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    Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors

    BOXED WARNING

    Infection, lower limb amputation, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease

    Canagliflozin is associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of lower limb amputation. Results from the CANVAS and CANVAS-R studies have shown an increase in leg and foot amputations with canagliflozin in patients who had either established cardiovascular disease or who were at risk for cardiovascular disease. Amputations were mostly involving the toe and midfoot (99 out of 140 patients in both trials); amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, were also observed (41 out of 140 patients in both trials). The risk of lower limb amputations over 1 year's time in the CANVAS study was 5.9 amputations per 1,000 patients treated with canagliflozin compared to 2.8 amputations per 1,000 patients treated with placebo. In the CANVAS-R study, the risk of lower limb amputations over 1 year's time was 7.5 amputations per 1,000 patients for canagliflozin compared to 4.2 amputations per 1,000 patients for placebo. The risk of lower limb amputations was observed at both the 100 mg and 300 mg doses. Some patients had more than 1 amputation, some involving both limbs. Lower limb infections, gangrene, diabetic foot ulcers, and ischemia were the most common precipitating medical events leading to an amputation. The risk of amputation was highest in patients with a baseline history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, or peripheral neuropathy; therefore, before initiating therapy with canagliflozin, consider these factors that may predispose patients to the need for amputations. Also consider the patient's history of diabetic foot ulcers. Monitor patients for infection (including osteomyelitis) of the legs and feet and instruct patients to notify their health care professional immediately if they notice any new pain or tenderness, unusual sensations, skin color changes, sores or ulcers, or infection in their legs or feet. The patient should self-examine their feet daily in routine diabetes care, and a health care professional should routinely perform a complete foot exam.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor; blocks reabsorption of glucose by kidneys, increasing glucose excretion
    Used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults and to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, or cardiovascular (CV) death in T2DM patients with known CV disease
    Contraindicated in severe renal impairment/renal failure as not effective in these patients; boxed warning regarding a risk for lower-limb amputation in adults with or at risk for CV disease

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Invokana

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Invokana Oral Tab: 100mg, 300mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in combination with diet and exercise, and for the reduction of cardiovascular mortality and major cardiovascular events (MACE) in T2DM patients with established cardiovascular disease.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    100 mg PO once daily in the morning, taken before the first meal of the day. The dose can be increased to 300 mg PO once daily in those who require additional glycemic control. Correct any volume depletion prior to initiation of treatment. A multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial (CANVAS) of 10,134 adults with inadequately controlled T2DM and established, stable, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease reported that canagliflozin treatment reduced the risk of major adverse CV events (MACE: cardiovascular death, first occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke) by 14% relative to placebo (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.97).[53972] [60607] [63064]

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    300 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    300 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Not indicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. The use of canagliflozin has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and is therefore not recommended.

    Renal Impairment

    eGFR 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more: No dosage adjustment needed.
    eGFR 45 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Do not exceed 100 mg/day PO.
    eGFR 30 to 44 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Do not initiate canagliflozin in these patients; use is not recommended when eGFR is persistently less than 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2.
    eGFR less than 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Use is contraindicated.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer tablets once daily, before the first meal of the day.

    STORAGE

    Invokana:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Do not use canagliflozin in patients with a known history of a serious canagliflozin hypersensitivity reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions, and angioedema, have been reported in patients treated with canagliflozin; these reactions generally occurred within hours to days after initiating the drug. Discontinue use of canagliflozin if hypersensitivity reactions occur, and treat per standard of care; monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.

    Diabetic ketoacidosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Canagliflozin is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and should not be used for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Reports of ketoacidosis, a serious, life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization have been identified in postmarketing surveillance in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking canagliflozin.[53972] Patients treated with canagliflozin who present with signs and symptoms consistent with severe metabolic acidosis should be assessed for ketoacidosis regardless of presenting blood glucose levels, as ketoacidosis may be present even if blood glucose levels are less than 250 mg/dL. If ketoacidosis is suspected, discontinue canagliflozin, evaluate the patient, and institute prompt treatment. Treatment of ketoacidosis may require insulin, fluid and carbohydrate replacement. In many of the postmarketing reports, and particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of ketoacidosis was not immediately recognized, and the institution of treatment was delayed because presenting blood glucose levels were below those typically expected for DKA (often less than 250 mg/dL). Signs and symptoms at presentation were consistent with severe metabolic acidosis and included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and shortness of breath. In some but not all cases, factors predisposing to ketoacidosis such as insulin dose reduction, acute febrile illness, reduced caloric intake due to illness or surgical procedures, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency, and alcohol abuse were identified. Before initiating canagliflozin, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction, and alcohol abuse. Consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing the drug in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or surgical procedure).[59629] [60400]

