PDR MEMBER LOGIN:
  • PDR Search

    Required field
  • Advertisement
  • CLASSES

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants, SSRIs

    BOXED WARNING

    Children, growth inhibition, suicidal ideation

    Safety and efficacy of escitalopram have not been established in pediatric populations for any indication except for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents 12 years of age and older. In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants (n = 4,500 pediatrics and 77,000 adults), there was an increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in patients 24 years of age and younger receiving an antidepressant versus placebo, with considerable variation in the risk of suicidality among drugs. The difference in absolute risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across different indications was highest in those with major depression. No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. Nevertheless, the need for an antidepressant in children, adolescents, or young adults for any use must be weighed against the risk of suicidality; it is unknown if this risk extends to long-term use. All patients should be monitored for symptom worsening or suicidality, especially at treatment initiation or after dose changes. Caregivers and/or patients should immediately notify the prescriber of changes in behavior or suicidal ideation. A change to the treatment regimen or discontinuation of escitalopram may be necessary in patients with emerging suicidality or worsening depression. The potential for growth inhibition in pediatric patients should be monitored during SSRI therapy. Monitor height and weight periodically while the patient is receiving escitalopram. Data are inadequate to determine whether the chronic use of SSRIs causes long-term growth inhibition; however, decreased weight gain has been observed in children and adolescents receiving SSRIs. The mechanism of growth inhibition in children may be due to the suppression of growth hormone secretion, which is known to occur in adults taking SSRIs.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant; an enantiomer of citalopram
    Indicated in adults for major depression and generalized anxiety disorder and pediatric patients 12 and older for depression
    Increased risk of suicidality during treatment initiation in pediatric and young adult patients

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Lexapro

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Escitalopram/Lexapro Oral Sol: 5mg, 5mL
    Escitalopram/Lexapro Oral Tab: 5mg, 10mg, 20mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of major depression.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    The initial and recommended dose is 10 mg PO once daily. If clinically indicated, the drug may be increased to 20 mg once daily after a minimum of 1 week. However, one fixed-dose trial failed to demonstrate a greater benefit of the 20 mg dose over the 10 mg dose. Max: 20 mg/day PO. Periodically reassess the need for continued treatment.

    Geriatric Adults

    10 mg PO once daily is the initial and recommended dose. Periodically reassess the need for continued treatment.

    Children and Adolescents 12 to 17 years

    The initial and recommended dose is 10 mg PO once daily. If clinically indicated, may increase to 20 mg once daily after a minimum of 3 weeks; however, one fixed-dose trial in adults failed to demonstrate a greater benefit of the 20 mg dose over the 10 mg dose. Max: 20 mg/day PO. Periodically reassess the need for continued treatment.

    For the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    The initial and recommended dose is 10 mg PO once daily. If clinically indicated, may increase to 20 mg/day after a minimum of 1 week. Periodically reassess the need for continued therapy.

    Geriatric Adults

    The initial and recommended dose is 10 mg/day PO. Periodically reassess the need for continued therapy.

    For the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder†.
    Oral dosage
    Children and Adolescents 6 years and older

    Initiate at 5 mg/day PO for at least 1 week, then gradually titrate. Max: 20 mg/day PO. Periodically reassess the need for continued treatment. Data are limited. Results from 1 open-label, forced titration study (n = 28) suggest that escitalopram may be effective in treating some behavioral symptoms associated with autism such as irritability. The mean final dose was 11.1 mg/day PO. The response rate was 61%, with response defined as a 50% or greater reduction in the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC)-Community Version Irritability score. Of the 5 patients who did not complete the 10-week study, 2 were responders but had significant continuing hyperactivity, 1 was a non-responder and had continuing obsessions and compulsions, and 2 had symptoms of disinhibition and aggression.

    For the treatment of panic disorder†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    In one controlled trial of adult patients (up to 80 years of age) receiving escitalopram, citalopram, or placebo, escitalopram was initiated at 5 mg/day PO. At the end of the first week, the dose was increased to 10 mg/day. At the end of week 4, the dose could be increased to 20 mg/day based on response and tolerability. The proportion of patients with no panic attacks at study end was significantly higher in patients receiving escitalopram than placebo (50% vs. 38%). The relative panic attack frequency was statistically significant for escitalopram compared to placebo (-1.61 vs. -0.32). There were no statistical differences in either measurement between citalopram and placebo. Adverse events were similar to placebo for escitalopram; improvement in the escitalopram group began at week 4. According to the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) evidence-based guidelines, all SSRIs are efficacious for the acute treatment of panic disorder. The relative effectiveness and tolerability of differing medications during long-term treatment is uncertain; however, double-blind studies indicate that continuing treatment from 12 to 52 weeks is associated with an increase in overall treatment response rates. 

