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    Serotonin-Dopamine Antagonist (SDA) Antipsychotics

    BOXED WARNING

    Children, suicidal ideation

    Lurasidone is FDA approved for use in pediatric patients 10 years of age and older with bipolar I depression and adolescents 13 years and older with schizophrenia. However, lurasidone is not approved for use in pediatric patients of any age with major depression disorder. There is a causal relationship between the use of antidepressants (SSRIs and other antidepressant classes) and the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. Pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials including pediatric (n = 4,400) and adult patients (n = 77,000) showed an increased incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric and young adult patients receiving antidepressants (SSRIs and others) compared to those receiving placebo. No suicides occurred in pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials but the number was not sufficient to establish causality. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk in children, adolescents, and young adults extends to longer-term therapy (i.e., beyond 4 months). The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in all patients with depressive symptoms, whether these occur in primary depression or in association with another primary disorder. All patients with a history of suicidal ideation or behaviors and those with a prominence of suicidal ideation prior to treatment are considered at an increased risk for suicidal ideation or attempts during treatment. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. In patients who exhibit changes in behavior, worsening of depression or emergent suicidality, a decision should be made to change or discontinue treatment. Lurasidone should be prescribed in the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

    Dementia, geriatric, stroke

    Clinical studies with lurasidone did not include sufficient numbers of geriatric adults to determine whether or not they respond differently compared to younger adults. It is unknown whether dose adjustment is necessary on the basis of age alone. All atypical antipsychotic labels include a boxed warning regarding increased morbidity and mortality (1.6 to 1.7 times vs. placebo) reported in geriatric patients with dementia receiving atypical antipsychotics. Deaths typically occurred due to heart failure, sudden death, or infections (primarily pneumonia). An increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatal events, has also been reported. According to the Beers Criteria, antipsychotics are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients, and use should be avoided except for treating schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and for short-term use as antiemetics during chemotherapy. Avoid use of lurasidone in geriatric patients with the following conditions due to the potential for symptom exacerbation or adverse effects: delirium (possible new-onset or worsening delirium), dementia (adverse CNS effects), and Parkinson's disease (symptom exacerbation). There is an increased risk of stroke and a greater rate of cognitive decline and mortality in persons with dementia receiving antipsychotics. The Beers expert panel recommends avoiding antipsychotics to treat delirium- or dementia-related behavioral problems unless non-pharmacological options have failed or are not possible and the patient is a substantial threat to self or others. Avoid antipsychotics in elderly patients with a history of falls or fractures unless safer alternatives are not available since antipsychotics can cause ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and new falls. If use is necessary, consider reducing the use of other CNS-active medications and implement other strategies to reduce fall risk. Because antipsychotics can cause or exacerbate hyponatremia and SIADH, particularly in the elderly, sodium levels should be closely monitored when starting or changing dosages of antipsychotics in older adults.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). An antipsychotic should generally be used only for the conditions listed in the guidelines (e.g., schizophrenia, mood disorder, Tourette's disorder) and meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for use. The LTCF must identify and address all possible causes of behavioral or psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) before considering an antipsychotic, as there is an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients treated with antipsychotics for dementia-related psychosis. To initiate antipsychotic therapy, the patient must either be a danger to self or others or have symptoms due to mania or psychosis, and the plan of care should document attempted behavioral interventions (except in an emergency). Limit emergency treatment to 7 days or less and evaluate/document within 7 days the contributors/causes to the symptoms. For acute conditions persisting beyond 7 days, appropriate non-pharmacologic interventions must be attempted, unless clinically contraindicated and documented. Treatment of non-acute, chronic, or prolonged BPSD must meet all of the OBRA criteria for BPSD treatment and ensure that the behavioral symptoms are not due to a treatable medical condition or correctable environmental or psychological stressors alone and the facility must provide documented evidence of persistence. The LTCF must evaluate the appropriateness of antipsychotic treatment during or within 2 weeks of admission for a newly admitted resident. OBRA provides general dosing guidance for antipsychotic treatment of BPSD. In all cases, the lowest possible dose and the shortest duration should be prescribed and the facility should monitor for ongoing effectiveness and potential adverse effects. Antipsychotics are subject to periodic review for effectiveness, medical necessity/rationale for use, and the potential for gradual dose reduction (GDR) or discontinuation. Refer to the OBRA guidelines for complete information.[60742]

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral atypical antipsychotic of the benzoisothiazol derivative class
    Used for schizophrenia in adults and adolescents and for depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adult and pediatric patients 10 years and older
    Due to extensive CYP3A4 metabolism, contraindicated with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Latuda

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Latuda Oral Tab: 20mg, 40mg, 60mg, 80mg, 120mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of schizophrenia.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    40 mg PO once daily with food (at least 350 calories) is the recommended starting dose; initial dose titration is not necessary. Efficacy has been established in the range of 40 to 160 mg/day. Max: 160 mg/day PO. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Periodically re-evaluate the need for continued therapy.

    Adolescents

    40 mg PO once daily with food (at least 350 calories) is the recommended starting dose; initial dose titration is not required. Efficacy has been established in the range of 40 to 80 mg/day. Max: 80 mg/day PO. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Periodically re-evaluate the need for continued therapy.

    For the treatment of depression associated with bipolar I disorder (bipolar depression).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 20 mg/day PO once daily with food (at least 350 calories) as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate. Efficacy has been established in the range of 20 to 120 mg/day. Max: 120 mg/day PO. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. In a monotherapy study, the higher dose range (80 to 120 mg/day) did not provide additional benefit over the lower dose range (20 to 60 mg/day). Periodically re-evaluate the need for continued treatment.

    Children and Adolescents 10 years and older

    Initially, 20 mg/day PO as monotherapy taken with food (at least 350 calories). After 1 week, the dose may be increased based on response. The effective dose range is 20 mg/day to 80 mg/day as monotherapy. At the end of one clinical trial, 67% of patients were receiving 20 mg/day or 40 mg/day. Max: 80 mg/day PO. Periodically re-evaluate the need for continued treatment. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions.

    For the treatment of severe behavioral or psychological symptoms of dementia† (BPSD)†.
    Oral dosage
    Geriatric Adults

    Dosage not established. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Lurasidone was not commercially available during the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) atypical antipsychotic off-label use review in 2011. Antipsychotics are not FDA-approved for the treatment of behavioral problems associated with dementia and the labeling of all antipsychotics contains a boxed warning noting an increased risk of death in geriatric patients being treated for behavioral problems associated with dementia. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates the use of antipsychotics in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with dementia-related behavioral symptoms. Specific criteria for treatment must be met, and adherence to daily dose thresholds for each antipsychotic is required, except when documentation is provided showing that higher doses are necessary to maintain or improve the resident's functional status. No OBRA Max lurasidone dosing guidance is available due to a lack of studies or results available to assess the safety or efficacy of lurasidone in older adults with dementia. For all antipsychotics, the facility must attempt a gradual dose reduction (GDR) in 2 separate quarters, at least 1 month apart, within the first year of admission to the facility or after the facility has initiated an antipsychotic, unless clinically contraindicated. After the first year, a GDR must be attempted annually unless clinically contraindicated. The GDR may be considered clinically contraindicated if the target symptoms returned or worsened after the most recent GDR attempt within the facility and the physician has documented justification for why attempting additional dose reductions at that time would likely impair the resident's function or increase distressed behavior.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    160 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    160 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    80 mg/day PO.

    Children

    10 years and older: 80 mg/day PO.
    Less than 10 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Not indicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Mild hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustments are needed.
    Moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh B, score 7 to 9): Initially, 20 mg/day PO. Do not exceed 80 mg/day.
    Severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C, score 10 to 15): Initially, 20 mg/day PO. Do not exceed 40 mg/day.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl 50 mL/minute or more: No dosage adjustments are needed.
    CrCl less than 50 mL/minute: Initially, 20 mg/day PO. Do not exceed 80 mg/day.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Recommendations for dosage adjustments are not available for patients with renal failure receiving dialysis.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer with a meal containing at least 350 calories.

    STORAGE

    Latuda:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Lurasidone is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to lurasidone or any other component of the commercial product. Angioedema has been observed with lurasidone use.