    Dehydration, hypotension

    Canagliflozin causes intravascular volume contraction. Symptomatic hypotension can occur after initiating canagliflozin. Patients at risk include those with dehydration or reduced volume status, particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), the elderly, patients receiving diuretics or other medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system [e.g., angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)], or patients with low systolic blood pressure. Volume status should be assessed and corrected before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics. Additionally, withholding food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension, and renal dysfunction. Canagliflozin should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension or dehydration after initiating therapy.[53972]

    Dialysis, hypovolemia, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Before the initiation of treatment and periodically after that, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess renal function. Dosage adjustment and more frequent renal function monitoring are recommended in patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Canagliflozin should be discontinued if the eGFR is persistently less than 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Canagliflozin is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2, end-stage renal failure, or in patients on dialysis. In a clinical study, patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to 50 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had reduced canagliflozin efficacy and had a higher occurrence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume and a higher incidence of renal-related adverse reactions and decreases in eGFR compared to patients with mild renal impairment or normal renal function. Canagliflozin causes intravascular volume contraction and can cause acute kidney injury. There have been postmarketing reports of acute kidney injury, some requiring hospitalization and dialysis, in patients receiving canagliflozin; some reports involved patients younger than 65 years of age. Before initiating canagliflozin, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury including hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, elderly age, pre-existing renal disease, and concomitant medications (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, NSAIDs). Consider temporarily discontinuing canagliflozin in any setting of reduced oral intake (such as acute illness or fasting) or fluid losses (such as gastrointestinal illness or excessive heat exposure); monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. If acute kidney injury occurs, discontinue canagliflozin promptly and institute treatment. Initiation of canagliflozin may increase serum creatinine and decrease eGFR. Patients with hypovolemia may be more susceptible to these changes.[53972] [60874]

    Infection, lower limb amputation, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease

    Canagliflozin is associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of lower limb amputation. Results from the CANVAS and CANVAS-R studies have shown an increase in leg and foot amputations with canagliflozin in patients who had either established cardiovascular disease or who were at risk for cardiovascular disease. Amputations were mostly involving the toe and midfoot (99 out of 140 patients in both trials); amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, were also observed (41 out of 140 patients in both trials). The risk of lower limb amputations over 1 year's time in the CANVAS study was 5.9 amputations per 1,000 patients treated with canagliflozin compared to 2.8 amputations per 1,000 patients treated with placebo. In the CANVAS-R study, the risk of lower limb amputations over 1 year's time was 7.5 amputations per 1,000 patients for canagliflozin compared to 4.2 amputations per 1,000 patients for placebo. The risk of lower limb amputations was observed at both the 100 mg and 300 mg doses. Some patients had more than 1 amputation, some involving both limbs. Lower limb infections, gangrene, diabetic foot ulcers, and ischemia were the most common precipitating medical events leading to an amputation. The risk of amputation was highest in patients with a baseline history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, or peripheral neuropathy; therefore, before initiating therapy with canagliflozin, consider these factors that may predispose patients to the need for amputations. Also consider the patient's history of diabetic foot ulcers. Monitor patients for infection (including osteomyelitis) of the legs and feet and instruct patients to notify their health care professional immediately if they notice any new pain or tenderness, unusual sensations, skin color changes, sores or ulcers, or infection in their legs or feet. The patient should self-examine their feet daily in routine diabetes care, and a health care professional should routinely perform a complete foot exam.

