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  • CLASSES

    Concentrated Rapid-acting Human Insulins and Analogs
    Rapid-acting Human Insulins and Analogs

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Rapid-acting insulin analog with a quicker onset/shorter duration of action than regular insulin
    Used to improve glycemic control in adult and pediatric patients with diabetes; often given as prandial or snack boluses
    Faster-acting insulin aspart (Lyumjev) has a different onset of action and timing of administration with respect to meals

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Admelog, Admelog SoloStar, Humalog, Humalog Junior KwikPen, Humalog KwikPen, Insulin Lispro, Insulin Lispro Junior KwikPen, Insulin Lispro KwikPen, LYUMJEV

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Admelog/Admelog SoloStar/Humalog/Humalog Junior KwikPen/Humalog KwikPen/Insulin Lispro/Insulin Lispro Junior KwikPen/Insulin Lispro KwikPen/LYUMJEV Subcutaneous Inj Sol: 1mL, 100U, 200U
    Admelog/LYUMJEV Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 100U, 200U
    Insulin Lispro/Insulin Lispro Junior KwikPen/Insulin Lispro KwikPen Intracavernous Inj Sol: 1mL, 100U

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    Intermittent subcutaneous dosage (Humalog or Admelog products ONLY)
    Adults

    0.4 to 1 unit/kg/day is the typical total daily insulin requirement. In general, 50% of the daily insulin is given as basal insulin (intermediate-acting or long-acting), usually at night. The other 50% is divided and given as prandial insulin (rapid-acting or short-acting). Administer insulin lispro 15 minutes before or immediately after a meal.

    Children and Adolescents 3 to 17 years

    Insulin requirements are highly variable and must be individualized based on patient-specific factors and type of insulin regimen. During partial remission phase, total combined daily insulin requirement is often less than 0.5 units/kg/day. Prepubertal children (outside the partial remission phase) usually require 0.7 to 1 unit/kg/day. During puberty, insulin requirement is much greater, often between 1 to 2 units/kg/day. Use insulin lispro in combination with intermediate- or long-acting insulin. Depending on the type of insulin used as the basal insulin, approximately 30% to 45% (sometimes 50% when insulin analogs are used) should be basal insulin, with the remainder divided into 3 to 4 prandial rapid-acting insulin boluses.[64942] Administer insulin lispro 15 minutes before or immediately after a meal.[59756] [62674]

    Intermittent subcutaneous dosage (Lyumjev products ONLY)
    Adults

    0.4 to 1 unit/kg/day is the typical total daily insulin requirement. In general, 50% of the daily insulin is given as basal insulin (intermediate-acting or long-acting), usually at night. The other 50% is divided and given as prandial insulin (rapid-acting or short-acting). Administer insulin lispro-aabc at the start of a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.

    Children and Adolescents

    Insulin requirements are highly variable and must be individualized based on patient-specific factors and type of insulin regimen. During partial remission phase, total combined daily insulin requirement is often less than 0.5 units/kg/day. Prepubertal children (outside the partial remission phase) usually require 0.7 to 1 unit/kg/day. During puberty, insulin requirement is much greater, often between 1 to 2 units/kg/day. Use insulin lispro in combination with intermediate- or long-acting insulin. Depending on the type of insulin used as the basal insulin, approximately 30% to 45% (sometimes 50% when insulin analogs are used) should be basal insulin, with the remainder divided into 3 to 4 prandial rapid-acting insulin boluses.[64942] Administer insulin lispro-aabc at the start of a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.

    Continuous subcutaneous infusion dosage (Humalog or Admelog 100 units/mL ONLY)
    Adults

    When used in an external insulin pump via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), individualize dosing to the patient's age and metabolic needs. Use Admelog or Humalog 100 units/mL only. Do NOT administer Humalog 200 units/mL using a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump. Therapy is provided by a professional team trained in CSII therapy and capable of supporting patient care continuously (i.e., 24-hours/7 days-a-week).

    Children and Adolescents 3 to 17 years

    When used in an external insulin pump via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), individualize dosing to the patient's age and metabolic needs. Use Admelog or Humalog 100 units/mL only. Do NOT administer Humalog 200 units/mL using a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump. Therapy is provided by a professional team trained in CSII therapy and capable of supporting patient care continuously (i.e., 24-hours/7 days-a-week).

    Continuous subcutaneous infusion dosage (Lyumjev 100 units/mL ONLY)
    Adults

    When used in an external insulin pump via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), individualize dosing to the patient's age and metabolic needs. Use Lyumjev 100 units/mL only. Do NOT administer Lyumjev 200 units/mL using a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump. Therapy is provided by a professional team trained in CSII therapy and capable of supporting patient care continuously (i.e., 24-hours/7 days-a-week).

    Children and Adolescents

    When used in an external insulin pump via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), individualize dosing to the patient's age and metabolic needs. Use Lyumjev 100 units/mL only. Do NOT administer Lyumjev 200 units/mL using a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump. Therapy is provided by a professional team trained in CSII therapy and capable of supporting patient care continuously (i.e., 24-hours/7 days-a-week).

    Intravenous dosage (infusions prepared with Humalog or Admelog 100 units/mL ONLY)
    Adults

    Insulin lispro 100 units/mL can be administered intravenously under medical supervision with close monitoring of blood glucose and potassium concentrations to avoid hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. Insulin lispro should be diluted and used intravenously at concentrations ranging from 0.1 unit/mL to 1 unit/mL in infusion systems containing 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. One study in 21 patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 21, starting blood glucose of 200 to 260 mg/dL) used an initial human lispro rate of 0.5 units/hour intravenously as a continuous infusion. The infusion rate was individualized and adjusted at regular timed intervals to achieve and maintain blood glucose concentrations between 100 and 160 mg/dL. All patients achieved the targeted glucose range at some point during the 6-hour assessment phase. Use Admelog or Humalog 100 units/mL only to prepare infusions. Do NOT administer Humalog 200 units/mL intravenously.[59756] [62674]

    Intravenous dosage (infusions prepared with Lyumjev 100 units/mL ONLY)
    Adults

    Insulin lispro-aabc 100 units/mL can be administered intravenously under medical supervision with close monitoring of blood glucose and potassium concentrations to avoid hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. Insulin lispro-aabc should be diluted and used intravenously at a concentration of 1 unit/mL in infusion systems containing 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection. Dilutions to concentrations below 1 unit/mL are not recommended. Use Lyumjev 100 units/mL only to prepare infusions. Do NOT administer Lyumjev 200 units/mL intravenously.

    For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Subcutaneous dosage

    NOTE: Insulin lispro 100 units/mL may also be administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion using an insulin pump. 

    Adults

    4 units or 10% of basal insulin dose subcutaneously once daily with the largest meal or meal with the greatest postprandial glucose excursion, initially. Consider lowering the basal insulin dose by 4 units or 10% of basal dose if HbA1c is less than 8%. Increase dose by 1 to 2 units or 10% to 15% twice weekly and proceed to full basal-bolus regimen based on blood glucose or HbA1c if further glycemic control is needed; reduce corresponding dose by 10% to 20% if hypoglycemia of undetermined cause occurs. 

    Children† and Adolescents†

    Specific dosing recommendations are not available. 0.25 to 0.5 units/kg/day of intermediate-acting or basal insulin is generally effective in achieving glycemic control and facilitating transition to metformin monotherapy. If target HbA1c is not achieved within 4 months of metformin monotherapy, consider readding basal insulin; add prandial insulin if target HbA1c is not achieved on combination metformin and basal insulin (up to 1.5 units/kg).

    Continuous Intravenous Infusion dosage (100 units/mL)
    Adults

    0.5 unit/hour continuous IV infusion, initially. Adjust dose at regular timed intervals to achieve target blood glucose.[59756] [62674]

    For the treatment of gestational diabetes or for the treatment of patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2) who are now pregnant.
    For pregnant patients with gestational-onset diabetes not controlled by diet-therapy alone.
    Subcutaneous dosage
    Adults and Adolescents (pregnant females)

    Dosage guidelines are variable and must be individualized. For women with persistent fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia after most meals, initial suggested total daily insulin requirements are roughly 0.7 to 1 units/kg/day. This dosage should be divided with a regimen of multiple injections using long-acting or intermediate-acting insulin in combination with short-acting insulin. If only isolated abnormal values are present at a specific time of day, the insulin regimen should be focused to correct the specific hyperglycemia. Dose adjustments are based on fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. During labor, insulin requirements decrease and usually return to normoglycemia several days postpartum. Insulin is often discontinued during or after labor; monitor blood glucose during labor and the days postpartum; follow-up at 6 weeks postpartum.