    Agranulocytosis, hematological disease, leukopenia, neutropenia

    Lurasidone should be used cautiously in patients with hematological disease. Hematologic effects including leukopenia, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis have been associated with antipsychotic use. A history of drug-induced leukopenia or neutropenia or pre-existing low white blood cell (WBC) count may increase the likelihood of developing hematologic effects during treatment with an antipsychotic medication. Patients with a history of clinically significant low WBC count or drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have frequent complete blood count (CBC) assessments during the first few months of treatment. Discontinuation of the antipsychotic should be considered if a clinically significant decline in WBC occurs in the absence of an identifiable cause. Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be closely monitored for fever and infection, and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted if necessary. Lurasidone should be discontinued in patients with severe neutropenia (ANC < 1,000/mm3); ongoing medical care is recommended until the symptoms resolve.

    Seizure disorder, seizures

    Lurasidone should be used cautiously in patients with seizures, a history of seizure disorder, or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in patients who are 65 years or older.

    Children, suicidal ideation

    Lurasidone is FDA approved for use in pediatric patients 10 years of age and older with bipolar I depression and adolescents 13 years and older with schizophrenia. However, lurasidone is not approved for use in pediatric patients of any age with major depression disorder. There is a causal relationship between the use of antidepressants (SSRIs and other antidepressant classes) and the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. Pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials including pediatric (n = 4,400) and adult patients (n = 77,000) showed an increased incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric and young adult patients receiving antidepressants (SSRIs and others) compared to those receiving placebo. No suicides occurred in pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials but the number was not sufficient to establish causality. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk in children, adolescents, and young adults extends to longer-term therapy (i.e., beyond 4 months). The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in all patients with depressive symptoms, whether these occur in primary depression or in association with another primary disorder. All patients with a history of suicidal ideation or behaviors and those with a prominence of suicidal ideation prior to treatment are considered at an increased risk for suicidal ideation or attempts during treatment. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. In patients who exhibit changes in behavior, worsening of depression or emergent suicidality, a decision should be made to change or discontinue treatment. Lurasidone should be prescribed in the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

    Tardive dyskinesia

    Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements that may develop in patients treated with antipsychotics. Periodic evaluation for movement disorders is recommended (e.g., AIMS). Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the initiation of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotics differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotics administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief periods at low doses or may even arise after drug discontinuation. The syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if the antipsychotic is withdrawn. Antipsychotics may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown. Given these considerations, lurasidone should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that is known to respond to antipsychotics, and for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic therapy, the smallest dose and the shortest duration producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear, lurasidone discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment despite the presence of the syndrome.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Although specific recommendations are not available from the manufacturer of lurasidone, it is advisable to avoid abrupt discontinuation of antipsychotics to avoid adverse effects including an acute exacerbation of symptoms.

    Cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, hypotension, hypovolemia, myocardial infarction, orthostatic hypotension, syncope

    Secondary to alpha-blockade, lurasidone can produce vasodilation and precipitate orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and in some patients, syncope. Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients for whom hypotension is of concern, such as those with cerebrovascular disease. Orthostatic hypotension could lead to falls with the potential for fractures and other injuries. A fall risk assessment should be completed when initiating an antipsychotic in patients with conditions, diseases, or concurrent medication use that could exacerbate orthostasis. A fall risk assessment should be completed recurrently in at-risk patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy. Counsel patients about measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning, or rising slowly from a seated position. Consider dose reduction if hypotension occurs. Use lurasidone cautiously in patients with known cardiac disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or with conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (e.g., dehydrated state or hypovolemia). Lurasidone has not been formally evaluated in patients with recent myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. In addition, atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic adverse events that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk, such as increased blood glucose, dyslipidemia, and increased body weight. Patients with existing cardiovascular disease should be carefully monitored for adverse effects that may worsen cardiac status.

    Hepatic disease

    Lurasidone should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease. The FDA-approved labeling recommends a lower maximum daily dosage in those with moderate to severe hepatic impairment.

    Renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Lurasidone should be used with caution in patients with renal disease. The FDA-approved labeling recommends a lower maximum daily dosage in those with moderate to severe renal impairment. It may be advisable to avoid use of lurasidone in patients with renal failure until the effects of the drug in this population are known.

    Ambient temperature increase, dehydration, hyperthermia, hypothermia, strenuous exercise

    Antipsychotics have been reported to disrupt the body's ability to reduce core body temperature presumably through effects in the hypothalamus, and they predispose patients to hyperthermia. Patients receiving lurasidone should be advised of conditions that contribute to an elevation in core body temperature (e.g., strenuous exercise, ambient temperature increase, or dehydration). A less frequently described alteration in thermoregulatory processes reported with both conventional and atypical antipsychotics is hypothermia. Thermoregulation is multi-factorial; however, the dopaminergic system appears to have a primary role, and serotonin may also have modulatory activity (5-HT2a receptors). Most cases of hypothermia associated with antipsychotics have occurred in conjunction with other potential precipitating factors such as hypothyroidism, sepsis, organic brain injury, or environmental temperature. Hypothermia appears to occur more frequently during initiation of antipsychotic therapy or after dose increases.

    Neurological disease, Parkinson's disease

    Antipsychotics can cause motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls with the potential for fractures and other injuries. A fall risk assessment should be completed when initiating an antipsychotic in patients with diseases (e.g., neurological disease), conditions, or concurrent medication use that could exacerbate motor and sensory instability. A fall risk assessment should be completed recurrently in at-risk patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy. In general, antipsychotics can worsen the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In addition, the potential advantages and disadvantages of most atypical antipsychotics in the management of hallucinations and psychosis in Parkinson's patients remain unclear. Therefore, lurasidone should be avoided in patients with Parkinson's disease unless the benefit of lurasidone therapy outweighs the risk of motor symptom exacerbation.

    Dysphagia

    Patients with dysphagia or who are at risk for aspiration pneumonia should be closely monitored while receiving lurasidone. Antipsychotic drug use has been associated with esophageal dysmotility and aspiration of gastric contents, which may increase the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in certain patient populations, such as patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease.

    Diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity

    Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes in adult and pediatric patients that may increase cardiovascular or cerebrovascular risk over time, including loss of blood glucose control, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. Hyperglycemia, in some cases associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available. An increased risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in general complicate this concern. All patients treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia (polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weakness). Patients with established diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics, such as lurasidone, should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, pre-diabetes, family history of diabetes) should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of antidiabetic agents despite discontinuation of the suspect drug. Treatment with lurasidone should be undertaken with caution in patients with pre-existing conditions such as obesity, pre-diabetes, or hyperlipidemia (e.g., hypercholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridemia). Because increased body weight has been observed during treatment with lurasidone, clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.