    Balanitis, pyelonephritis, tissue necrosis, urinary tract infection (UTI), vaginitis

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors such as canagliflozin may cause an increased risk for severe urinary tract infection (UTI), including urosepsis and pyelonephritis, and these cases can result in hospitalization. Patients should be told to report any signs of UTI and seek medical attention if they experience symptoms such as a feeling of burning when urinating or the need to urinate often or right away, pain in the lower part of the stomach area or pelvis, fever, or blood in the urine. Promptly treat if indicated if a UTI is suspected.[60400] [53972] Treatment with canagliflozin also increases the risk of genital mycotic infections. Use canagliflozin cautiously in patients with a history of genital fungal infections, including vaginitis or balanitis, and uncircumcised males since these patients were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections during treatment with canagliflozin. Monitor and treat appropriately if a genital mycotic infection occurs. All patients beginning therapy with a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or currently receiving canagliflozin should be closely monitored for a serious rare, life-threatening infection, called necrotizing fasciitis (tissue necrosis) of the perineum, also referred to as Fournier's gangrene. Patients should be warned to promptly seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms of tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, fever, or malaise, and such patients should be evaluated for necrotizing fasciitis. Cases have been reported in both females and males. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death. If Fournier's gangrene is suspected, discontinue canagliflozin and institute prompt treatment with antibiotics and if necessary, surgical debridement. Closely monitor blood glucose levels, and provide appropriate alternative therapy for glycemic control.[63482] [53972]

    Adrenal insufficiency, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, pituitary insufficiency

    Conditions that predispose patients to developing hypoglycemia may alter antidiabetic agent needs, and may require close monitoring during the use of canagliflozin. Conditions associated with hypoglycemia include debilitated physical condition, drug interactions, malnutrition, uncontrolled adrenal insufficiency, pituitary insufficiency or hypothyroidism. More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be necessary in patients with these conditions. Insulin and insulin secretagogues are also known to cause hypoglycemia. Canagliflozin can increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with canagliflozin.

    Fever, hypercortisolism, hyperglycemia, hyperthyroidism

    Conditions that predispose patients to developing hyperglycemia may alter canagliflozin efficacy. Hyperglycemia related conditions include drug interactions, female hormonal changes, high fever, severe psychological stress, and uncontrolled hypercortisolism or hyperthyroidism. More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be necessary in patients with these conditions.

    Hypercholesterolemia

    Dose-related increases in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) occur with canagliflozin, and these changes may require treatment or adjustment of previous therapy in patients with pre-existing hypercholesterolemia. Monitor LDL-C and treat per standard of care after initiating canagliflozin therapy.

    Hepatic disease

    The use of canagliflozin is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic disease (impairment) due to lack of data in these patients. In patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, no dosage adjustments are necessary.

    Bone fractures, osteopenia, osteoporosis

    An increased risk of bone fracture, occurring as early as 12 weeks after treatment initiation, was observed in patients using canagliflozin in the CANVAS trial. Consider factors that contribute to fracture risk before initiating canagliflozin therapy, such as pre-existing osteopenia or osteoporosis. In clinical trials, bone fractures occurred more frequently in patients receiving canagliflozin compared to patients receiving placebo. Fractures occurred as early as 12 weeks after canagliflozin initiation and were more likely to affect upper extremities. When trauma happened before a fracture, it was usually minor (e.g., falling from no more than standing height). In a clinical trial in 714 elderly patients, canagliflozin caused a more significant decrease in bone mineral density at the hip and lower spine compared to placebo.[60152]

    Geriatric

    Geriatric patients in clinical trials experienced a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume (e.g., hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration), particularly with the 300 mg/day dose, compared to younger adult patients; older adults 75 years of age and older had the highest incidence of these events. In addition, smaller reductions in A1C with canagliflozin relative to placebo were seen in older adults over 65 years of age (-0.61% with canagliflozin 100 mg and -0.74% with canagliflozin 300 mg) compared to younger adult patients (-0.72% with canagliflozin 100 mg and -0.87% with canagliflozin 300 mg). Before initiating canagliflozin, assess renal function and volume status; correct pre-existing hypovolemia. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, the use of antidiabetic medications should include monitoring (e.g., periodic blood glucose) for effectiveness based on desired goals for that individual and to identify complications of treatment such as hypoglycemia or impaired renal function.