    For pregnant patients with preexisting diabetes prior to pregnancy.
    Subcutaneous dosage
    Adults and Adolescents (pregnant females)

    On average, insulin needs increase from a range of 0.7 to 0.8 units/kg of actual body weight/day in the first trimester, to 0.8 to 1 units/kg/day in the second trimester, to 0.9 to 1.2 units/kg/day in the third trimester; individualize dosage. The daily dose is usually divided and administered in varying ratios of long-acting or intermediate-acting insulin: short-acting insulin, to fit individual patient needs. Dose adjustments are based on fasting and postprandial blood glucose as per goals defined in ADA and ACOG guidelines. To prevent fetal and maternal complications, meticulous blood glucose control and monitoring is required. During labor and postpartum, hyperglycemia must be closely managed due to the changes in insulin requirements and variable calorie intake.

    For the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis† (DKA).
    For the treatment of uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis† (DKA) when continuous IV administration is not possible.
    Subcutaneous dosage
    Adults

    0.3 units/kg subcutaneously followed by 0.1 unit/kg subcutaneously every 1 hour until blood glucose concentrations are 250 mg/dL or less; then, reduce insulin dosage to 0.05 units/kg subcutaneously every 1 or 2 hours. Blood glucose concentrations should be checked every hour. Blood glucose concentrations should fall at a rate of about 80 to 100 mg/dL/hour; a faster lowering of blood glucose can result in adverse effects, like cerebral edema. In 40 patients with DKA, 20 patients each were randomized to either insulin lispro 0.3 units/kg subcutaneously followed by 0.1 units/kg subcutaneously every 1 hour or regular insulin 0.1 units/kg IV bolus followed by 0.1 units/kg/hour by continuous IV infusion. Treatment with subcutaneous insulin lispro has been shown to be an effective alternative to the use of intravenous regular insulin in the treatment of mild and moderate DKA. There were no differences between the 2 groups with respect to time to correction of hyperglycemia, resolution of ketoacidosis, total insulin dose administered, hospital length of stay, number of hypoglycemic events, or mortality. Patients with severe DKA, hypotension, anasarca, or associated severe critical illness should be managed with intravenous insulin infusions in the ICU. In addition to insulin administration, adequate fluid therapy must be initiated (usually 0.45% or 0.9% Sodium Chloride infusion, fluid type and hourly requirements based on estimated patient need and serum osmolality). When the blood glucose is 250 mg/dL or less, fluid therapy is changed to a 5% Dextrose-containing fluid infusion and adjusted to maintain blood glucose roughly 200 to 250 mg/dL until the acidosis is corrected. Serum potassium concentrations should be monitored frequently and replaced as indicated.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.3 unit/kg subcutaneously, followed 1 hour later by 0.1 unit/kg/dose subcutaneously every 1 hour or 0.15 to 0.2 units/kg/dose subcutaneously every 2 to 3 hours. If blood glucose falls to less than 250 mg/dL before DKA resolves, reduce dosage to 0.05 unit/kg/dose subcutaneously every 1 hour to keep blood glucose approximately 200 mg/dL until resolution of DKA. Consider the addition of 5% Dextrose Injection to IV fluids if there is a concern of hypoglycemia or a precipitous decline in blood glucose. Treatment with subcutaneous insulin lispro has been shown to be an effective alternative to the use of intravenous regular insulin in the treatment of mild and moderate DKA; however, patients with severe DKA should be managed with intravenous insulin infusion in the ICU.[64945]

    Intravenous dosage (continuous infusion)
    Adults

    0.1 to 0.15 units/kg IV bolus followed by 0.1 units/kg/hour via continuous IV infusion. Additionally, adequate fluid therapy must be initiated (usually 0.9% NaCl Injection for the first hour, then 0.45% NaCl Injection if indicated); fluid type and hourly requirements based on estimated patient need and serum osmolality. Blood glucose concentrations are checked hourly and the insulin infusion rate is adjusted accordingly. The insulin infusion should cause blood glucose to fall at a rate of about 50 to 75 mg/dL/hour; a faster lowering of blood glucose can result in adverse effects, like cerebral edema. When the blood glucose falls to 250 mg/dL or less, the insulin infusion rate is usually decreased to 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/hour IV and fluid therapy is changed to a 5% Dextrose-containing fluid infusion; both are adjusted to maintain blood glucose roughly 150 to 250 mg/dL until the acidosis is corrected. Serum potassium concentrations should be monitored frequently and replaced as indicated.[30430] One study in 21 adult patients with type 1 diabetes who did not have DKA (n = 21, starting blood glucose of 200 to 260 mg/dL) used an initial human lispro rate of 0.5 units/hour IV continuous infusion, which was then individualized and adjusted at regular timed intervals to achieve and maintain blood glucose concentrations between 100 and 160 mg/dL. The average time (+/- SE) required to attain near normoglycemia was 129 +/- 14 minutes for use of the insulin lispro infusion.[30510] Use Admelog or Humalog 100 units/mL only to prepare infusions. Do NOT administer Humalog 200 units/mL intravenously.[30510] [62674] [65196]

    Children and Adolescents

    0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/hour IV continuous infusion, beginning at least 1 hour after starting fluid replacement therapy. Do NOT administer an IV bolus at the start of therapy; a bolus is not necessary and may increase the risk of cerebral edema. Generally, the infusion rate should remain in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/hour until the resolution of DKA. If the patient is particularly sensitive to insulin, the dosage may be reduced to prevent hypoglycemia if the metabolic acidosis continues to resolve. To prevent a too rapid decrease in blood glucose and hypoglycemia, 5% Dextrose Injection should be added to the IV fluid when plasma glucose falls to approximately 250 to 300 mg/dL or sooner if the rate of glucose decline is precipitous. Once ketoacidosis has resolved and patients are tolerating oral intake, transition to subcutaneous insulin. Administer rapid-acting insulin 15 to 30 minutes or regular insulin 1 to 2 hours prior to stopping the insulin infusion and providing a meal; continue subcutaneous insulin at a dose individualized to the patient's response. Use Admelog or Humalog 100 units/mL only to prepare infusions. Do NOT administer Humalog 200 units/mL intravenously.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Specific maximum dosage information is not available. Individualize dosage based on careful monitoring of blood glucose and other clinical parameters in all patient populations.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Dosage should be modified depending on clinical response and degree of hepatic impairment, but no quantitative recommendations are available. Some studies have noted increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with hepatic failure. Individualize dosage based on blood glucose and other clinical parameters.

    Renal Impairment

    The pharmacokinetics of insulin are generally unchanged with renal impairment, however, pharmacodynamic differences occur in insulin sensitivity as renal function declines, resulting in increased responses to a given dosage. Individualize dosage based on blood glucose and other clinical parameters.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Injectable Administration

    Administer insulin lispro 100 mg/mL and insulin lispro-aabc 100 mg/mL by subcutaneous injection or intravenous infusion only. Do not administer by intramuscular injection.
    Humalog U-200 and Lyumjev U-200 insulins are for subcutaneous injection only; do NOT give intravenously or by intramuscular injection.
    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use injections that are unusually viscous, cloudy, or discolored.
    Patients using insulin vials should never share needles or syringes with another person.
     
    Insulin Pens:
    Insulin lispro and insulin lispro-aabc are available in two concentrations as a prefilled pen: 100 units/mL and 200 units/mL.
    It is essential that clinicians and patients ensure that the correct concentration of insulin lispro is used. Inadvertent use of the 200 units/mL concentration could result in severe overdose and hypoglycemia.
    Insulin pens should never be shared among patients. Even if the disposable needle is changed, sharing may result in transmission of hepatitis viruses, HIV, or other blood-borne pathogens. Do not share pens among multiple patients in an inpatient setting; use multidose vials instead, if available, or, reserve the use of any pen for 1 patient only.
    Ensure that the patient knows how to use the type of pen needles being dispensed.
    For standard pen needles with both an outer cover and an inner needle cover, remove both covers before use.
    For the safety pen needle, remove only the outer cover; the fixed inner needle shield remains in place.