    Dementia, geriatric, stroke

    Clinical studies with lurasidone did not include sufficient numbers of geriatric adults to determine whether or not they respond differently compared to younger adults. It is unknown whether dose adjustment is necessary on the basis of age alone. All atypical antipsychotic labels include a boxed warning regarding increased morbidity and mortality (1.6 to 1.7 times vs. placebo) reported in geriatric patients with dementia receiving atypical antipsychotics. Deaths typically occurred due to heart failure, sudden death, or infections (primarily pneumonia). An increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatal events, has also been reported. According to the Beers Criteria, antipsychotics are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients, and use should be avoided except for treating schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and for short-term use as antiemetics during chemotherapy. Avoid use of lurasidone in geriatric patients with the following conditions due to the potential for symptom exacerbation or adverse effects: delirium (possible new-onset or worsening delirium), dementia (adverse CNS effects), and Parkinson's disease (symptom exacerbation). There is an increased risk of stroke and a greater rate of cognitive decline and mortality in persons with dementia receiving antipsychotics. The Beers expert panel recommends avoiding antipsychotics to treat delirium- or dementia-related behavioral problems unless non-pharmacological options have failed or are not possible and the patient is a substantial threat to self or others. Avoid antipsychotics in elderly patients with a history of falls or fractures unless safer alternatives are not available since antipsychotics can cause ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and new falls. If use is necessary, consider reducing the use of other CNS-active medications and implement other strategies to reduce fall risk. Because antipsychotics can cause or exacerbate hyponatremia and SIADH, particularly in the elderly, sodium levels should be closely monitored when starting or changing dosages of antipsychotics in older adults.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). An antipsychotic should generally be used only for the conditions listed in the guidelines (e.g., schizophrenia, mood disorder, Tourette's disorder) and meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for use. The LTCF must identify and address all possible causes of behavioral or psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) before considering an antipsychotic, as there is an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients treated with antipsychotics for dementia-related psychosis. To initiate antipsychotic therapy, the patient must either be a danger to self or others or have symptoms due to mania or psychosis, and the plan of care should document attempted behavioral interventions (except in an emergency). Limit emergency treatment to 7 days or less and evaluate/document within 7 days the contributors/causes to the symptoms. For acute conditions persisting beyond 7 days, appropriate non-pharmacologic interventions must be attempted, unless clinically contraindicated and documented. Treatment of non-acute, chronic, or prolonged BPSD must meet all of the OBRA criteria for BPSD treatment and ensure that the behavioral symptoms are not due to a treatable medical condition or correctable environmental or psychological stressors alone and the facility must provide documented evidence of persistence. The LTCF must evaluate the appropriateness of antipsychotic treatment during or within 2 weeks of admission for a newly admitted resident. OBRA provides general dosing guidance for antipsychotic treatment of BPSD. In all cases, the lowest possible dose and the shortest duration should be prescribed and the facility should monitor for ongoing effectiveness and potential adverse effects. Antipsychotics are subject to periodic review for effectiveness, medical necessity/rationale for use, and the potential for gradual dose reduction (GDR) or discontinuation. Refer to the OBRA guidelines for complete information.[60742]

    Breast cancer, hyperprolactinemia, infertility

    Lurasidone can cause hyperprolactinemia, likely due to central D2 antagonism. Elevations in prolactin may result in infertility in either men or women, or other endocrine abnormalities. Close monitoring for adverse endocrine effects is advisable during use of lurasidone. Some human breast cancers may be prolactin-dependent and therefore lurasidone should be used cautiously in those who have a history of breast cancer.

    Coadministration with other CNS depressants, driving or operating machinery, ethanol ingestion

    Because lurasidone has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills, patients should be advised to use caution when driving or operating machinery or performing other tasks that require mental alertness until they know how the drug affects them. Somnolence from antipsychotic use could lead to falls with the potential for fractures and other injuries. A fall risk assessment should be completed when initiating an antipsychotic in patients with conditions, diseases, or concurrent medication use that could exacerbate somnolence. A fall risk assessment should be completed recurrently in at-risk patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy. Given the primary CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used during coadministration with other CNS depressants and alcohol. Ethanol ingestion may further impair cognitive and motor skills and patients should be advised to avoid use of alcoholic beverages.

    Substance abuse

    Lurasidone is not classified as a controlled substance; however, the manufacturer advises caution and careful monitoring in patients with a history of substance abuse since the drug has CNS active properties and has not been formally evaluated for its abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence potential.

    Neonates, pregnancy, pregnancy testing

    Lurasidone is recommended for use during pregnancy only when the benefits outweigh the risks. Animal studies have not shown evidence of teratogenicity; however, there are no adequate or well-controlled studies of lurasidone in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotics during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity and have ranged from self-limited to those requiring intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Neonates exhibiting signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal effects or withdrawal should be carefully monitored. The knowledge about long-term neurobehavioral effects in offspring is limited for all antipsychotic agents and requires further investigation. According to the American Psychiatric Association treatment guidelines for schizophrenia, consider pregnancy testing in women of childbearing potential prior to initiation of an antipsychotic. The National Pregnancy Registry for Psychiatric Medications is dedicated to evaluating the safety of psychiatric medications that may be taken by women during pregnancy to treat a wide range of mood, anxiety, or psychiatric disorders. The primary goal of this Registry is to determine the frequency of major malformations, such as heart defects, cleft lip, or neural tube defects, in babies exposed to various psychiatric drugs during pregnancy. While the research concentrates on atypical antipsychotics and antidepressant use, pregnant women using other psychiatric medications are encouraged to register. For more information, contact the registry at https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry or by phone 1-866-961-2388. It is not known if antipsychotics, through their effect on prolactin, would affect labor or delivery.