    Pregnancy

    Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects, canagliflozin is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Limited data with canagliflozin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. In animal studies, irreversible adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilations were observed when canagliflozin was administered at the lowest exposure of 0.5 times the 300 mg clinical human dose, based on AUC (exposure). During pregnancy, consider appropriate alternative therapies, especially during the second and third trimesters when the potential risks to human kidney development are of greatest concern.[53972] Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) continue to recommend human insulin as the standard of care in women with diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring medical therapy; insulin does not cross the placenta.[60607] [62358]

    Breast-feeding

    Due to a potential for severe adverse reactions in the nursing infant, the use of canagliflozin is not recommended while breast-feeding. It is not known if canagliflozin is excreted in human milk. Canagliflozin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats reaching levels 1.4 times higher than that in maternal plasma. Data in juvenile rats directly exposed to canagliflozin showed risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be a risk to the developing human kidney.[53972] If canagliflozin is discontinued and blood glucose is not controlled on diet and exercise alone, insulin therapy should be considered. Other oral hypoglycemics may also be considered as possible alternatives in some patients. Because acarbose has limited systemic absorption, which results in minimal maternal plasma concentrations, clinically significant exposure via breast milk is not expected.[46303] Also, while the manufacturers of metformin recommend against breast-feeding while taking the drug, metformin may be a possible alternative for some patients. Data have shown that metformin is excreted into breast milk in small amounts and adverse effects on infant plasma glucose have not been reported in human studies.[31407] [31408] [31409] Tolbutamide is usually considered compatible with breast-feeding.[27500] Glyburide may be a suitable alternative since it was not detected in the breast milk of lactating women who received single and multiple doses of glyburide.[31568] If any oral hypoglycemics are used by the mother during lactation, the nursing infant should be monitored for signs of hypoglycemia, such as increased fussiness or somnolence.[46104] Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition in the mother when choosing treatment.

    Children, infants

    The safety and effectiveness of canagliflozin have not been established in adolescents and children under the age of 18 years; use of the drug in infants is not indicated due to the potential harm to the developing human kidney.

    Laboratory test interference

    Monitoring of glycemic control with urine glucose tests and the 1,5 Anhydroglucitol assay (1,5-AG assay) is not recommended in patients receiving canagliflozin due to laboratory test interference. Use of urine glucose tests will result in positive urine glucose tests, and measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.[53972]