    Intravenous Administration

    Continuous IV Infusion
    Humalog and Admelog
    Administer insulin lispro intravenously under medical supervision; only use insulin lispro 100 units/mL to prepare intravenous infusions.
    Do NOT administer Humalog 200 units/mL intravenously.
    Rapid-acting insulins, including insulin lispro 100 units/mL and regular insulin, are equally suited for IV therapy for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and the control of diabetes during surgical procedures.
    Close monitoring of blood glucose and potassium concentrations is required to avoid hypoglycemia and hypokalemia.
    Dilute insulin lispro with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection to a final concentration of 0.1 unit/mL to 1 unit/mL.
    Do not mix with other insulins, drugs, or solutions.
    Storage of Humalog infusion: Infusion bags are stable when stored in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F) for 48 hours and then may be used at room temperature for up to an additional 48 hours.
    Storage of Admelog infusion: Infusion bags are stable when stored in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F) for 24 hours and then may be used at room temperature for up to 4 hours.
     
    Lyumjev
    Administer insulin lispro-aabc intravenously under medical supervision; only use insulin lispro-aabc 100 units/mL to prepare intravenous infusions.
    Do NOT administer Lyumjev 200 units/mL intravenously.
    Rapid-acting insulins, including insulin lispro-aabc 100 units/mL and regular insulin, are equally suited for IV therapy for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and the control of diabetes during surgical procedures.
    Close monitoring of blood glucose and potassium concentrations is required to avoid hypoglycemia and hypokalemia.
    Dilute insulin lispro-aabc with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection to a final concentration of 1 unit/mL.
    Do not mix with other insulins, drugs, or solutions.
    Storage of Lyumjev infusion: Infusion bags may be stored up to 4 days when refrigerated between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F) until time of use. The same solution may be stored up to 12 hours at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F).

    Subcutaneous Administration

    Intermittent Subcutaneous Injection
    Preferably, administer Humalog or Admelog shortly before a meal (i.e., meal starts within 15 minutes after injection) or immediately after a meal.
    Administer Lyumjev (insulin lispro-aabc) at the start of a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.
    Insulin lispro and insulin lispro-aabc are available in a multi-dose vial and 3 mL cartridges for use in various insulin pen devices (see specific product labeling). In an effort to minimize insulin wastage, some experts suggest the use of the 3 mL cartridges for children receiving small doses of insulin. However, once any insulin has been withdrawn from a cartridge using a syringe, that cartridge should not be used in an insulin pen device because the inadvertent introduction of air into the cartridge can alter the pen's mechanics resulting in inaccurate dosing.
     
    Dilution
    Humalog and Admelog:
    Insulin lispro (Humalog U-100) may be diluted to a concentration of 1:10 (equivalent to U-10) or 1:2 (equivalent to U-50) using Sterile Diluent for Humalog.
    Insulin lispro (Admelog U-100) may be diluted to a concentration of 1:2 (equivalent to U-50) using Sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
    Do not dilute insulin lispro contained within cartridges. The cartridge should not be refilled with insulin of any type, including insulin lispro.
    Storage of diluted Humalog U-100: Insulin lispro diluted to U-10 or U-50 using Sterile Diluent for Humalog may be stored for up to 28 days at 5 degrees C (41 degrees F) and for 14 days at 30 degrees C (86 degrees F).
    Storage of diluted Admelog U-100: Insulin lispro diluted to U-50 using Sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection may be stored for up to 24 hours under refrigeration between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F) and for up to 4 hours at room temperature.
     
    Administration
    Subcutaneous injections of insulin lispro and insulin lispro-aabc are usually made into the anterior and lateral aspects of the thigh, the upper arms, buttocks, or the abdomen.
    Rotate injection sites within the same region with each injection to prevent lipodystrophy and localized cutaneous amyloidosis. Do not inject into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis. During changes to a patient's insulin regimen, increase the frequency of blood glucose monitoring.
     
    Insulin Lispro Pens:
    Humalog KwikPens and Tempo Pen:
    The needle should remain in the skin for at least 5 seconds to ensure complete delivery of the insulin dose.
    The Humalog U-100 and U-200 KwikPens and the U-100 Tempo Pen dial doses in 1 unit increments and deliver a maximum dose of 60 units per injection.
    Humalog Junior KwikPen dials doses in 0.5 unit increments and delivers a maximum dose of 30 units per injection.
    Do NOT perform dose conversion when using either the Humalog U-100 or U-200 KwikPens; the dose window shows the number of insulin units to be delivered and no conversion is needed.
    Do NOT transfer Humalog U-200 from the KwikPen to a syringe. The markings on an insulin syringe will not measure a dose of Humalog U-200 correctly and overdosage/severe hypoglycemia may result.
    Storage: Once in use, the cartridges or pens should be stored at room temperature [up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F)] only; do NOT refrigerate. Keep away from heat and light. Once removed from refrigeration discard within 28 days, even if not opened and even if the pens or cartridges still contain insulin.
     
    Admelog SoloStar Pen:
    The needle should remain in the skin for at least 10 seconds to ensure complete delivery of the insulin dose.
    The Admelog pen dials doses in 1 unit increments and delivers a maximum dose of 80 units per injection.
    Storage: Once in use, pens should be stored at room temperature [below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F)] only; do NOT refrigerate. Keep away from heat and light. Once removed from refrigeration, cartridges and pens should be discarded within 28 days, even if they have not been opened and even if they still contain insulin.
     
    Lyumjev KwikPens and Tempo Pen:
    The needle should remain in the skin for at least 5 seconds to ensure complete delivery of the insulin dose.
    The Lyumjev U-100 and U-200 KwikPens and the U-100 Tempo Pen dial doses in 1 unit increments and deliver a maximum dose of 60 units per injection.
    Lyumjev Junior KwikPen dials doses in 0.5 unit increments and delivers a maximum dose of 30 units per injection.
    Do NOT perform dose conversion when using either the Lyumjev U-100 or U-200 prefilled pens; the dose window shows the number of insulin units to be delivered and no conversion is needed.
    Do NOT transfer Lyumjev U-200 from the prefilled pen to a syringe. The markings on an insulin syringe will not measure a dose of Lyumjev U-200 correctly and overdosage/severe hypoglycemia may result.
    Storage: Once in use, the cartridges or pens should be stored at room temperature [up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F)] only; do NOT refrigerate. Keep away from heat and light. Once removed from refrigeration discard within 28 days, even if not opened and even if the pens or cartridges still contain insulin.
     
    Insulin Lispro Vial:
    Insulin lispro (Humalog U-100) may be mixed with NPH human insulin only; however, do NOT mix Humalog U-200 with any other insulins or diluents. When mixing insulin lispro and NPH human insulin together in a syringe, draw insulin lispro into the syringe first. This prevents contamination of the remaining insulin lispro in the vial by the NPH insulin.
    Do not mix Admelog or Lyumjev (insulin lispro-aabc) with any other insulins.
    Do not mix any insulin with insulin lispro while contained within cartridges. The cartridge should not be refilled with insulin of any type, including insulin lispro.
    The product labeling for insulin glargine (Lantus) states that it should not be diluted or mixed with any other insulin; however, limited data suggest that mixing insulin glargine with insulin lispro (Humalog U-100) does not affect glycemic control or rates of hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In these studies, the insulins were mixed immediately before injection. Cloudiness upon mixing was noted, but neither pain upon injection nor clogging of the needle was reported.
    Storage of opened vials: May refrigerate or store at room temperature [below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F)] once opened. Do not freeze. Keep away from heat and light. Vials must be used within 28 days or be discarded, even if they still contain insulin.
     
    Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII)
    Preparation and Pump Selection
    Do not mix insulin lispro with other insulins or diluents when using an external CSII infusion pump.
    Do NOT administer Humalog U-200 or Lyumjev U-200 using a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump.
    Follow recommendations available from the specific manufacturer of insulin lispro and the specific insulin pump to be used.
    In case of insulin pump failure, patients should know how to administer insulin by injection and have alternate insulin therapy available.
    The use of Humalog U-100 is known to be compatible with the following pumps: Disetronic H-TRON plus V100, D-TRON, and D-Tronplus with Disetronic Rapid infusion sets; MiniMed models 506, 507, and 508; and Polyfin infusion sets. Before using a pump not included in this list, consult the pump label and confirm compatibility.
    For Admelog and Lyumjev U-100 solutions, refer to the pump user manual to confirm compatibility.
     