    For the treatment of social phobia (social anxiety disorder)†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Doses of escitalopram ranging from 5 to 20 mg once daily PO were more effective than placebo during 12- and 24-weeks of treatment for social anxiety disorder (n = 839 patients). In the same study, 20 mg/day of escitalopram was significantly superior to 20 mg/day of paroxetine at week 24. According to the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) evidence-based guidelines, escitalopram is among the antidepressants with proven efficacy. Relapse prevention studies have shown that there is a significant advantage for staying on active medication for up to 6 months in patients responding to acute treatment. A post-hoc analysis of clinical trials indicates that response is unlikely if there is no onset of clinical effect within the first 4 weeks of treatment.

    Children and Adolescents 10 year and older

    Per available studies, doses of 5 mg/day PO initially, titrated up to 10 to 20 mg/day per efficacy and tolerance, appear efficacious. In a small open-label study (n = 20), escitalopram was initiated at 5 mg/day PO, increased to 10 mg/day after the first week, and subsequently titrated in 5 mg increments up to a maximum of 20 mg/day based upon efficacy and tolerability.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    20 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    10 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    20 mg/day PO.

    Children

    12 years: 20 mg/day PO.
    6 to 11 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established; however, doses up to 20 mg/day PO have been used for anxiety and pervasive developmental disorders.
    1 to 5 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    10 mg PO once daily is the recommended dose for patients with hepatic impairment.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl 20 mL/minute or more: No dosage adjustment is necessary.
    CrCl less than 20 mL/minute: Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments are not available; use with caution.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    May administer escitalopram with or without food. If nausea occurs, administer after a meal.

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Tablets: The 10 mg and 20 mg tablets are scored and may be cut in half if needed.

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Oral solution: Measure dosage with a calibrated measuring device to ensure dose accuracy.

    STORAGE

    Lexapro:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    - Store in original container

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Citalopram hypersensitivity, escitalopram hypersensitivity

    Escitalopram is contraindicated for use in patients with citalopram hypersensitivity, escitalopram hypersensitivity, or hypersensitivity to any of the formulation components. Escitalopram is the active isomer of racemic citalopram; therefore, the two drugs should not be taken together as this would constitute duplicative therapy.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Avoid abrupt discontinuation of escitalopram if possible. Gradual tapering is recommended during discontinuation of any SSRI to decrease or prevent the occurrence of potential discontinuation symptoms. The most frequent SSRI discontinuation symptoms include dizziness, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, flu-like symptoms, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias, electric shock sensation), sleep disturbances, irritability, anxiety, and/or agitation. Discontinuation symptoms are more likely to occur after withdrawal of SSRIs with a short half-life.

    Bipolar disorder, mania

    The use of antidepressants has been associated with the precipitation of mania or hypomania in susceptible individuals. If a patient develops manic symptoms, escitalopram should be withheld, and appropriate therapy initiated to treat the manic symptoms. Depression may also be the presenting symptom of a mixed/manic episode of bipolar disorder. Patients should be adequately screened for bipolar disorder prior to initiating an antidepressant. Such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. Patients with depression or comorbid depression in the setting of other psychiatric illness being treated with antidepressants should be observed for clinical worsening and suicidality, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes. Caregivers should be advised to closely observe the patient on a daily basis and to communicate immediately with the prescriber the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, or emergence of suicidality.

    Children, growth inhibition, suicidal ideation

    Safety and efficacy of escitalopram have not been established in pediatric populations for any indication except for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents 12 years of age and older. In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants (n = 4,500 pediatrics and 77,000 adults), there was an increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in patients 24 years of age and younger receiving an antidepressant versus placebo, with considerable variation in the risk of suicidality among drugs. The difference in absolute risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across different indications was highest in those with major depression. No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. Nevertheless, the need for an antidepressant in children, adolescents, or young adults for any use must be weighed against the risk of suicidality; it is unknown if this risk extends to long-term use. All patients should be monitored for symptom worsening or suicidality, especially at treatment initiation or after dose changes. Caregivers and/or patients should immediately notify the prescriber of changes in behavior or suicidal ideation. A change to the treatment regimen or discontinuation of escitalopram may be necessary in patients with emerging suicidality or worsening depression. The potential for growth inhibition in pediatric patients should be monitored during SSRI therapy. Monitor height and weight periodically while the patient is receiving escitalopram. Data are inadequate to determine whether the chronic use of SSRIs causes long-term growth inhibition; however, decreased weight gain has been observed in children and adolescents receiving SSRIs. The mechanism of growth inhibition in children may be due to the suppression of growth hormone secretion, which is known to occur in adults taking SSRIs.