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    hyperkalemia / Delayed / 2.2-2.2
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    lower limb amputation / Delayed / 0.5-0.7
    phimosis / Delayed / 0-0.3
    pancreatitis / Delayed / 0.1-0.2
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    bone fractures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    necrotizing fasciitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tissue necrosis / Early / Incidence not known
    diabetic ketoacidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    new primary malignancy / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    vaginitis / Delayed / 10.6-11.6
    candidiasis / Delayed / 10.6-11.6
    cystitis / Delayed / 4.4-5.9
    balanitis / Delayed / 3.8-4.2
    hypoglycemia / Early / 3.0-3.6
    constipation / Delayed / 1.8-2.4
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dehydration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperphosphatemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypermagnesemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperlipidemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    infection / Delayed / 3.8-11.6
    polyuria / Early / 4.6-5.1
    increased urinary frequency / Early / 4.6-5.1
    urinary urgency / Early / 4.6-5.1
    nocturia / Early / 4.6-5.1
    angioedema / Rapid / 3.8-4.2
    urticaria / Rapid / 3.8-4.2
    rash / Early / 3.8-4.2
    erythema multiforme / Delayed / 3.8-4.2
    pruritus / Rapid / 1.6-3.2
    xerostomia / Early / 2.4-2.8
    polydipsia / Early / 2.4-2.8
    nausea / Early / 2.1-2.3
    fatigue / Early / 2.0-2.2
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.7-1.8
    asthenia / Delayed / 0.7-1.1
    photosensitivity / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    diuresis / Early / 10.0
    dizziness / Early / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Acetazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Amiloride: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amprenavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Androgens: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of canagliflozin if coadministration with apalutamide is necessary. In patients who require additional glycemic control, have an eGFR greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and are currently tolerating a canagliflozin dose of 100 mg once daily, consider increasing the dose of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2 requiring additional glycemic control. Canagliflozin is a UGT1A9 and 2B4 substrate and apalutamide is a UGT inducer. Coadministration with a nonselective inducer of several UGT enzymes decreased canagliflozin exposure by 51%.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with phenobarbital (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with phenobarbital (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Patients taking antidiabetic agents and receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood glucose levels and dosage adjustment of their medication.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, loop diuretics can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when chloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including the SGLT2 inhibitors, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with chloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Clonidine: (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with ritonavir (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR of 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more and who require additional glycemic control. Consider other antidiabetic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 receiving a UGT inducer and who require additional glycemic control. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Diazoxide: (Minor) Diazoxide, when administered intravenously or orally, produces a prompt dose-related increase in blood glucose level, due primarily to an inhibition of insulin release from the pancreas, and also to an extrapancreatic effect. The hyperglycemic effect begins within an hour and generally lasts no more than 8 hours in the presence of normal renal function. The hyperglycemic effect of diazoxide is expected to be antagonized by certain antidiabetic agents (e.g., insulin or a sulfonylurea). Blood glucose should be closely monitored.
    Digoxin: (Major) When digoxin was coadministered with canagliflozin 300 mg, there was an increase in the AUC and Cmax of digoxin (20% and 36%, respectively). The mechanism of this increase in exposure is not known. Patients taking canagliflozin concomitantly with digoxin should have their digoxin levels monitored periodically as clinically indicated. Monitor the patient's clinical response to therapy and for signs or symptoms of digoxin toxicity.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, loop diuretics can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Ethanol: (Moderate) Patients should be advised to limit alcohol (ethanol) ingestion when treated with an antidiabetic agent. Ethanol inhibits gluconeogenesis, which can contribute to or increase the risk for hypoglycemia. In some patients, hypoglycemia can be prolonged. If a patient with diabetes ingests alcohol, they should be counselled to to avoid ingestion of alcohol on an empty stomach, which increases risk for low blood sugar. Patients should also be aware of the carbohydrate intake provided by certain types of alcohol in the diet, which can contribute to poor glycemic control. If a patient chooses to ingest alcohol, they should monitor their blood glucose frequently. Many non-prescription drug products may be formulated with alcohol; instruct patients to scrutinize product labels prior to consumption.
    Ethotoin: (Minor) Ethotoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Fibric acid derivatives: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) In patients with diabetes mellitus, fluoxetine may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy. Hyperglycemia has developed in patients with diabetes mellitus following discontinuation of the drug. The dosage of insulin and/or other antidiabetic agents may need to be adjusted when therapy with fluoxetine is instituted or discontinued.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) In patients with diabetes mellitus, fluoxetine may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy. Hyperglycemia has developed in patients with diabetes mellitus following discontinuation of the drug. The dosage of insulin and/or other antidiabetic agents may need to be adjusted when therapy with fluoxetine is instituted or discontinued.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Fosphenytoin: (Minor) Fosphenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, loop diuretics can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Moderate) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should use dietary supplements of Garlic, Allium sativum with caution. Constituents in garlic might have some antidiabetic activity, and may increase serum insulin levels and increase glycogen storage in the liver. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control. Patients with diabetes should inform their health care professionals of their intent to ingest garlic dietary supplements. Some patients may require adjustment to their hypoglycemic medications over time. One study stated that additional garlic supplementation (0.05 to 1.5 grams PO per day) contributed to improved blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus within 1 to 2 weeks, and had positive effects on total cholesterol and high/low density lipoprotein regulation over time. It is unclear if hemoglobin A1C is improved or if improvements are sustained with continued treatment beyond 24 weeks. Other reviews suggest that garlic may provide modest improvements in blood lipids, but few studies demonstrate decreases in blood glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. More controlled trials are needed to discern if garlic has an effect on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. When garlic is used in foods or as a seasoning, or at doses of 50 mg/day or less, it is unlikely that blood glucose levels are affected to any clinically significant degree.
    Green Tea: (Moderate) Green tea catechins have been shown to decrease serum glucose concentrations in vitro. Patients with diabetes mellitus taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored closely for hypoglycemia if consuming green tea products.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity. (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when hydroxychloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including the SGLT2 inhibitors, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with hydroxychloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOIs are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, a nonselective inducer of several UGT enzymes, including UGT1A9, UGT2B4, decreased canagliflozin AUC by 51%. This decrease in exposure to canagliflozin may decrease efficacy. If rifampin, must be coadministered with canagliflozin, consider increasing the dose of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily if patients are currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily, have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, a nonselective inducer of several UGT enzymes, including UGT1A9, UGT2B4, decreased canagliflozin AUC by 51%. This decrease in exposure to canagliflozin may decrease efficacy. If rifampin, must be coadministered with canagliflozin, consider increasing the dose of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily if patients are currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily, have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when lanreotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with lanreotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levocarnitine: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Levothyroxine: (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued.