    Administration
    Humalog and Admelog
    Rotate the infusion site within the same general region at least every 3 days. A new injection site should be selected if a current site becomes erythematous, pruritic, or thickened as skin reactions or alterations in absorption can occur. Such changes in the skin surrounding an infusion site should be reported to a health care provider.
    Change the insulin lispro in the reservoir (or the insulin-containing cartridge) at least every 7 days or after exposure to temperatures exceeding 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F). Change the infusion set at least every 3 days. When insulin lispro is maintained in a pump system for longer than recommended or at high temperatures, pump malfunction, loss of metacresol (preservative), and insulin degradation may occur.
    Storage in continuous subcutaneous pumps: Insulin used in continuous subcutaneous pumps that is exposed to temperatures higher than 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F) should be discarded. The temperature of the insulin may exceed ambient temperature when the pump housing, tubing, or case is exposed to sunlight or radiant heat.
     
    Lyumjev
    Rotate the infusion site within the same region to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy and localized cutaneous amyloidosis. Do not infuse into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis. A new infusion site should be selected if a current site becomes erythematous, pruritic, or thickened as skin reactions or alterations in absorption can occur. Such changes in the skin surrounding an infusion site should be reported to a health care provider.
    Change the infusion sets and the infusion set insertion site according to the manufacturer's user manual.
    Storage in continuous subcutaneous pumps: Change the insulin lispro-aabc in the reservoir (or the insulin lispro-aabc-containing cartridge) at least every 9 days, or according to the pump user manual, whichever is shorter, or after exposure to temperatures that exceed 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F).

    STORAGE

    Admelog:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Admelog SoloStar:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Humalog:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Humalog Junior KwikPen:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Humalog KwikPen:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Insulin Lispro:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Insulin Lispro Junior KwikPen:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    Insulin Lispro KwikPen:
    - Discard if product has been frozen
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Do not freeze
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    LYUMJEV:
    - Avoid exposure to heat
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Discard unused product 28 days after opening the bottle
    - Do not freeze
    - Do not use if product has been frozen
    - Opened container can be stored for up to 28 days at temperatures below 86 degrees F
    - Protect from light
    - Store and dispense in original container
    - Store unopened containers in refrigerator (36 to 46 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Diarrhea, fever, infection, surgery, thyroid disease, trauma, vomiting

    Changes in insulin products like insulin lispro should be made by experienced medical personnel. Changes in insulin species source (i.e., animal versus human, etc.), purity, or brand can necessitate dosage adjustments. The physiologic response resulting from the mixing together of different insulins for subcutaneous administration may differ from the response occurring when the insulins are administered separately. Treatment must be individualized. Diabetic patients must follow a regular, prescribed diet and exercise schedule to avoid either hypo- or hyperglycemia. The timing of meals and exercise with insulin doses is extremely important, and should remain consistent, unless prescribed otherwise. Fever, thyroid disease, infection, recent trauma or surgery, diarrhea secondary to malabsorption, vomiting, and certain medications can also affect insulin requirements, requiring dosage adjustments. Diabetic patients should be given a 'sick-day' plan to take appropriate action with blood glucose monitoring and insulin therapy when acute illness is present.

    Hepatic disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Hepatic disease, renal impairment, or renal failure may affect dosage requirements of insulin like insulin lispro. Some pharmacokinetic studies have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with hepatic or renal failure. Insulin dosage adjustments may be needed in some patients.

    Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS)

    Intermittent, subcutaneous insulin lispro has been studied in patients with uncomplicated mild to moderate diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) indicating similar efficacy to that of intravenous regular insulin infusion. However, the American Diabetes Association recommends that regular insulin by continuous intravenous infusion be used to treat hyperglycemic crisis including DKA and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) (and diabetic coma) unless it is considered mild. Regular insulin is also preferred for those patients with poor tissue perfusion, shock, or cardiovascular collapse, or in patients requiring insulin for the treatment of hyperkalemia.

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) administration

    Only regular insulin, insulin lispro, insulin glulisine, and insulin aspart should be used for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) administration in external pumps. Patients should be advised that self-monitoring of blood glucose is especially important when using CSII. Insulin lispro should not be diluted or mixed with any other insulins when used in an external pump. Physicians and patients should carefully evaluate information on pump use in the insulin lispro physician package insert, the insulin lispro patient package insert, and in the pump manufacturer's manual. Specific information for insulin lispro should be followed for in-use time, frequency of changing infusion sets, or other details as the manufacturer of the pump's or other insulin products' information may differ. Pump or infusion set malfunction or insulin degradation can lead to hyperglycemia and DKA or HHS in a short time because of the small subcutaneous depot of insulin. This is especially important for rapid-acting insulin analogs that are more rapidly absorbed through skin and have a shorter duration of action (e.g., insulin aspart, insulin glulisine, and insulin lispro). These differences may be particularly relevant when patients are switched from multiple injection therapy or infusion with buffered regular insulin. If hyperglycemia during CSII occurs, prompt identification of the cause of hyperglycemia is necessary. Interim therapy with subcutaneous injections may be required. Patients using CSII must be trained to administer insulin by injection and have alternate insulin therapy available in case of pump failure.

    Hypoglycemia

    Insulin lispro use is contraindicated in patients during episodes of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect of insulin therapy; hypoglycemia is the major barrier to achieving optimal glycemic control long term. Severe or frequent hypoglycemia in a patient is an indication for the modification of treatment regimens, including setting higher glycemic goals. Hypoglycemia may occur with overdose of insulin, a delayed or decreased food intake, or following intense exercise. Patients at risk for severe, iatrogenic hypoglycemia include those with insulin deficiency (i.e., Type 1 diabetes mellitus and advanced Type 2 diabetes mellitus), those with a history of severe hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia unawareness, young pediatric patients, the elderly, and those undergoing intensive insulin therapy. Changes in insulin, manufacturer, type, or method or site of administration may affect glycemic control. It is essential that clinicians and patients ensure the correct insulin is dispensed and administered; this includes the correct insulin brand and concentration. Repeated insulin injections into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis have been reported to result in hyperglycemia; and a sudden change in the injection site (to an unaffected area) has been reported to result in hypoglycemia. Make any changes to a patient's insulin regimen under close medical supervision with increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Advise patients who have repeatedly injected into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis to change the injection site to unaffected areas and closely monitor for hypoglycemia. Patient and family education regarding hypoglycemia management is crucial; the patient and patient's family should be instructed on how to recognize and manage the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Early warning signs of hypoglycemia may be less obvious in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness which can be due to a long history of diabetes (where deficiencies in the release or response to counter-regulatory hormones exist), with autonomic neuropathy, or taking medications such as beta-blockers. Patients should be aware of the need to have a readily available source of glucose (dextrose, d-glucose) or other carbohydrate to treat hypoglycemic episodes. In patients who are currently taking an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (i.e., acarbose or miglitol) along with their insulin, oral glucose (dextrose) should be used to treat hypoglycemia; sucrose (table sugar) is unsuitable. In severe hypoglycemia, intravenous dextrose or glucagon injections may be needed. Insulin injections should not be used by the family to treat those patients who are unconscious.

    Hypokalemia

    In addition to hypoglycemia, hypokalemia may also occur as insulin like insulin lispro facilitates the intracellular uptake of potassium. Patients at risk for hypokalemia (e.g., patients who are using potassium-lowering drugs or taking potassium concentration sensitive drugs) should be monitored closely for these effects.

    Cresol hypersensitivity

    Insulin lispro is contraindicated for use in patients hypersensitive to the insulin or the excipients in the formulations. Minor, local sensitivity characterized by redness, swelling, or itching at the site of injection does not usually contraindicate therapy. Insulin lispro contains m-cresol and should be avoided in patients with m-cresol hypersensitivity; localized reactions and general myalgias have been reported with the use of cresol as an injectable excipient. Less common, but potentially more serious, is generalized allergy to insulin, which may cause rash, pruritus, shortness of breath, wheezing, hypotension, tachycardia, and diaphoresis. Severe cases, including anaphylactoid reactions, may be life threatening.