    Breast-feeding

    According to the manufacturer, lurasidone should be used during breast-feeding only if the benefits clearly outweigh the potential risks. It is not known whether lurasidone or its metabolites are excreted in human milk; however, the drug is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. In addition, antipsychotics may cause hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea to varying degrees, and thus may interfere with proper lactation. Due to individual variability in response to antipsychotics, it may be prudent to continue the existing regimen if ongoing treatment is deemed necessary during breast-feeding. However, because there is a lack of experience with lurasidone during breast-feeding, other agents may be preferred especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Alternate medications for consideration include atypical agents such as olanzapine or quetiapine. Data related to the safety of antipsychotics during breast-feeding are limited and chronic administration of any antipsychotic during breast-feeding should be avoided if possible. Regardless of the antipsychotic used, the nursing infant should be closely monitored for excessive drowsiness, lethargy, and developmental delays. Combination treatment with antipsychotics may increase the risk of these adverse events. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome / Delayed / 0-1.0
    tardive dyskinesia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    stroke / Early / 0.1-1.0
    AV block / Early / 0.1-1.0
    bradycardia / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / 0-0.1
    seizures / Delayed / 0-0.1
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / 0-0.1
    angioedema / Rapid / 0-0.1
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetic ketoacidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    suicidal ideation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    SIADH / Delayed / Incidence not known
    water intoxication / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    akathisia / Delayed / 6.0-22.0
    pseudoparkinsonism / Delayed / 0-17.0
    dystonic reaction / Delayed / 0-7.0
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 0.3-2.9
    dyskinesia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anemia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    angina / Early / 0.1-1.0
    dysarthria / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    gastritis / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    dysuria / Early / 0.1-1.0
    galactorrhea / Delayed / 0-0.1
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / 0-0.1
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 1.0
    hypertension / Early / 1.0
    blurred vision / Early / 1.0
    neutropenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetes mellitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperprolactinemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperthermia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperlipidemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypertriglyceridemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    drowsiness / Early / 11.0-17.0
    nausea / Early / 10.0-16.0
    infection / Delayed / 0-10.0
    insomnia / Early / 5.0-10.0
    vomiting / Early / 4.0-8.0
    dizziness / Early / 4.0-6.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 6.0-6.0
    agitation / Early / 5.0-5.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 4.0-5.0
    xerostomia / Early / 2.0-5.0
    restlessness / Early / 0-4.0
    rhinitis / Early / 4.0-4.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 4.0-4.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-4.0
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 3.0-3.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.0-3.0
    fatigue / Early / 3.0-3.0
    back pain / Delayed / 2.0-3.0
    influenza / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    abnormal dreams / Early / 0.1-2.0
    hypersalivation / Early / 2.0-2.0
    vertigo / Early / 0.1-1.0
    dysmenorrhea / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    amenorrhea / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-0.1
    mastalgia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    breast enlargement / Delayed / 0-0.1
    weight gain / Delayed / 3.0
    rash / Early / 1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 1.0
    rhinorrhea / Early / Incidence not known
    nasal congestion / Early / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    polydipsia / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acarbose: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, including dichloralphenazone, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Moderate) Coadministration of pentazocine with atypical antipsychotics may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation. Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Moderate) Concurrent use of lurasidone and tramadol or combination products containing tramadol (e.g., acetaminophen; tramadol) should be avoided if possible. Antipsychotics may enhance the seizure risk of tramadol. Additive CNS depression may also be seen with the concomitant use of tramadol and lurasidone.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Albiglutide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may affect CNS function significantly. Therefore, psychotropic pharmacodynamic interactions could occur following concomitant administration of drugs with significant CNS or psychotropic activity (e.g., antipsychotics). Use with caution. Patients developing mood disturbances, moderate to severe lethargy/somnolence while on aldesleukin should seek evaluation from their health care provider. Also, because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, concurrent use of CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as aldesleukin, IL-2, can theoretically lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Aliskiren: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Alogliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Alpha-blockers: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Alprazolam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Ambrisentan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amifampridine: (Major) Carefully consider the need for concomitant treatment with atypical antipsychotics and amifampridine, as coadministration may increase the risk of seizures. If coadministration occurs, closely monitor patients for seizure activity. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures taking amifampridine at recommended doses. Atypical antipsychotics may increase the risk of seizures.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amiodarone: (Major) Amiodarone is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of lurasidone and amiodarone may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Amlodipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Amobarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Amoxapine: (Moderate) Use caution during co-administration of amoxapine and lurasidone. Amoxapine exhibits some antipsychotic activity and may increase the risk of tardive dyskinesia or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) when antipsychotics are given concurrently. CNS effects, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, and lowering of seizure threshold are potential problems with the combined use of amoxapine and antipsychotics.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as clarithromycin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as clarithromycin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Amphetamine: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Amphetamines: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Amprenavir: (Major) Amprenavir is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Apalutamide: (Severe) Coadministration of lurasidone with apalutamide is contraindicated due to decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inducer decreased lurasidone exposure by 83%.
    Apomorphine: (Major) In general, antipsychotics can worsen the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease thereby decreasing the overall effectiveness of antiparkinsonian agents. Therefore, lurasidone should be avoided in patients receiving medications for Parkinson's disease unless the benefit of lurasidone therapy outweighs the risk of decreased therapeutic response to apomorphine.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Major) Use caution if lurasidone and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in lurasidone-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of lurasidone. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important. According to the manufacturer of lurasidone, if a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for adverse effects including excessive sedation, somnolence, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures during coadministration of lurasidone and aripiprazole. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use. Lower dosages may be necessary if combination therapy is deemed necessary.
    Asenapine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Atazanavir: (Major) Atazanavir is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Concurrent use of lurasidone and atazanavir boosted with ritonavir or atazanavir; cobicistat is contraindicated.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Severe) Coadministration of cobicistat (or cobicistat containing medications) with lurasidone is contraindicated due to the potential for serious or life-threatening reactions, such as CNS effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, while lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold. (Major) Atazanavir is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Concurrent use of lurasidone and atazanavir boosted with ritonavir or atazanavir; cobicistat is contraindicated.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Atropine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with lurasidone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Atropine; Diphenoxylate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with lurasidone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4. (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Barbiturates: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4. (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with lurasidone may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with lurasidone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If benzhydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking lurasidone, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response. If lurasidone is initiated a patient taking an opioid agonist, use a lower initial dose of lurasidone and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Benzodiazepines: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Benzphetamine: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Benztropine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Beta-adrenergic blockers: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as bexarotene, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Boceprevir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as boceprevir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as bosentan, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more). In addition, due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Brexpiprazole: (Major) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of brexpiprazole with other antipsychotics such as lurasidone. The risk of drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic effects, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures may be increased during combined use; therefore, it may be advisable to initiate treatment with lower dosages if combination therapy is deemed necessary.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for a decrease in the efficacy of lurasidone if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. At clinically relevant concentrations, brigatinib induced CYP3A via activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR); this may decrease concentrations of sensitive CYP3A substrates.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Bromocriptine: (Moderate) The prolactin-lowering effect of bromocriptine at the anterior pituitary may be antagonized by medications that increase prolactin levels, such as the atypical antipsychotics. The atypical antipsychotics elevate prolactin to various degrees. Like other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, the elevation in prolactin from atypical antipsychotics can persist during chronic administration. Monitor the patient for reduced response to bromocriptine. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. If bromocriptine is taken for diabetes, monitor for worsening glycemic control.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Buprenorphine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as buprenorphine.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as buprenorphine.
    Bupropion: (Major) Bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures. Extreme caution is recommended during concurrent use of other drugs that may lower the seizure threshold such as antipsychotics. The manufacturer of bupropion recommends low initial dosing and slow dosage titration if this combination must be used; the patient should be closely monitored.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) Bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures. Extreme caution is recommended during concurrent use of other drugs that may lower the seizure threshold such as antipsychotics. The manufacturer of bupropion recommends low initial dosing and slow dosage titration if this combination must be used; the patient should be closely monitored.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) The combination of buspirone and CNS depressants like the antipsychotics can increase the risk for drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Butabarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Butorphanol: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as butorphanol.
    Cabergoline: (Major) In general, antipsychotics can worsen the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease thereby decreasing the overall effectiveness of antiparkinsonian agents. In addition, Parkinson's treatments like pramipexole, ropinirole, or tolcapone may cause drowsiness which can result in additive CNS effects with lurasidone. Therefore, lurasidone should be avoided in patients receiving medications for Parkinson's disease unless the benefit of lurasidone therapy outweighs the risk of decreased therapeutic response to levodopa or other treatments.
    Canagliflozin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cannabidiol and atypical antipsychotics. CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of cannabidiol.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Carbamazepine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as carbamazepine, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane with other CNS depressants including atypical antipsychotics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbidopa: (Major) In general, antipsychotics can worsen the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease thereby decreasing the overall effectiveness of antiparkinsonian agents. Lurasidone should be avoided in patients receiving medications for Parkinson's disease unless the benefit of lurasidone therapy outweighs the risk of decreased therapeutic response to levodopa or other treatments.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Major) In general, antipsychotics can worsen the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease thereby decreasing the overall effectiveness of antiparkinsonian agents. Lurasidone should be avoided in patients receiving medications for Parkinson's disease unless the benefit of lurasidone therapy outweighs the risk of decreased therapeutic response to levodopa or other treatments. (Moderate) Levodopa is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of levodopa. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior. Certain atypical antipsychotics, such as quetiapine or pimavanserin, may be preferable to other antipsychotics in these patients.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Major) In general, antipsychotics can worsen the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease thereby decreasing the overall effectiveness of antiparkinsonian agents. Lurasidone should be avoided in patients receiving medications for Parkinson's disease unless the benefit of lurasidone therapy outweighs the risk of decreased therapeutic response to levodopa or other treatments. (Moderate) Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of the COMT inhibitors (e.g., entacapone, tolcapone). In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior. (Moderate) Levodopa is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of levodopa. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior. Certain atypical antipsychotics, such as quetiapine or pimavanserin, may be preferable to other antipsychotics in these patients.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) The risk of adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of cariprazine with other antipsychotics, such as lurasidone. Similar to other antipsychotics, cariprazine administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. The incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, but the risk appears to be increased.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Central-acting adrenergic agents: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ceritinib: (Severe) Coadministration of lurasidone with ceritinib is contraindicated due to increased plasma concentrations of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and ceritinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with atypical antipsychotics should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with atypical antipsychotics should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Cetrorelix: (Moderate) Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia results in down-regulation of the number of pituitary GnRH receptors and may interfere with the response to any of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs including cetrorelix.
    Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chloramphenicol: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as chloramphenicol, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlordiazepoxide: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, concurrent use of CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as cimetidine, can theoretically lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions.
    Clarithromycin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as clarithromycin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Clevidipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of clevidipine and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Clobazam: (Moderate) Benzodiazepines such as clobazam should be combined cautiously with antipsychotics because of the potential for additive CNS depressant effects, and reduced effectiveness of clobazam as an anticonvulsant due to the possible lowering of the seizure threshold by antipsychotics.
    Clonazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Clonidine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Clorazepate: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Clozapine: (Major) Co-administration of clozapine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures.
    Cobicistat: (Severe) Coadministration of cobicistat (or cobicistat containing medications) with lurasidone is contraindicated due to the potential for serious or life-threatening reactions, such as CNS effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, while lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Codeine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) The use of promethazine, a phenothiazine, with antipsychotics such as lurasidone should be avoided if possible. Co-administration of promethazine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from these combinations has not been established and data are very limited, the risk may be increased during combined use versus use of an antipsychotic alone.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) The use of promethazine, a phenothiazine, with antipsychotics such as lurasidone should be avoided if possible. Co-administration of promethazine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from these combinations has not been established and data are very limited, the risk may be increased during combined use versus use of an antipsychotic alone.
    COMT inhibitors: (Moderate) Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of the COMT inhibitors (e.g., entacapone, tolcapone). In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Conivaptan: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as conivaptan, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Crizotinib: (Major) The recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg daily (maximum, 80 mg daily) if coadministration with crizotinib is necessary. Reduce the lurasidone dose to half of its original dose level if crizotinib is added to existing lurasidone therapy. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and crizotinib is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor. Coadministration with another moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 116%.
    Cyclizine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dabrafenib: (Major) The concomitant use of dabrafenib and lurasidone may lead to decreased lurasidone concentrations and loss of efficacy. Use of an alternative agent is recommended. If concomitant use of these agents together is unavoidable, monitor patients for loss of lurasidone efficacy.It may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more) with dabrafenib. Dabrafenib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer and lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Concomitant use of dabrafenib with a single dose of another sensitive CYP3A4 substrate decreased the AUC value of the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate by 65%.
    Danazol: (Major) Danazol is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Dapagliflozin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Darunavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with darunavir is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; darunavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Severe) Coadministration of cobicistat (or cobicistat containing medications) with lurasidone is contraindicated due to the potential for serious or life-threatening reactions, such as CNS effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, while lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold. (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with darunavir is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; darunavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Severe) Coadministration of cobicistat (or cobicistat containing medications) with lurasidone is contraindicated due to the potential for serious or life-threatening reactions, such as CNS effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, while lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold. (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with darunavir is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; darunavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ritonavir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Delavirdine: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as delavirdine, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), restlessness, and agitation. If NMS is diagnosed, immediately discontinue deutetrabenazine, and provide intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring. Recurrence of NMS has been reported with resumption of drug therapy. If akathisia or parkinsonism develops during treatment, the deutetrabenazine dose should be reduced; discontinuation may be required. Deutetrabenazine is a reversible, dopamine depleting drug and lurasidone is a dopamine antagonist. The risk for parkinsonism, NMS, or akathisia may be increased with concomitant administration. Additionally, advise patients that concurrent use of deutetrabenazine and drugs that cause CNS depression, such as lurasidone, may have additive effects and worsen drowsiness or sedation.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotics and dexmethylphenidate may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Dexmethylphenidate blocks central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of dexmethylphenidate.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dextromethorphan; Promethazine: (Moderate) The use of promethazine, a phenothiazine, with antipsychotics such as lurasidone should be avoided if possible. Co-administration of promethazine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from these combinations has not been established and data are very limited, the risk may be increased during combined use versus use of an antipsychotic alone.
    Diazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Dicyclomine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Diltiazem: (Major) Diltiazem is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. When a single dose of lurasidone 20 mg was co-administered with diltiazem 240 mg/day for 5 days, the lurasidone Cmax and AUC increased by 2.1-times and 2.2-times, respectively, compared to those seen after the administration of lurasidone alone. In addition, due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects antihypertensive agents. If coadministration is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Doxazosin: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Doxepin: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression such as dronabinol, if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Dronedarone: (Major) Dronedarone is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Droperidol: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Dulaglutide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Duvelisib: (Major) The recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg daily (maximum, 80 mg daily) if coadministration with duvelisib is necessary. Reduce the lurasidone dose to half of its original dose level if duvelisib is added to existing lurasidone therapy. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A substrate; duvelisib is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor. Coadministration with another moderate CYP3A inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 116%.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as efavirenz or combination products containing efavirez (e.g. efavirenz; emtricitabine; tenofovir), may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as efavirenz or combination products containing efavirez (e.g. efavirenz; emtricitabine; tenofovir), may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as efavirenz or combination products containing efavirez (e.g. efavirenz; emtricitabine; tenofovir), may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering lurasidone with elbasvir; grazoprevir may result in elevated lurasidone plasma concentrations. Lurasidone is a substrate of CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of adverse events.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Severe) Coadministration of cobicistat (or cobicistat containing medications) with lurasidone is contraindicated due to the potential for serious or life-threatening reactions, such as CNS effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, while lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Severe) Coadministration of cobicistat (or cobicistat containing medications) with lurasidone is contraindicated due to the potential for serious or life-threatening reactions, such as CNS effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, while lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Empagliflozin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Encorafenib: (Moderate) Coadministration of encorafenib with lurasidone may result in increased toxicity or decreased efficacy of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. In vitro studies with encorafenib showed time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 and induction of CYP3A4. The clinical relevance of the in vivo effect of encorafenib on CYP3A4 is not established.
    Entacapone: (Moderate) Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of the COMT inhibitors (e.g., entacapone, tolcapone). In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Enzalutamide: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as enzalutamide, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inducer decreased lurasidone exposure by 83%.
    Eplerenone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ertugliflozin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Erythromycin is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Erythromycin is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Esketamine: (Moderate) Closely monitor patients receiving esketamine and lurasidone for sedation and other CNS depressant effects. Instruct patients who receive a dose of esketamine not to drive or engage in other activities requiring alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4 such as eslicarbazepine. Concurrent use of lurasidone and eslicarbazepine may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Estazolam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) A reduction in the dose of eszopiclone should be considered during co-administration of other CNS depressants, such as antipsychotics, to minimize additive sedative effects. In addition, the risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased during co-administration of eszopiclone and other CNS depressants, which may decrease the ability to perform tasks requiring full mental alertness such as driving. Antipsychotics with a higher incidence of sedation, such as olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, are more likely to interact with eszopiclone. In one evaluation, concurrent use of eszopiclone and olanzapine reduced psychomotor function as measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST).
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ethanol: (Moderate) Alcohol may potentiate the CNS effects of the atypical antipsychotics, which have the potential to cause increased sedation, or to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be appropriately cautioned.
    Ethotoin: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4 such as ethotoin. A decrease in efficacy of lurasidone is possible. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more). Antipsychotics may also increase CNS depression and lower the seizure threshold, producing a pharmacodynamic interaction with anticonvulsants. Adequate dosages of the anticonvulsant should be continued when an antipsychotic drug is added; patients should be monitored for evidence of loss of seizure control or the need for dosage adjustments of either drug.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as etravirine, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Exenatide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Fedratinib: (Major) The recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg daily (maximum, 80 mg daily) if coadministration with fedratinib is necessary. Reduce the lurasidone dose to half of its original dose level if fedratinib is added to existing lurasidone therapy. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and fedratinib is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor. Coadministration with another moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 116%.
    Felodipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Fenoldopam: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Flavoxate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Fluconazole: (Major) Fluconazole is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Fluoxetine: (Major) The metabolite of fluoxetine is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and may decrease the clearance of CYP3A4 substrates such as lurasidone. Decreased metabolism of lurasidone may lead to clinically important adverse reactions that are associated with antipsychotic use, such as extrapyramidal symptoms. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. The effects of fluoxetine on the metabolism of interacting drugs may persist for several weeks after discontinuation of fluoxetine because of its long elimination half-life.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone. (Major) The metabolite of fluoxetine is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and may decrease the clearance of CYP3A4 substrates such as lurasidone. Decreased metabolism of lurasidone may lead to clinically important adverse reactions that are associated with antipsychotic use, such as extrapyramidal symptoms. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. The effects of fluoxetine on the metabolism of interacting drugs may persist for several weeks after discontinuation of fluoxetine because of its long elimination half-life.
    Fluphenazine: (Major) Lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Flurazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Fluvoxamine: (Major) Fluvoxamine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Food: (Major) It is recommended that patients avoid the use of marijuana, by any route, if they are treated for a psychiatric history, including psychosis and bipolar disorder, as the cannabinoids (the psychoactive ingredients, such as THC) in marijuana can produce psychotoxic effects and may exacerbate psychiatric disorders. A high frequency of use and use of products with high-potency of THC are potential risk factors for psychiatric effects. Additionally, additive CNS effects, such as sedation or CNS depression are possible. Clinical studies suggest that cannabis use may reduce the efficacy of some antipsychotic drugs. In addition, several cannabinoids in marijuana appear to influence the activity of CYP enzymes and P-glycoprotein, which may alter the concentrations of antipsychotics and influence either safety or efficacy, For example, the smoking of marijuana influences the metabolism of some medications in a manner similar to tobacco by inducing CYP1A2.
