replacement of the normal bone architecture by disorganized, enlarged, and weakened bone structure. This new bone architecture is inferior and often deformed, and can fracture easily. Bisphosphonates are believed to reduce the solubility of the mineralized bone matrix by adsorption to hydroxyapatite crystals in the matrix. The matrix becomes less soluble and resistant to osteoclastic resorption, which helps stabilize osteolytic lesions. Alendronate and other bisphosphonates can also block the formation of mature osteoclasts by affecting the attachment of osteoclast precursors to the mineralized matrix. In patients with Paget's disease, alendronate directly decreases bone resorption, resulting in a significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary markers of bone collagen degradation. Bisphosphonates cause histological and radiological evidence of Paget's disease improvement and also reduce pain.[28644] [24426] [50514]
     
    Some bisphosphonates cause a significant decrease in serum calcium and urinary calcium levels in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy, and some bisphosphonate agents in selected cancer patients may reduce osteopenia related to cancer treatment and thus help reduce skeletal events.[24428] [24429] [50514]

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Alendronate is administered orally. Transient distribution into soft tissue is rapidly followed by redistribution to bone or urinary excretion. Alendronate is approximately 78% bound to protein in human plasma. There is no evidence that any metabolism takes place.  Once alendronate is bound to bone, the half-life is more than 10 years. Inhibition of bone resorption diminishes after completion of treatment, suggesting that not all the alendronate sequestered in bone is biologically active. 
    Bone resorption in individual remodeling units normally continues for approximately 2 weeks. Due to the long half-life of alendronate in the bone, weekly administration of alendronate should inhibit bone resorption and provide benefits on bone mass and strength to a similar extent as daily administration.

    Oral Route

    Absorption of alendronate is poor, with oral bioavailability of less than 1%.  Cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium) reduce bioavailability. If alendronate is taken within 2 hours of breakfast its bioavailability becomes almost negligible. Even orange juice or coffee can reduce bioavailability by about 60%. To achieve maximum possible bioavailability, alendronate must be taken in the fasting state and at least 2 hours before a standard breakfast. Estimations suggest that the amount of alendronate released from the skeleton daily, after 10 years of daily dosing with 10 mg of alendronate, is 25% of that absorbed from the GI tract.

    Intravenous Route

    Elimination of alendronate from plasma is rapid, falling 95% within 6 hours of an IV dose. Approximately 50% of a single IV dose is excreted in the urine within 72 hours.