    Liothyronine: (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Lithium may cause variable effects on glycemic control when used in patients receiving antidiabetic therapy. Blood glucose concentrations should be closely monitored if lithium is taken by the patient. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lomefloxacin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when other quinolones andantidiabetic agents, including the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, are coadministered. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, loop diuretics can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with ritonavir (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR of 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more and who require additional glycemic control. Consider other antidiabetic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 receiving a UGT inducer and who require additional glycemic control. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, such as lopinavir. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Mecasermin rinfabate: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Methazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Because metoclopramide can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive metoclopramide concomitantly.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOIs are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Nicotine: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose concentrations for needed antidiabetic agent dosage adjustments in diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs. Nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine concentrations) and may increase plasma glucose. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving octreotide concomitantly with insulin or other antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control and adjust doses of these medications accordingly. Octreotide alters the balance between the counter-regulatory hormones of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone, which may result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia which occurs during octreotide acetate therapy is usually mild, but may result in overt diabetes mellitus or necessitate dose changes in insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. In patients with concomitant type1 diabetes mellitus, octreotide is likely to affect glucose regulation, and insulin requirements may be reduced. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, which may be severe, has been reported in type 1 diabetic patients. In Type 2 diabetes patients with partially intact insulin reserves, octreotide administration may result in decreases in plasma insulin levels and hyperglycemia.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with ritonavir (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR of 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more and who require additional glycemic control. Consider other antidiabetic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 receiving a UGT inducer and who require additional glycemic control. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Orlistat: (Minor) Weight-loss may affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In many patients, glycemic control may improve. A reduction in dose of oral hypoglycemic medications may be required in some patients taking orlistat. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control and adjust therapy as clinically indicated.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pasireotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pasireotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with pasireotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pegvisomant treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pegvisomant increases sensitivity to insulin by lowering the activity of growth hormone, and in some patients glucose tolerance improves with treatment. Patients with diabetes treated with pegvisomant and antidiabetic agents may be more likely to experience hypoglycemia.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Pentamidine can be harmful to pancreatic cells. This effect may lead to hypoglycemia acutely, followed by hyperglycemia with prolonged pentamidine therapy. Patients on antidiabetic agents should be monitored for the need for dosage adjustments during the use of pentamidine.
    Perampanel: (Major) Perampanel is a mild UGT enzyme inducer in vitro. Therefore, perampanel may theoretically interact with canagliflozin (UGT substrate) to decrease the effects of canagliflozin. Consider increasing the dose of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily if patients are currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily, have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOIs are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.
    Phenobarbital: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with phenobarbital (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    Phenothiazines: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for worsening glycemic control when any of these antipsychotics is instituted.
    Phenytoin: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with phenytoin (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control. Phenytoin and other hydantoins have also been reported to increase blood glucose. If co-therapy is continued, monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Potassium-sparing diuretics: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose carefully when systemic quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including SGLT2 inhibitors, are coadministered. Discontinue the quinolone if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and initiate appropriate therapy immediately. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Hypoglycemia, sometimes resulting in coma, can occur.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Regorafenib: (Moderate) Regorafenib is a mild UGT enzyme inhibitor in vitro. Therefore, regorafenib may theoretically interact with canagliflozin (UGT substrate) to increase the effects of canagliflozin leading to potential hypoglycemia. Patients should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Reserpine may mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Patients receiving reserpine concomitantly with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Rifampin: (Major) Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, a nonselective inducer of several UGT enzymes, including UGT1A9, UGT2B4, decreased canagliflozin AUC by 51%. This decrease in exposure to canagliflozin may decrease efficacy. If rifampin, must be coadministered with canagliflozin, consider increasing the dose of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily if patients are currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily, have an eGFR >= 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
    Ritonavir: (Major) In patients taking canagliflozin (UGT substrate) concomitantly with ritonavir (UGT enzyme inducer), consider increasing the dosage of canagliflozin to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR of 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more and who require additional glycemic control. Consider other antidiabetic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 receiving a UGT inducer and who require additional glycemic control. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOIs are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.
    Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Sparfloxacin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when other quinolones andantidiabetic agents, including the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, are coadministered. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent.
    Spironolactone: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions.
    Sulfonamides: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sympathomimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Tacrolimus has been reported to cause hyperglycemia, and may contribute to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in patients after renal transplantation. Tacrolimus may have direct beta-cell toxicity. Monitor for changes in glycemic control if therapy with tacrolimus is initiated.
    Tegaserod: (Moderate) Because tegaserod can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive tegaserod concomitantly.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, thiazide diuretics, can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Thyroid hormones: (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Tobacco: (Minor) Tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored more closely whenever a change in either smoking status occurs; dosage adjustments in antidiabetic agents may be needed.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, loop diuretics can also decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving canagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium, and glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ACE inhibitors may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOIs are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.
    Triamterene: (Major) When canagliflozin is initiated in patients already receiving diuretics, symptomatic hypotension can occur. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Before initiating canagliflozin in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. In addition, canagliflozin can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg/day were more likely to experience increases in potassium. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, are more likely to develop hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating canagliflozin in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions.
    Trovafloxacin, Alatrofloxacin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when other quinolones andantidiabetic agents, including the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, are coadministered. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in blood pressure, volume status, renal function, serum potassium and other electrolytes, and for glycemic control. When an SGLT2 inhibitor is initiated, mild diuresis and naturesis occurs, producing intravascular volume contraction. These effects may be additive to certain antihypertensive medications, such as the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs). Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), low systolic blood pressure, or who are elderly may also be at a greater risk. Volume status should be assessed and corrected. In addition, some SGLT2 inhibitors, like canagliflozin, can increase serum potassium. Monitor serum potassium levels periodically and monitor for hyperkalemia. ARBs may also enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by improving insulin sensitivity.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects, canagliflozin is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Limited data with canagliflozin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. In animal studies, irreversible adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilations were observed when canagliflozin was administered at the lowest exposure of 0.5 times the 300 mg clinical human dose, based on AUC (exposure). During pregnancy, consider appropriate alternative therapies, especially during the second and third trimesters when the potential risks to human kidney development are of greatest concern.[53972] Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) continue to recommend human insulin as the standard of care in women with diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring medical therapy; insulin does not cross the placenta.[60607] [62358]