    Neonates, pregnancy

    There are no adequate, well-controlled clinical studies of the use of insulin lispro in human pregnancy. Published studies using insulin lispro during pregnancy have not reported an association between insulin lispro and the induction of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal studies involving rats and rabbits, there were no adverse effects on female fertility, implantation, or fetal viability and morphology. However, once a dose of approximately 3 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day was reached in rats, fetal growth retardation was observed. Optimizing glycemic control before conception and during pregnancy appears to improve fetal outcome; this should include the avoidance of episodes of hypoglycemia as the toxic effects of maternal hypoglycemia on the fetus have been well-documented. In general, insulin requirements decline during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Careful monitoring of the patient on insulin is required throughout pregnancy and the perinatal period. During the perinatal period, careful monitoring of neonates born to mothers with diabetes is also recommended. Post-partum, maternal insulin requirements may need adjustment. Most experts, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), recommend human insulin as the therapy of choice to maintain blood glucose as close to normal as possible during pregnancy in patients with Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, and, if diet therapy alone is not successful, for those patients with gestational diabetes; insulin does not cross the placenta. During pregnancy, the patient should receive an insulin regimen consisting of multiple injections using long-acting or intermediate-acting insulin in combination with short-acting insulin analogues, including insulin lispro or insulin aspart; these agents are preferred over regular insulin because of their more rapid onset of action.

    Breast-feeding

    It is unknown whether insulin lispro is excreted in significant amounts in human milk; however, many drugs, including human insulin, are excreted in human milk. Insulin is degraded in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, any insulin secreted into breast milk would not be absorbed by a breast-feeding infant. The American Diabetes Association encourages breast-feeding in women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes ; accordingly, women on insulin therapy should be encouraged to breast-feed if no contraindications exist. Breast-feeding may decrease insulin requirements, despite the need for increased caloric intake. Careful observation of increased maternal caloric needs and maternal blood glucose concentrations are needed.

    Tobacco smoking

    Monitor blood glucose for needed dosage adjustments of insulin like insulin lispro in insulin-dependent diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or tobacco smoking status occurs. Nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine levels) and may increase plasma glucose. Tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose or an increase the subcutaneous absorption of insulin, respectively.

    Geriatric, visual impairment

    When compared to regular human insulin, the incidence of hypoglycemia and the therapeutic A1C response with insulin lispro did not differ by age. Because hypoglycemic events may be difficult to recognize in some geriatric patients, the initial dosing and dosing increments of any insulin product should be conservative.[30510] [62674] Severe or frequent hypoglycemia is an indication for the modification of treatment regimens, including setting higher glycemic goals. Geriatric patients are especially at risk for hypoglycemic episodes when using insulin. Many geriatric patients suffer from visual impairment, and patients with a visual impairment may rely on audible clicks from insulin pens to dial their dose; preparing the injection by using audible clicks may result in dosing errors.[30510] [62674] Risk factors for hypoglycemia include intensive insulin therapy, use of an excessive insulin dose, improper timing of insulin administration with regard to meals, injection of the wrong type of insulin, renal failure, severe liver disease, alcohol ingestion, defective counter-regulatory hormone release, missing meals/fasting, and gastroparesis.[30444] According to the Beers Criteria, the sole use of short- or rapid-action insulin to manage or avoid hyperglycemia in the absence of basal or long-acting insulin is considered a potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in geriatric patients and should be avoided due to a higher risk of hypoglycemia and no improvement in hyperglycemia management regardless of care setting. The recommendation does not apply to the use of short- or rapid-acting insulin in conjunction with scheduled insulin.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, the use of antidiabetic medications should include monitoring (e.g., periodic blood glucose) for effectiveness based on desired goals for that individual and to identify complications of treatment such as hypoglycemia or impaired renal function.[60742]