    Fosamprenavir: (Major) Concurrent use of lurasidone and fosamprenavir can be used together, but may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. Fosamprenavir is metabolized to amprenavir, which is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Coadministration of lurasidone and fosamprenavir boosted with ritonavir is contraindicated.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Fosphenytoin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as fosphenytoin or phenytoin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ganirelix: (Moderate) Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia results in down-regulation of the number of pituitary GnRH receptors and may interfere with the response to ganirelix, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Grapefruit juice: (Major) Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided in patients taking lurasidone. Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, an interaction is possible with CYP3A4 inhibitors such as grapefruit juice. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice inhibit CYP3A4 metabolism in gut enterocytes, and therefore may cause increased blood concentrations of lurasidone.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Haloperidol: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent (see separate drug monographs). Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics. (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydralazine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydromorphone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Idelalisib: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as idelalisib, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Iloperidone: (Major) Lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Imatinib: (Major) Imatinib is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Incretin Mimetics: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Indinavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as indinavir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Insulins: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Iohexol: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold should be carefully evaluated when considering intrathecal radiopaque contrast agents. Antipsychotics should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours post-procedure.
    Iopamidol: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold should be carefully evaluated when considering intrathecal radiopaque contrast agents. Antipsychotics should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours post-procedure.
    Iopromide: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold should be carefully evaluated when considering intrathecal radiopaque contrast agents. Antipsychotics should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours post-procedure.
    Ioversol: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold should be carefully evaluated when considering intrathecal radiopaque contrast agents. Antipsychotics should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours post-procedure.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with lurasidone may result in increased serum concentrations of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Due to the potential for additive CNS and cardiovascular effects, MAOIs and antipsychotics should be used together cautiously; some experts recommend initiating low doses of the antipsychotic and careful dosage titration.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. When a single dose of lurasidone 40 mg was co-administered with rifampin 1200 mg/day for 8 days, the lurasidone Cmax and AUC values were reduced to one-seventh and one-fifth, respectively, of those seen after administration of lurasidone alone.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. When a single dose of lurasidone 40 mg was co-administered with rifampin 1200 mg/day for 8 days, the lurasidone Cmax and AUC values were reduced to one-seventh and one-fifth, respectively, of those seen after administration of lurasidone alone.
    Isosulfan Blue: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold should be carefully evaluated when considering intrathecal radiopaque contrast agents. Antipsychotics should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours post-procedure.
    Isradipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Itraconazole: (Severe) Lurasidone is contraindicated for use during and for 2 weeks after itraconazole therapy due to the potential for significantly increased lurasidone exposure. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; itraconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Ivosidenib: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of efficacy of lurasidone during coadministration of ivosidenib; a lurasidone dose adjustment may be necessary. Lurasidone is a sensitive substrate of CYP3A4; ivosidenib induces CYP3A4 and may lead to decreased lurasidone concentrations.
    Kava Kava, Piper methysticum: (Major) Patients who are taking atypical antipsychotics should only use kava kava with prescriber approval and close monitoring. Additive sedation and CNS effects are possible, and inhibition of antipsychotic metabolism may occur. In addition, kava kava has been reported to inhibit many CYP isozymes (i.e., CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 4A9/11) and important pharmacokinetic interactions with CNS-active agents that undergo oxidative metabolism via these CYP isozymes are possible. Atypical antipsychotics are metabolized by various CYP isoenzymes and it is not yet documented if pharmacokinetic interactions occur with kava kava. At least 1 case report of a potential clinically significant interaction with kava kava and an atypical antipsychotic has been reported.
    Ketoconazole: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4. When a single dose of lurasidone 10 mg was co-administered with ketoconazole 400 mg/day for 5 days, the lurasidone Cmax and AUC increased by 6.9-times and 9-times, respectively.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Lefamulin: (Major) The recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg daily (maximum, 80 mg daily) if coadministration with oral lefamulin is necessary. Reduce the lurasidone dose to half of its original dose level if oral lefamulin is added to existing lurasidone therapy. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and oral lefamulin is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor; an interaction is not expected with intravenous lefamulin. Coadministration with another moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 116%.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of lurasidone; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Lurasidone is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of lurasidone; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Lurasidone is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Letermovir: (Moderate) Dosage reductions are required during concomitant administration of lurasidone and letermovir due to the potential for increased lurasidone exposure. In patients receiving lurasidone, reduce the lurasidone dose by one-half if letermovir is added to therapy. If a patient is receiving letermovir and lurasidone is added to therapy, the recommended lurasidone starting dose is 20 mg per day, not to exceed 80 mg per day. Coadministration is contraindicated if the patient is also receiving cyclosporine, because the magnitude of this interaction may be amplified in patients. Lurasidone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Letermovir is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor; however, when given with cyclosporine, the combined effect on CYP3A4 substrates may be similar to a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with atypical antipsychotics should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Levodopa: (Moderate) Levodopa is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of levodopa. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior. Certain atypical antipsychotics, such as quetiapine or pimavanserin, may be preferable to other antipsychotics in these patients.
    Levorphanol: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Linagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Liraglutide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Some atypical antipsychotics are considered first-line adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizers such as lithium. However, it is advisable to monitor patients for neurotoxicity during co-administration. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) has been observed occasionally during concurrent use of lithium and either atypical or conventional antipsychotics. Additive extrapyramidal effects have also been noted. Early case reports described an encephalopathic syndrome consisting of delirium, tremulousness, dyskinesia, seizures, leukocytosis, weakness, hyperpyrexia, confusion, extrapyramidal symptoms, elevations in laboratory values (e.g., liver function tests, blood urea nitrogen, fasting blood sugar) and, in some cases, irreversible brain damage, during use of lithium and conventional antipsychotics, particularly haloperidol. Subsequent rare reports of NMS or NMS-like reactions have been described during co-administration of lithium and atypical antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine). Following resolution of NMS, there are isolated instances of re-emergence of symptoms following re-initiation of lithium as monotherapy. Lithium may be a risk factor for antipsychotic-induced NMS; however, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. In many reported cases, confounding factors have been present (e.g., previous history of NMS, high dose therapy). The ability of antipsychotics alone to precipitate NMS and the rarity of the condition further complicate assessment of lithium as a risk factor. Lurasidone does not significantly change the pharmacokinetic parameters of lithium.
    Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Lofexidine: (Major) Monitor for excessive hypotension and sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and lurasidone. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with lopinavir; ritonavir is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; ritonavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4. (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ritonavir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Lorazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Lorlatinib: (Moderate) If lurasidone is used with lorlatinib, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more) with lorlatinib. Concurrent use may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. Lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer; lurasidone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Loxapine: (Major) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of loxapine and other antipsychotics. Loxapine use has been associated with adverse events such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. These effects may be potentiated during concurrent use of loxapine and other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Severe) Concomitant use of lumacaftor; ivacaftor and lurasidone is contraindicated. Lurasidone is predominantly metabolized via CYP3A4. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer. During pharmacokinetic trials, the Cmax and AUC of lurasidone decreased to one-seventh and one-fifth, respectively, of lurasidone alone when a single 40 mg dose was coadministered with rifampin (600 mg/day for 8 days), another strong CYP3A inducer.
    Macitentan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Meclizine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Meglitinides: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Mepenzolate: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Meperidine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists. (Moderate) The use of promethazine, a phenothiazine, with antipsychotics such as lurasidone should be avoided if possible. Co-administration of promethazine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from these combinations has not been established and data are very limited, the risk may be increased during combined use versus use of an antipsychotic alone.
    Mephobarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) The CNS-depressant effects of meprobamate can be potentiated with concomitant administration of other drugs known to cause CNS depression including antipsychotics.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Metformin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Methadone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Methamphetamine: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Methohexital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotics and methylphenidate may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Methylphenidate blocks central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of methylphenidate.
    Metoclopramide: (Severe) Concomitant use of metoclopramide and antipsychotics is contraindicated by the manufacturer of metoclopramide as the risk of extrapyramidal effects may be increased. Both metoclopramide and antipsychotics antagonize dopamine receptors, which can increase the risk of extrapyramidal effects, including tardive dyskinesia or other dystonic reactions. Additionally, because both antipsychotics and metoclopramide can cause sedation, seizures, or increased prolactin levels, it is possible that the risk of these effects may be increased during concurrent use.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Midazolam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Mifepristone: (Major) Avoid use together if possible due to increased lurasidone exposure. The lurasidone adult dose should not exceed 40 mg/day if coadministered with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as mifepristone. Monitor closely for lurasidone-related adverse events, including increased CNS depression, changes in moods or behavirors, movement disorders, and leukopenia . Mifepristone, when used chronically for hormonal conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, inhibits CYP3A4. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and use of mifepristone is expected to increase lurasidone exposure.
    Miglitol: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Minoxidil: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Mitotane: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as mitotane, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. When a single dose of lurasidone 40 mg was co-administered with another strong CYP3A inducer, rifampin (1200 mg/day for 8 days), the lurasidone Cmax and AUC values were reduced to one-seventh and one-fifth, respectively, of those seen after administration of lurasidone alone.
    Modafinil: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as modafinil, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Molindone: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Due to the potential for additive CNS and cardiovascular effects, MAOIs and antipsychotics should be used together cautiously; some experts recommend initiating low doses of the antipsychotic and careful dosage titration.
    Morphine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Nafarelin: (Moderate) Antipsychotics may cause hyperprolactinemia and should not be administered concomitantly with nafarelin since hyperprolactinemia down-regulates the number of pituitary GnRH receptors.
    Nalbuphine: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression such as nalbuphine, if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Nateglinide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Nefazodone: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as nefazodone, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Nelfinavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with nelfinavir is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; nelfinavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Netupitant, Fosnetupitant; Palonosetron: (Moderate) Netupitant is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and should be used with caution in patients receiving concomitant medications that are primarily metabolized through CYP3A4, such as lurasidone. The plasma concentrations of lurasidone can increase when co-administered with netupitant; the inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 can last for multiple days.
    Nevirapine: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as nevirapine, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known. Also, because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, concurrent use of CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as nicardipine, can theoretically lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions.
    Nifedipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Nilotinib: (Major) Nilotinib is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Nisoldipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold should be carefully evaluated when considering intrathecal radiopaque contrast agents. Antipsychotics should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours post-procedure.
    Octreotide: (Major) Octreotide suppresses growth hormone secretion, which may decrease the metabolic clearance of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of lurasidone and octreotide may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity.
    Olanzapine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ritonavir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Opiate Agonists: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Lurasidone is metabolized by CYP3A4; oritavancin is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of lurasidone may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Oxazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Oxybutynin: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Oxycodone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Oxymorphone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Coadministration of antipsychotics, including paliperidone and lurasidone, should be avoided if possible. Coadministration of antipsychotics may increase the risk for drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and seizures.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Pentazocine: (Moderate) Coadministration of pentazocine with atypical antipsychotics may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation. Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Coadministration of pentazocine with atypical antipsychotics may result in additive respiratory and CNS depression and anticholinergic effects, such as urinary retention and constipation. Use pentazocine with caution in any patient receiving medication with CNS depressant and/or anticholinergic activity.
    Pentobarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Pergolide: (Moderate) Pergolide is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of pergolide. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) Lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Due to the potential for additive CNS and cardiovascular effects, MAOIs and antipsychotics should be used together cautiously; some experts recommend initiating low doses of the antipsychotic and careful dosage titration.
    Phenobarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Phenoxybenzamine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may theoretically occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4 such as topiramate.
    Phentolamine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) The use of promethazine, a phenothiazine, with antipsychotics such as lurasidone should be avoided if possible. Co-administration of promethazine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from these combinations has not been established and data are very limited, the risk may be increased during combined use versus use of an antipsychotic alone.
    Phenytoin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as phenytoin or fosphenytoin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Pimozide: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Posaconazole: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as posaconazole, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Potassium-sparing diuretics: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Pramipexole: (Moderate) Pramipexole is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of pramipexole. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Pramlintide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Primidone: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Prochlorperazine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) The use of promethazine, a phenothiazine, with antipsychotics such as lurasidone should be avoided if possible. Co-administration of promethazine with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from these combinations has not been established and data are very limited, the risk may be increased during combined use versus use of an antipsychotic alone.
    Propantheline: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Quazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Quetiapine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. The likelihood of these pharmacodynamic interactions varies based upon the individual properties of the co-administered antipsychotic agent. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Quinine: (Major) Results of in vivo and in vitro drug interaction studies suggest that quinine has the potential to inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4. Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, concurrent use of quinine can theoretically lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions.
    Ramelteon: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, concurrent use of CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ranolazine, can theoretically lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions.
    Rasagiline: (Minor) It is possible that dopamine antagonists, such as the atypical antipsychotics, could diminish the effectiveness of rasagiline. Additive CNS effects are also possible.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Repaglinide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Ribociclib: (Severe) Coadministration of lurasidone with ribociclib is contraindicated due to increased plasma concentrations of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Severe) Coadministration of lurasidone with ribociclib is contraindicated due to increased plasma concentrations of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Rifabutin: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifabutin, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Rifampin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. When a single dose of lurasidone 40 mg was co-administered with rifampin 1200 mg/day for 8 days, the lurasidone Cmax and AUC values were reduced to one-seventh and one-fifth, respectively, of those seen after administration of lurasidone alone.
    Rifapentine: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4. Concurrent use of lurasidone and CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifapentine, may lead to a decrease in efficacy of lurasidone. If lurasidone is used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer, it may be necessary to increase the lurasidone dose after chronic treatment (7 days or more).
    Riociguat: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Co-administration of risperidone with lurasidone may increase the risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or seizures. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Ritonavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ritonavir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Ropinirole: (Moderate) Ropinirole is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of ropinirole. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Rotigotine: (Moderate) Rotigotine is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of rotigotine. In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Safinamide: (Minor) It is possible that dopamine antagonists, such as the atypical antipsychotics, could diminish the effectiveness of safinamide. Additive CNS effects may also be possible.
    Saquinavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with saquinavir is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4; saquinavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Scopolamine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Secobarbital: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Sedating H1-blockers: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Due to the potential for additive CNS and cardiovascular effects, MAOIs and antipsychotics should be used together cautiously; some experts recommend initiating low doses of the antipsychotic and careful dosage titration.
    Selexipag: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Semaglutide: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    SGLT2 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Sibutramine: (Major) Caution and close monitoring should be observed when administering sibutramine with drugs that are dopamine antagonists such as the atypical antipsychotics. Monitor for CNS depression, changes in mood or behavior, and for other drug-related adverse reactions. Sibutramine has not been systematically evaluated in combination with antipsychotic medications. Sibutramine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor that also inhibits norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
    Sildenafil: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Simeprevir, a mild intestinal CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the side effects of lurasidone, which is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor patients for adverse effects of lurasidone, such as dizziness, drowsiness, othorstatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures.
    Simvastatin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid in patients taking concomitant medications that are known to induce Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), such as antipsychotics, as these drugs may increase the risk of water retention and/or electrolyte imbalance.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as St. John's Wort, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Suvorexant: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Tadalafil: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Tasimelteon: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with atypical antipsychotics, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Telithromycin: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as telithromycin, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Telotristat Ethyl: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of telotristat ethyl and lurasidone is necessary, as the systemic exposure of lurasidone may be decreased resulting in reduced efficacy. If these drugs are used together, monitor patients for suboptimal efficacy of lurasidone; consider increasing the dose of lurasidone if necessary after 7 days or more with concomitant use. Lurasidone is a CYP3A4 substrate in vitro. The mean Cmax and AUC of another sensitive CYP3A4 substrate was decreased by 25% and 48%, respectively, when coadministered with telotristat ethyl; the mechanism of this interaction appears to be that telotristat ethyl increases the glucuronidation of the CYP3A4 substrate.
    Temazepam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Terazosin: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Tetrabenazine: (Major) Tetrabenazine is a selective, reversible, centrally-acting dopamine depleting drug and lurasidone is a central dopamine antagonist. The risk of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or extrapyramidal symptoms may be increased.
    Thalidomide: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of thalidomide with antipsychotics due to the potential for additive sedative effects.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Thiazolidinediones: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Thiopental: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as barbiturates, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Decreased blood concentrations of lurasidone are expected when the drug is co-administered with strong inducers of CYP3A4.
    Thioridazine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Thiothixene: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Tipranavir: (Severe) Concurrent use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as tipranavir, is contraindicated. Lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Increased lurasidone plasma concentrations are expected when the drug is co-administered with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of tizanidine and CNS depressants can cause additive CNS depression. These agents include but are not limited to: antipsychotics.
    Tolcapone: (Moderate) Dopamine-receptor antagonists, including the atypical antipsychotics, may reduce the effects of the COMT inhibitors (e.g., entacapone, tolcapone). In general, the atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with antiparkinson treatments than traditional antipsychotic agents. Monitor for diminished effectiveness of the antiparkinson treatments, for movement disorders, and for unusual changes in moods or behavior.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, decreased plasma concentrations of lurasidone may theoretically occur when the drug is co-administered with inducers of CYP3A4 such as topiramate.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Tramadol: (Moderate) Concurrent use of lurasidone and tramadol or combination products containing tramadol (e.g., acetaminophen; tramadol) should be avoided if possible. Antipsychotics may enhance the seizure risk of tramadol. Additive CNS depression may also be seen with the concomitant use of tramadol and lurasidone.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Major) Verapamil is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. In addition, due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If coadministration is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known. (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Due to the potential for additive CNS and cardiovascular effects, MAOIs and antipsychotics should be used together cautiously; some experts recommend initiating low doses of the antipsychotic and careful dosage titration.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Triazolam: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. In one study, co-administration of lurasidone and midazolam increased the Cmax and AUC of midazolam by about 21% and 44%, respectively, compared to midazolam alone; however, dosage adjustment of midazolam based upon pharmacokinetic parameters is not required during concurrent use of lurasidone.
    Trifluoperazine: (Major) Similar to other antipsychotics, lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Trihexyphenidyl: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Triprolidine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications. Sedating H1-blockers are associated with sedation; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use with other drugs having CNS depressant properties such as antipsychotics. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may occur.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Vemurafenib is an inducer of CYP3A4 and decreased plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme, such as lurasidone, could be expected with concurrent use. Use caution, and monitor therapeutic effects of lurasidone when coadministered with vemurafenib.
    Verapamil: (Major) Verapamil is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has the potential for interactions with substrates of CYP3A4 such as lurasidone. Concurrent use of these medications may lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions. If a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 is being prescribed and lurasidone is added in an adult patient, the recommended starting dose of lurasidone is 20 mg/day and the maximum recommended daily dose of lurasidone is 80 mg/day. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to an existing lurasidone regimen, reduce the lurasidone dose to one-half of the original dose. Patients should be monitored for efficacy and toxicity. In addition, due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. If coadministration is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Voriconazole: (Severe) Coadministration of lurasidone with voriconazole is contraindicated due to increased plasma concentrations of lurasidone. Lurasidone is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate and voriconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased lurasidone exposure by 9-fold.
    Zafirlukast: (Major) Zafirlukast is a minor inhibitor of CYP3A4. Because lurasidone is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, concurrent use of zafirlukast can theoretically lead to an increased risk of lurasidone-related adverse reactions.
    Zaleplon: (Moderate) Additive CNS-depressant effects may occur with the atypical antipsychotics and zaleplon. In addition, sleep-related behaviors, such as sleep-driving, are more likely to occur during concurrent use of CNS depressants than with zaleplon alone. In premarketing studies, zaleplon potentiated the CNS effects of a phenothiazine antipsychotic for at least 2 to 4 hours. Other antipsychotics may also have additive CNS effects with zaleplon.
    Ziprasidone: (Major) Lurasidone administration has been associated with drowsiness, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and seizures. The risk of these adverse effects may be increased during concurrent use of lurasidone with other antipsychotics. Although the incidence of tardive dyskinesia from combination antipsychotic therapy has not been established and data are very limited, the risk appears to be increased during use of a conventional and atypical antipsychotic versus use of a conventional antipsychotic alone.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) Additive CNS-depressant effects may occur with the atypical antipsychotics and zolpidem. In addition, sleep-related behaviors, such as sleep-driving, are more likely to occur during concurrent use of zolpidem and other CNS depressants than with zolpidem alone.
    Zonisamide: (Moderate) Zonisamide may cause decreased sweating (oligohidrosis), elevated body temperature (hyperthermia), heat intolerance, or heat stroke. The manufacturer recommends caution in using concurrent drug therapies that may predispose patients to heat-related disorders such as antipsychotics. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if zonisamide is used with any of these agents.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    According to the manufacturer, lurasidone should be used during breast-feeding only if the benefits clearly outweigh the potential risks. It is not known whether lurasidone or its metabolites are excreted in human milk; however, the drug is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. In addition, antipsychotics may cause hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea to varying degrees, and thus may interfere with proper lactation. Due to individual variability in response to antipsychotics, it may be prudent to continue the existing regimen if ongoing treatment is deemed necessary during breast-feeding. However, because there is a lack of experience with lurasidone during breast-feeding, other agents may be preferred especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Alternate medications for consideration include atypical agents such as olanzapine or quetiapine. Data related to the safety of antipsychotics during breast-feeding are limited and chronic administration of any antipsychotic during breast-feeding should be avoided if possible. Regardless of the antipsychotic used, the nursing infant should be closely monitored for excessive drowsiness, lethargy, and developmental delays. Combination treatment with antipsychotics may increase the risk of these adverse events. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    The exact mechanism of lurasidone has not been determined. However, it is thought that atypical antipsychotics reduce the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia through modulation of central dopaminergic and serotonergic activity. In vitro data indicate that lurasidone is an antagonist with a high affinity at dopamine-D2 receptors and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and is a partial agonist at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors.
     