    Due to a potential for severe adverse reactions in the nursing infant, the use of canagliflozin is not recommended while breast-feeding. It is not known if canagliflozin is excreted in human milk. Canagliflozin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats reaching levels 1.4 times higher than that in maternal plasma. Data in juvenile rats directly exposed to canagliflozin showed risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be a risk to the developing human kidney.[53972] If canagliflozin is discontinued and blood glucose is not controlled on diet and exercise alone, insulin therapy should be considered. Other oral hypoglycemics may also be considered as possible alternatives in some patients. Because acarbose has limited systemic absorption, which results in minimal maternal plasma concentrations, clinically significant exposure via breast milk is not expected.[46303] Also, while the manufacturers of metformin recommend against breast-feeding while taking the drug, metformin may be a possible alternative for some patients. Data have shown that metformin is excreted into breast milk in small amounts and adverse effects on infant plasma glucose have not been reported in human studies.[31407] [31408] [31409] Tolbutamide is usually considered compatible with breast-feeding.[27500] Glyburide may be a suitable alternative since it was not detected in the breast milk of lactating women who received single and multiple doses of glyburide.[31568] If any oral hypoglycemics are used by the mother during lactation, the nursing infant should be monitored for signs of hypoglycemia, such as increased fussiness or somnolence.[46104] Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition in the mother when choosing treatment.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), the transporter responsible for reabsorbing the majority of glucose filtered by the tubular lumen in the kidney. SGLT2 is expressed in the proximal renal tubules. By inhibiting SGLT2, canagliflozin reduces reabsorption of filtered glucose and lowers the renal threshold for glucose (RTG), and thereby increases urinary glucose excretion, improving blood glucose control. In studies with single and multiple oral doses, dose-dependent decreases in the RTG and increases in urinary glucose excretion were observed within the first day of dosing. Canagliflozin 100 mg/day and 300 mg/day suppressed RTG throughout the 24-hour period; maximal suppression occurred with the 300 mg/day oral dose. Reductions in RTG led to increases in mean urinary glucose excretion of approximately 100 grams/day in subjects treated with canagliflozin 100 mg/day or 300 mg/day. This urinary glucose excretion with canagliflozin also results in increased urinary volume. When the drug was given over a 16-day dosing period, reductions in RTG and increases in urinary glucose excretion were observed over the dosing period. In single-dose studies, canagliflozin 300 mg before a mixed-meal delayed intestinal glucose absorption and reduced postprandial blood glucose.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Canagliflozin is administered orally. The drug is well distributed into tissues. After a single IV infusion, the mean steady-state volume of distribution was 83.5 L. Canagliflozin is 99% bound plasma proteins, mainly to albumin. Protein binding is independent of plasma concentrations. Canagliflozin is mainly metabolized by O-glucuronidation via UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 to 2 inactive O-glucuronide metabolites. CYP3A4-mediated (oxidative) metabolism is approximately 7% in humans. Following administration of a single oral radioactive dose, 41.5%, 7%, and 3.2% of the administered dose was recovered in feces as canagliflozin, a hydroxylated metabolite, and an O-glucuronide metabolite, respectively. Enterohepatic circulation of canagliflozin was negligible. Approximately 33% of the administered radioactive dose was excreted in urine, mainly as O-glucuronide metabolites (30.5%). Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged canagliflozin in urine. Renal clearance of 100 mg and 300 mg oral doses ranged from 1.30 to 1.55 mL/minute. Mean systemic clearance was approximately 192 mL/minute following IV administration.
     