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    insulin shock / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    infusion-related reactions / Rapid / 2.6-19.1
    lipodystrophy / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    peripheral edema / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    hypoglycemia / Early / 10.0
    hyperinsulinemia / Early / Incidence not known
    Somogyi effect / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypokalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cutaneous amyloidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    wheezing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    atopic dermatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    antibody formation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    pharyngitis / Delayed / 5.1-33.3
    headache / Early / 11.6-29.6
    rhinitis / Early / 0.7-24.7
    cough / Delayed / 17.3-17.3
    infection / Delayed / 1.4-13.6
    diarrhea / Early / 8.6-8.6
    asthenia / Delayed / 0-7.4
    abdominal pain / Early / 7.4-7.4
    injection site reaction / Rapid / 6.2-6.2
    nausea / Early / 0-6.2
    dysmenorrhea / Delayed / 6.2-6.2
    fever / Early / 6.2-6.2
    pruritus / Rapid / 0.2-1.0
    rash / Early / 0.4-0.5
    weight gain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    diaphoresis / Early / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    insulin resistance / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose and for signs and symptoms of heart failure during concomitant pioglitazone and insulin use. Reduce the insulin dose by 10% to 25% if hypoglycemia occurs; adjust the insulin dose further based on glycemic response. Consider discontinuation of pioglitazone if heart failure occurs and manage according to current standards. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia and fluid retention which may lead to or exacerbate heart failure.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Androgens: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Systemic bexarotene may enhance the action of insulin, resulting in hypoglycemia. Patients should be closely monitored while receiving bexarotene capsules in combination with insulin therapy; monitor for hypoglycemia and need for diabetic therapy adjustments. Hypoglycemia has not been associated with bexarotene monotherapy.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Patients taking antidiabetic agents and receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood glucose levels and dosage adjustment of their medication.
    Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Bumetanide: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are instituted. Bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents.
    Bupivacaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when chloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including insulin, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with chloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpromazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cisapride: (Moderate) Because cisapride can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to insulin and other antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood sugar regularly. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive cisapride concomitantly.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Clonidine: (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes. (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Colesevelam: (Moderate) In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulins, colesevelam increased serum triglyceride concentrations by 22% compared to placebo. Monitor patients for increase in triglyceride concentrations. Discontinue colesevelam if triglyceride concentrations are > 500 mg/dl or if hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis occurs.
    Conjugated Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Cyclosporine may cause hyperglycemia. Patients should be monitored for worsening of glycemic control if therapy with cyclosporine is initiated in patients receiving insulin.
    Daclatasvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if daclatasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as daclatasvir.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) A lower insulin dose may be required when used in combination with saxagliptin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia. When saxagliptin was used in combination with insulin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased compared to a placebo used in combination with insulin.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir : (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Dasiglucagon: (Minor) Caution should be exercised when glucagon is used as a diagnostic aid for radiologic examination in patients taking insulin. Insulin reacts antagonistically towards glucagon. Monitor the patient receiving glucagon for a diagnostic procedure for the desired clinical effects. There is no concern when glucagon is used to treat severe hypoglycemia. If a patient receives glucagon due to severe hypoglycemia by a family member or caregiver, they should alert their health care provider so that insulin treatment may be adjusted, if needed.
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diazoxide: (Minor) Diazoxide, when administered intravenously or orally, produces a prompt dose-related increase in blood glucose level, due primarily to an inhibition of insulin release from the pancreas, and also to an extrapancreatic effect. The hyperglycemic effect begins within an hour and generally lasts no more than 8 hours in the presence of normal renal function. The hyperglycemic effect of diazoxide is expected to be antagonized by certain antidiabetic agents (e.g., insulin or a sulfonylurea). Blood glucose should be closely monitored.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Diethylpropion: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diethylstilbestrol, DES: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving disopyramide concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Disopyramide may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of insulin.
    Dobutamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dopamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Doxapram: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Drospirenone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Dulaglutide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin lispro and dulaglutide use; consider decreasing the insulin lispro dose when starting dulaglutide. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Edetate Calcium Disodium, Calcium EDTA: (Minor) Use caution in administration of calcium EDTA to patients with diabetes mellitus who are receiving insulin therapy. Calcium EDTA chelates the zinc in selected exogenous insulins, thereby increasing the amount of insulin available to the body and decreasing the duration of the insulin dose. Alterations in blood glucose control may result. Diabetic patients receiving calcium EDTA may require adjustments in their insulin dosage.
    Edetate Disodium, Disodium EDTA: (Minor) Use caution in administration of calcium EDTA to patients with diabetes mellitus who are receiving insulin therapy. Calcium EDTA chelates the zinc in selected exogenous insulins, thereby increasing the amount of insulin available to the body and decreasing the duration of the insulin dose. Alterations in blood glucose control may result. Diabetic patients receiving calcium EDTA may require adjustments in their insulin dosage.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if elbasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as elbasvir.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Esterified Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Progesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estramustine: (Minor) Estramustine is an estrogen-containing medication and may decrease glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should monitor their blood glucose levels frequently due to this potential pharmacodynamic interaction.
    Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estropipate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethanol: (Major) Patients should be advised to avoid or limit alcohol ingestion when treated with insulin. Alcohol ingestion increases hypoglycemic risk. In some patients, hypoglycemia can be prolonged. Educate regarding the importance of glucose monitoring, as well as the signs, symptoms, and self-management of delayed hypoglycemia after drinking alcohol, especially when using insulin. Moderate alcohol intake does not have major detrimental effects on long-term blood glucose management in people with diabetes.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethotoin: (Minor) Ethotoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Ethynodiol Diacetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Etonogestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Etonogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Exenatide: (Moderate) The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when exenatide is used in combination with insulins. Although specific dose recommendations are not available, a lower dose of the insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting. The concurrent use of exenatide with prandial insulin has not been studied. Exenatide may be used with basal insulin regimens. Adequate blood glucose monitoring should be continued and followed.
    Fenofibrate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant fibric acid derivatives and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant fibric acid derivatives and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Fibric acid derivatives: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant fibric acid derivatives and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and fluoxetine use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fluoxymesterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Fosphenytoin: (Minor) Fosphenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Furosemide: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are instituted. Bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Moderate) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should use dietary supplements of Garlic, Allium sativum with caution. Constituents in garlic might have some antidiabetic activity, and may increase serum insulin levels and increase glycogen storage in the liver. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control. Patients with diabetes should inform their health care professionals of their intent to ingest garlic dietary supplements. Some patients may require adjustment to their hypoglycemic medications over time. One study stated that additional garlic supplementation (0.05 to 1.5 grams PO per day) contributed to improved blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus within 1 to 2 weeks, and had positive effects on total cholesterol and high/low density lipoprotein regulation over time. It is unclear if hemoglobin A1C is improved or if improvements are sustained with continued treatment beyond 24 weeks. Other reviews suggest that garlic may provide modest improvements in blood lipids, but few studies demonstrate decreases in blood glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. More controlled trials are needed to discern if garlic has an effect on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. When garlic is used in foods or as a seasoning, or at doses of 50 mg/day or less, it is unlikely that blood glucose levels are affected to any clinically significant degree.
    Gemfibrozil: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant fibric acid derivatives and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if glecaprevir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as glecaprevir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if pibrentasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as pibrentasvir.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Major) Use of insulins with rosiglitazone is not recommended by the manufacturer due to a potential increased risk for edema or heart failure. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. In five 26-week trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone added to insulin therapy (n=867) was compared with insulin therapy alone (n=663). These trials included patients with chronic diabetes and a high prevalence of coexisting medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. In these clinical studies, an increased incidence of heart failure and other cardiovascular adverse events was seen in patients receiving combination rosiglitazone and insulin therapy compared to insulin monotherapy; the incidence of new onset or exacerbated heart failure was 0.9% in patients treated with insulin alone vs. 2% in patients treated with insulin plus rosiglitazone. Some of the patients who developed cardiac failure on combination therapy during the double blind part of the studies had no known prior evidence of congestive heart failure, or pre-existing cardiac condition. Additionally, the results of a meta-analysis that included the same 5 randomized, controlled trials mentioned previously indicate that the rate of myocardial ischemia may be increased in patients taking rosiglitazone in combination with insulin; the incidence of myocardia ischemia was 1.4% in patients receiving insulin monotherapy vs. 2.8% in patients receiving rosiglitazone and insulin combination therapy (OR 2.1 95% CI 0.9-5.1). The cardiovascular events were noted at doses of both 4 mg/day and 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone. In a sixth 26-week study, patients with baseline congestive heart failure were excluded; in this study, compared to insulin monotherapy (n=158), the addition of rosiglitazone to insulin therapy (n=161) did not increase the risk of congestive heart failure. One each of myocardial ischemia and sudden death were reported in patients taking combination therapy compared to zero patients taking insulin monotherapy. When rosiglitazone was added to insulin therapy, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher with 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone (67%) compared to 4 mg/day (53%).
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glucagon: (Minor) Caution should be exercised when glucagon is used as a diagnostic aid for radiologic examination in patients taking insulin. Insulin reacts antagonistically towards glucagon. Monitor the patient receiving glucagon for a diagnostic procedure for the desired clinical effects. There is no concern when glucagon is used to treat severe hypoglycemia. If a patient receives glucagon due to severe hypoglycemia by a family member or caregiver, they should alert their health care provider so that insulin treatment may be adjusted, if needed.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Green Tea: (Moderate) Green tea catechins have been shown to decrease serum glucose concentrations. Patients with diabetes mellitus taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored closely for hypoglycemia if consuming green tea products.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and hydroxychloroquine use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Hydroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins, like hydroxyprogesterone, can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) A potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between indapamide and antidiabetic agents, like insulins. Indapamide can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin lispro and liraglutide use; consider decreasing the insulin lispro dose when starting liraglutide. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when lixisenatide is used in combination with insulin lispro. Although specific dose recommendations are not available, a lower dose of the insulin lispro may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting. Adequate blood glucose monitoring should be continued and followed.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when lanreotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with lanreotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if ledipasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agent(s) may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as ledipasvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous Bisglycinate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levothyroxine: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Lidocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Linezolid: (Moderate) Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes, has been noted in post-marketing reports with linezolid in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving therapy with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetic patients should be monitored for potential hypoglycemic reactions while on linezolid. If hypoglycemia occurs, discontinue or decrease the dose of the antidiabetic agent or discontinue the linezolid therapy. Linezolid is a reversible, nonselective MAO inhibitor and other MAO inhibitors have been associated with hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.
    Liothyronine: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Liraglutide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin lispro and liraglutide use; consider decreasing the insulin lispro dose when starting liraglutide. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and lithium use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Lithium may increase or decrease the blood glucose lowering effect of insulin.
    Lixisenatide: (Moderate) The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when lixisenatide is used in combination with insulin lispro. Although specific dose recommendations are not available, a lower dose of the insulin lispro may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting. Adequate blood glucose monitoring should be continued and followed.
    Lonapegsomatropin: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) In general, weight reduction may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylureas). In clinical trials, lorcaserin use was associated with reports of hypoglycemia. Blood glucose monitoring is warranted in patients with type 2 diabetes prior to starting and during lorcaserin treatment. Dosage adjustments of anti-diabetic medications should be considered. If a patient develops hypoglycemia during treatment, adjust anti-diabetic drug regimen accordingly. Of note, lorcaserin has not been studied in combination with insulin.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when niacin, niacinamide is instituted or discontinued. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. When used at daily doses of 750 to 2000 mg, niacin significantly lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while increasing HDL cholesterol. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid use of macimorelin in patients receiving exogenous insulin therapy. In addition, healthcare providers are advised to discontinue insulin therapy and observe a sufficient washout period before administering macimorelin. Use of exogenous insulin may impact the accuracy of the macimorelin growth hormone test by directly affecting pituitary growth hormone secretion and by transiently elevating growth hormone concentrations.