    Dopamine and serotonin mediate various effects in different portions of the brain. According to one hypothesis, a dopamine excess in the mesolimbic tract is thought to be responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In the mesocortical tract, a reduction in dopamine activity may be responsible for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine activity in the nigrostriatal tract may be related to decreased metabolic activity in the basal ganglia. Central serotonin hyperactivity may be associated with dopamine hypoactivity in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical tracts. Antipsychotics with a high affinity for serotonin receptors are thought to be more effective for treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia than those with dopaminergic modulation as a primary mechanism.
     
    The tuberoinfundibular tract controls neuroendocrine and hypothalamic function (e.g., prolactin release). Antipsychotic-mediated dopamine receptor blockade in the tuberoinfundibular tract increases prolactin release, which can lead to adverse effects such as amenorrhea, gynecomastia, galactorrhea, decreased libido, and impotence.
     
    Lurasidone is an antagonist with moderate affinity for alpha-2C receptors; the drug is also an antagonist at alpha-2A adrenergic receptors. Lurasidone exhibits little or no affinity for histamine-1 or muscarinic receptors.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Lurasidone is administered orally. Its' activity is primarily due to the parent compound. Pharmacokinetic parameters are dose-proportional within a daily dose range of 20 to 160 mg. The drug is highly protein bound (approximately 99%). After single dose administration, about 80% of the dose was excreted in feces and 9% recovered in urine. The mean elimination half-life is 18 hours.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4
    Lurasidone is primarily metabolized through hepatic CYP3A4. The main metabolic pathways are oxidative N-dealkylation, hydroxylation, and S-oxidation. It is not a substrate for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP4A11, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP2E1. Due to the lack of activity at CYP1A2, lurasidone concentrations are not expected to be altered by smoking status. There are two active metabolites (ID-14283 and ID-14326) and two major inactive metabolites (ID-20219 and ID-20220). Lurasidone is contraindicated for use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or strong CYP3A4 inducers.

    Oral Route

    After oral administration, approximately 9% to 19% of a lurasidone dose is absorbed. Peak serum concentrations are reached in approximately 1 to 3 hours. Steady-state concentrations are reached within 7 days. The mean Cmax and AUC are about 3-times and 2-times higher, respectively, during administration with food compared to fasting conditions. Based upon clinical trial data, lurasidone should be taken with meals of at least 350 calories.