    Affected Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and drug transporters: UGT1A9, UGT2B4, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)
    Canagliflozin is mainly metabolized via O-glucuronidation by a UGT1A9 and UGT2B4. CYP3A4-mediated metabolism is minimal in humans. Only inducers of these UGT subtypes are expected to have a significant effect on canagliflozin exposure. Canagliflozin is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is a substrate of drug transporters P-gp and MRP2; however, only a potential for pharmacokinetic interaction with digoxin has been considered relevant due to these effects.
     
    Canagliflozin did not induce CYP450 enzyme expression (CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, and CYP1A2) in cultured human hepatocytes. It did not inhibit the CYP450 isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP2E1) and weakly inhibited CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 based on in vitro studies with human hepatic microsomes. Clinically relevant interactions with drugs affected by these CYP enzymes have not been reported.

    Oral Route

    The mean absolute oral bioavailability of canagliflozin is approximately 65%. Administration of canagliflozin with a high-fat meal results in no change to the pharmacokinetics. Thus, canagliflozin may be administered with or without food. However, based on the potential to reduce postprandial plasma glucose excursions due to delayed intestinal glucose absorption, it is recommended that canagliflozin be taken before the first meal of the day. Following single-dose oral administration of canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg, peak plasma concentrations (median Tmax) occur within 1 to 2 hours post-dose. Plasma peak concentrations (Cmax) and the AUC of canagliflozin increase in a dose-proportional manner from 50 mg to 300 mg.