    Mafenide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and sulfonamide use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Mecasermin rinfabate: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Major) Use of insulins with rosiglitazone is not recommended by the manufacturer due to a potential increased risk for edema or heart failure. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. In five 26-week trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone added to insulin therapy (n=867) was compared with insulin therapy alone (n=663). These trials included patients with chronic diabetes and a high prevalence of coexisting medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. In these clinical studies, an increased incidence of heart failure and other cardiovascular adverse events was seen in patients receiving combination rosiglitazone and insulin therapy compared to insulin monotherapy; the incidence of new onset or exacerbated heart failure was 0.9% in patients treated with insulin alone vs. 2% in patients treated with insulin plus rosiglitazone. Some of the patients who developed cardiac failure on combination therapy during the double blind part of the studies had no known prior evidence of congestive heart failure, or pre-existing cardiac condition. Additionally, the results of a meta-analysis that included the same 5 randomized, controlled trials mentioned previously indicate that the rate of myocardial ischemia may be increased in patients taking rosiglitazone in combination with insulin; the incidence of myocardia ischemia was 1.4% in patients receiving insulin monotherapy vs. 2.8% in patients receiving rosiglitazone and insulin combination therapy (OR 2.1 95% CI 0.9-5.1). The cardiovascular events were noted at doses of both 4 mg/day and 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone. In a sixth 26-week study, patients with baseline congestive heart failure were excluded; in this study, compared to insulin monotherapy (n=158), the addition of rosiglitazone to insulin therapy (n=161) did not increase the risk of congestive heart failure. One each of myocardial ischemia and sudden death were reported in patients taking combination therapy compared to zero patients taking insulin monotherapy. When rosiglitazone was added to insulin therapy, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher with 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone (67%) compared to 4 mg/day (53%). (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) A lower insulin dose may be required when used in combination with saxagliptin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia. When saxagliptin was used in combination with insulin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased compared to a placebo used in combination with insulin. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Methenamine; Sodium Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Methohexital: (Minor) The risk of developing hypothermia is increased when methohexital is used with hypothermia-producing agents such as ethanol, insulins, phenothiazines, or other general anesthetics.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Increased GI motility by metoclopramide may increase delivery of food to the intestines and increase blood glucose. The dosing of insulin may require adjustment in patients who receive metoclopramide concomitantly.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Metreleptin: (Moderate) Use caution when administering metreleptin to patients treated with concomitant insulins or insulin secretagogue therapy (i.e., sulfonylureas, nateglinide, repaglinide). In clinical evaluation of metreleptin, hypoglycemia occurred in 13% of patients with generalized lipodystrophy. Most reported cases occurred with concomitant insulin use, with or without oral antihyperglycemic agents. Closely monitor blood glucose in patients on concomitant insulin or insulin secretagogue therapy. Dosage adjustments to their antihyperglycemic medications may be necessary.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) In patients taking insulin or other antidiabetic agents, the signs and symptoms of acute metyrapone toxicity (e.g., symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency) may be aggravated or modified.
    Midodrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nandrolone Decanoate: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when niacin, niacinamide is instituted or discontinued. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. When used at daily doses of 750 to 2000 mg, niacin significantly lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while increasing HDL cholesterol. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when niacin, niacinamide is instituted or discontinued. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. When used at daily doses of 750 to 2000 mg, niacin significantly lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while increasing HDL cholesterol. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy.
    Nicotine: (Minor) Nicotine may increase plasma glucose. Monitor blood sugar for needed insulin dosage adjustments in insulin-dependent diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs. In addition, the use of inhaled insulin is not recommended in patients who smoke. Smoking tobacco can alter the effect of inhaled insulin in several ways. First, nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine levels) and may increase plasma glucose. Second, tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. Finally, compared with non-smokers, insulin exposure after inhalation may be greater in patients who smoke. If inhaled insulin is used in this population, patients should be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations closely. If a change in smoking status or nicotine intake occur, patients should continue to monitor their blood glucose concentrations closely and clinicians should adjust the dose of insulin when indicated.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Norepinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Norethindrone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norethindrone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norgestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving octreotide concomitantly with insulin or other antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control and adjust doses of these medications accordingly. Octreotide alters the balance between the counter-regulatory hormones of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone, which may result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia which occurs during octreotide acetate therapy is usually mild but may result in overt diabetes mellitus or necessitate dose changes in insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. In patients with concomitant type1 diabetes mellitus, octreotide is likely to affect glucose regulation, and insulin requirements may be reduced. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, which may be severe, has been reported in type 1 diabetic patients. In Type 2 diabetes patients with partially intact insulin reserves, octreotide administration may result in decreases in plasma insulin levels and hyperglycemia.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and fluoxetine use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Olopatadine; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Orlistat: (Minor) Weight-loss may affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In many patients, glycemic control may improve. A reduction in dose of insulins or other medicines for diabetes may be required in some patients taking orlistat. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control and adjust therapy as clinically indicated.
    Oxandrolone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Oxymetholone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pasireotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pasireotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with pasireotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pegvisomant treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pegvisomant increases sensitivity to insulin by lowering the activity of growth hormone, and in some patients glucose tolerance improves with treatment. Patients with diabetes treated with pegvisomant and antidiabetic agents may be more likely to experience hypoglycemia.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in glycemic control during the use of pentamidine; dosage adjustments of insulin may be necessary. Pentamidine can be harmful to pancreatic cells. This effect may lead to hypoglycemia acutely, followed hyperglycemia with prolonged pentamidine therapy.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving pentoxifylline concomitantly with insulin for changes in glycemic control. Pentoxifylline may enhance the hypoglycemic action of insulin.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Phendimetrazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Phenothiazines: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenytoin: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose and for signs and symptoms of heart failure during concomitant pioglitazone and insulin use. Reduce the insulin dose by 10% to 25% if hypoglycemia occurs; adjust the insulin dose further based on glycemic response. Consider discontinuation of pioglitazone if heart failure occurs and manage according to current standards. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia and fluid retention which may lead to or exacerbate heart failure.
    Pioglitazone; Glimepiride: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose and for signs and symptoms of heart failure during concomitant pioglitazone and insulin use. Reduce the insulin dose by 10% to 25% if hypoglycemia occurs; adjust the insulin dose further based on glycemic response. Consider discontinuation of pioglitazone if heart failure occurs and manage according to current standards. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia and fluid retention which may lead to or exacerbate heart failure.
    Pioglitazone; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose and for signs and symptoms of heart failure during concomitant pioglitazone and insulin use. Reduce the insulin dose by 10% to 25% if hypoglycemia occurs; adjust the insulin dose further based on glycemic response. Consider discontinuation of pioglitazone if heart failure occurs and manage according to current standards. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia and fluid retention which may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Pramlintide: (Major) Reduce mealtime insulin doses, including premixed insulins, by 50% when starting pramlintide to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia; further reductions in insulin dose are dependent on individual patient response. Monitor blood glucose frequently, including pre- and post-meals and at bedtime. Always administer pramlintide and insulin as separate injections; do not mix pramlintide with any insulin.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved): (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Progesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Progestins: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Promethazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes. (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Protease inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and sulfonamide use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and quinolone use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Racepinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in glycemic control during the use of reserpine. Reserpine may mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Rosiglitazone: (Major) Use of insulins with rosiglitazone is not recommended by the manufacturer due to a potential increased risk for edema or heart failure. If heart failure develops in a patient receiving insulin and a thiazoladinedione, manage the patient according to standards of care, and discontinue or consider reducing the dose of the thiazoladinedione. Since the incidence of hypoglycemia may also be higher with combined therapy, patients should also be instructed to monitor blood glucose concentrations more frequently. In five 26-week trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone added to insulin therapy (n=867) was compared with insulin therapy alone (n=663). These trials included patients with chronic diabetes and a high prevalence of coexisting medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. In these clinical studies, an increased incidence of heart failure and other cardiovascular adverse events was seen in patients receiving combination rosiglitazone and insulin therapy compared to insulin monotherapy; the incidence of new onset or exacerbated heart failure was 0.9% in patients treated with insulin alone vs. 2% in patients treated with insulin plus rosiglitazone. Some of the patients who developed cardiac failure on combination therapy during the double blind part of the studies had no known prior evidence of congestive heart failure, or pre-existing cardiac condition. Additionally, the results of a meta-analysis that included the same 5 randomized, controlled trials mentioned previously indicate that the rate of myocardial ischemia may be increased in patients taking rosiglitazone in combination with insulin; the incidence of myocardia ischemia was 1.4% in patients receiving insulin monotherapy vs. 2.8% in patients receiving rosiglitazone and insulin combination therapy (OR 2.1 95% CI 0.9-5.1). The cardiovascular events were noted at doses of both 4 mg/day and 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone. In a sixth 26-week study, patients with baseline congestive heart failure were excluded; in this study, compared to insulin monotherapy (n=158), the addition of rosiglitazone to insulin therapy (n=161) did not increase the risk of congestive heart failure. One each of myocardial ischemia and sudden death were reported in patients taking combination therapy compared to zero patients taking insulin monotherapy. When rosiglitazone was added to insulin therapy, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher with 8 mg/day of rosiglitazone (67%) compared to 4 mg/day (53%).
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Saxagliptin: (Moderate) A lower insulin dose may be required when used in combination with saxagliptin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia. When saxagliptin was used in combination with insulin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased compared to a placebo used in combination with insulin.
    Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Semaglutide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin lispro and semaglutide use; consider decreasing the insulin lispro dose when starting semaglutide. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Serdexmethylphenidate; Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate: (Moderate) Sodium polystyrene sulfonate should be used cautiously with other agents that can induce hypokalemia such as loop diuretics, insulins, or intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Because of differences in onset of action, sodium polystyrene sulfonate is often used with these agents. With appropriate monitoring, hypokalemia can be avoided.
    Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if velpatasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as velpatasvir.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if velpatasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as velpatasvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if voxilaprevir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as voxilaprevir.
    Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Sulfadiazine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and sulfonamide use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and sulfonamide use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfasalazine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and sulfonamide use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfinpyrazone: (Moderate) A case report describes an episode of brief hypoglycemia in a diabetic patient receiving both insulins and sulfinpyrazone. The patient responded spontaneously, and an association with sulfinpyrazone was not clearly established. In another report, no changes in insulin requirements were required when sulfinpyrazone therapy was added.
    Sulfonamides: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and sulfonamide use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sympathomimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking insulin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Tacrolimus has been reported to cause hyperglycemia. Patients should be monitored for worsening of glycemic control if therapy with tacrolimus is initiated in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Tegaserod: (Moderate) Because tegaserod can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Telmisartan; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Testosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Thiethylperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Thioridazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Thyroid hormones: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued. Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control, specifically hyperglycemia, when anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are instituted. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Tirzepatide: (Moderate) When tirzepatide is used with insulin, consider lowering the dose of the insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and monitor the blood glucose concentration more frequently. Patients receiving tirzepatide in combination with insulin may have an increased risk of hypoglycemia, including severe hypoglycemia.
    Tobacco: (Major) Advise patients to avoid smoking tobacco while taking insulin. Tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored more closely whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs; dosage adjustments in antidiabetic agents may be needed.
    Torsemide: (Minor) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are instituted. Bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Triamterene: (Minor) Triamterene can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. Patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs indicating loss of diabetic control when therapy with triamterene is instituted. In addition, patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs of hypoglycemia when therapy with any of these other agents is discontinued.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. (Minor) Triamterene can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. Patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs indicating loss of diabetic control when therapy with triamterene is instituted. In addition, patients receiving insulin should be closely monitored for signs of hypoglycemia when therapy with any of these other agents is discontinued.
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant insulin and angiotensin II receptor blocker use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for changes in diabetic control when thiazide diuretics are instituted or discontinued; dosage adjustments may be required. Thiazide diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of insulin by producing an increase in blood glucose levels. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
    Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and insulin or other antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and insulin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate, well-controlled clinical studies of the use of insulin lispro in human pregnancy. Published studies using insulin lispro during pregnancy have not reported an association between insulin lispro and the induction of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal studies involving rats and rabbits, there were no adverse effects on female fertility, implantation, or fetal viability and morphology. However, once a dose of approximately 3 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day was reached in rats, fetal growth retardation was observed. Optimizing glycemic control before conception and during pregnancy appears to improve fetal outcome; this should include the avoidance of episodes of hypoglycemia as the toxic effects of maternal hypoglycemia on the fetus have been well-documented. In general, insulin requirements decline during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Careful monitoring of the patient on insulin is required throughout pregnancy and the perinatal period. During the perinatal period, careful monitoring of neonates born to mothers with diabetes is also recommended. Post-partum, maternal insulin requirements may need adjustment. Most experts, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), recommend human insulin as the therapy of choice to maintain blood glucose as close to normal as possible during pregnancy in patients with Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, and, if diet therapy alone is not successful, for those patients with gestational diabetes; insulin does not cross the placenta. During pregnancy, the patient should receive an insulin regimen consisting of multiple injections using long-acting or intermediate-acting insulin in combination with short-acting insulin analogues, including insulin lispro or insulin aspart; these agents are preferred over regular insulin because of their more rapid onset of action.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Endogenous insulin regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism by several mechanisms; in general, insulin promotes the storage and inhibits the breakdown of glucose, fat, and amino acids. Insulin lowers glucose concentrations by facilitating the uptake of glucose in muscle and adipose tissue and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production (glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis). Insulin also regulates fat metabolism by enhancing the storage of fat (lipogenesis) and inhibiting the mobilization of fat for energy in adipose tissues (lipolysis and free fatty acid oxidation). Finally, insulin is involved in the regulation of protein metabolism by increasing protein synthesis and inhibiting proteolysis in muscle tissue.
     
    Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by insulin deficiency while diabetes mellitus type 2 is caused by a combination of insulin deficiency and resistance. Biosynthetic insulin is used as replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus to temporarily restore their ability to use fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, and to convert glycogen to fat. Insulin administration also enables these patients to replete their liver glycogen stores.
     
    Proper insulin therapy, when needed, has beneficial effects besides glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
    In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) patients, 13 to 39 years of age with type 1 DM were studied. Those receiving 'intensive' therapy (3 or more injections per day or use of an insulin pump) had approximately a 60% reduction in the incidence of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy compared to 'conventional' (2 injections/day) dosing but had a greater risk of serious hypoglycemia.
    In the United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS) patients 48 to 60 years of age with type 2 DM were studied. Those receiving 'intensive therapy' with either sulfonylureas or insulin experienced an approximate 25% reduction in the incidence of microvascular complications when compared to 'conventional therapy.' The fasting blood glucose goal in the intensive therapy groups was less than 6 mmol/L (less than 109 mg/dL); in the conventional therapy group, the fasting blood glucose goal was the best achievable with diet alone; drug therapy was added if fasting blood glucose was more than 15 mmol/L (273 mg/dL) or the patient experienced symptoms of hyperglycemia. Similar to DCCT, patients in the intensive therapy group had a greater incidence of hypoglycemia.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Insulin lispro and insulin lispro-aabc are administered via intermittent subcutaneous injection and may also be administered via intravenous infusion. Humalog and Admelog can be used for administration via external subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps; however, Lyumjev (insulin lispro-aabc) is not approved for use in an insulin pump.

    Intravenous Route

    Humalog and Admelog: Insulin lispro exhibits similar pharmacokinetics to IV regular insulin when administered by the IV route. When administered intravenously as bolus injections of 0.1 and 0.2 units/kg dose in two separate groups of healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution of insulin lispro appeared to decrease with increase in dose (1.55 and 0.72 L/kg, respectively) in contrast to that of regular human insulin for which, the volume of distribution was comparable across the two dose groups (1.37 and 1.12 L/kg for 0.1 and 0.2 units/kg dose, respectively). In addition, IV insulin lispro and IV regular human insulin demonstrated similar dose dependent clearance, with a mean clearance of 21 mL/minute/kg and 21.4 mL/minute/kg, respectively (0.1 unit/kg dose), and 9.6 mL/minute/kg and 9.4 mL/minute/kg, respectively (0.2 unit/kg dose). Accordingly, insulin lispro demonstrated a mean half-life of 0.85 hours (51 minutes) and 0.92 hours (55 minutes), respectively for 0.1 unit/kg and 0.2 unit/kg doses, and regular human insulin mean half-life was 0.79 hours (47 minutes) and 1.28 hours (77 minutes), respectively for 0.1 unit/kg and 0.2 unit/kg doses.
    Lyumjev: Following a 15 unit intravenous bolus injection of insulin lispro-aabc in healthy subjects, the geometric mean (CV%) clearance was 32 L/hour (22%) and the median half-life was 44 minutes.

    Subcutaneous Route

    Humalog and Admelog: Pharmacodynamically, insulin lispro has an onset of glucose-lowering activity that is 15 to 30 minutes, which is more rapid than regular insulin. Insulin lispro reaches mean peak plasma concentrations (mean Cmax) faster (30 to 90 minutes) than regular insulin when given subcutaneously. Insulin lispro has a duration of action of roughly 3 to 5 hours, which is shorter than regular insulin. After subcutaneous administration, the apparent half-life of insulin lispro is 1 hour compared with 1.5 hours for regular insulin. After abdominal administration, insulin lispro concentrations are higher than those following deltoid or thigh injections. Also, the duration of action of insulin lispro is slightly shorter following abdominal injection, compared with deltoid and femoral injections. Intermittent subcutaneous injections of insulin lispro should be given within 15 minutes prior to or immediately after a meal because of the fast onset compared to regular insulin.
    Lyumjev: Insulin lispro-aabc appears in circulation approximately 1 minute after subcutaneous administration. The time to 50% maximum concentration (Tmax) was achieved in 57 minutes. The absolute bioavailability after subcutaneous administration in the abdomen, deltoid, and thigh was approximately 65%. The rate of absorption is maintained regardless of injection site. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and Tmax were comparable for the abdomen and upper arm regions; the Tmax was longer and Cmax was lower for the thigh. Total exposure (AUC) and Cmax increased proportionally with increasing subcutaneous doses within the therapeutic dose range. The results of a study in healthy subjects demonstrated that insulin lispro-aabc 200 units/mL is bioequivalent to insulin lispro-aabc 100 units/mL following administration of a single 15 unit dose per the AUC(0 to infinity) and maximum concentration (Cmax) data. The rate of absorption after administration of insulin lispro-aabc 200 units/mL was similar as observed with insulin lispro-aabc 100 units/mL.