    MAOI therapy

    Escitalopram is contraindicated for concomitant use in patients receiving MAOI therapy due to the risk for serotonin syndrome. Escitalopram should not be used in combination with an MAOI or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders. Allow at least 14 days after stopping escitalopram before starting an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders. In addition, do not start escitalopram in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with SSRIs and SNRIs, including escitalopram, both when taken alone, but especially when coadministered with other serotonergic agents (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John's Wort). If such symptoms occur, discontinue escitalopram and initiate supportive treatment. If concomitant use of escitalopram with other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), seizure disorder, seizures

    Escitalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizure disorder. These patients were excluded from clinical studies during the premarketing testing. Seizures have been reported rarely in patients taking SSRIs. In clinical trials of escitalopram, cases of convulsion have been reported in association with escitalopram treatment. Escitalopram's effects during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have not been evaluated in clinical studies to date.

    Dehydration, hyponatremia, hypovolemia

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including escitalopram, may cause hyponatremia. This is frequently the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), and is reversible when the causative agent is discontinued. In some cases, serum sodium levels less than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Older patients, those receiving diuretics or prone to dehydration, and those who are otherwise volume depleted (e.g., hypovolemia) appear to be at greatest risk. Hyponatremia may manifest as headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness which may result in falls. Severe manifestations include hallucinations, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. Symptomatic hyponatremia may require discontinuation of escitalopram, as well as implementation of the appropriate medical interventions.

    Apheresis, AV block, bradycardia, cardiomyopathy, celiac disease, females, fever, heart failure, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hyperparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, long QT syndrome, myocardial infarction, pheochromocytoma, QT prolongation, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease, sleep deprivation, stroke, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    In rare instances, QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported with therapeutic use and following overdose of escitalopram; obtain an electrocardiogram in cases of overdose. Use is not recommended in patients with congenital long QT syndrome because it is considered a drug with a known risk of TdP. Use escitalopram with caution in patients with conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including bradycardia, AV block, heart failure, stress-related cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Correct electrolyte imbalances prior to treatment initiation. Females, people 65 years and older, patients with sleep deprivation, pheochromocytoma, sickle cell disease, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypothermia, systemic inflammation (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, fever, and some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and celiac disease) and patients undergoing apheresis procedures (e.g., plasmapheresis [plasma exchange], cytapheresis) may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation. Patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable cardiac disease were generally excluded from clinical studies during premarketing testing.

    Hepatic disease

    Escitalopram should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease because the drug is extensively metabolized in the liver, resulting in decreased clearance and increased plasma concentrations in patients with hepatic dysfunction. A lower maximum escitalopram dosage is recommended for patients with hepatic dysfunction.

    Renal failure, renal impairment

    Excretion of unchanged escitalopram in the urine is a minor route of elimination. Ten percent of escitalopram is excreted unchanged in the urine. Escitalopram should be used with caution in patients with severe renal impairment (i.e., CrCl less than 20 mL/minute) until pharmacokinetic data are available for this population. There is no information on the use of escitalopram in patients with chronic renal failure who receive hemodialysis.

    Anticoagulant therapy, bleeding, thrombolytic therapy

    Monitor patients taking an SSRI for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage). Concurrent use of aspirin, NSAIDs, anticoagulant therapy, thrombolytic therapy, or other medications that enhance bleeding potential may increase this risk. Patients taking escitalopram should be instructed to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.

    Bone fractures, osteoporosis

    Use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including escitalopram, cautiously in patients with osteoporosis. Epidemiological studies on bone fracture risk following exposure to SSRIs have reported an association between SSRI treatment and bone fractures. It is unknown to what extent fracture risk is directly attributable to SSRI treatment. If an escitalopram-treated patient presents with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising, consider the possibility of a fragility fracture. Patients at risk for osteoporosis, such as postmenopausal females, may benefit from more frequent monitoring of bone density during long-term use of an SSRI.

    Closed-angle glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure

    Caution is recommended when prescribing escitalopram to patients with closed-angle glaucoma. The pupillary dilation that can occur with antidepressants may precipitate a closed-angle glaucoma attack in patients with anatomically narrow angles who do not have a patent iridectomy. An acute attack of closed-angle glaucoma is considered a medical emergency because the increased intraocular pressure is rapid and severe, and may quickly result in blindness if left untreated.

    Anorexia nervosa

    Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed during administration of SSRIs. Therefore, caution is advisable when administering escitalopram to patients with anorexia nervosa or other conditions where weight loss is undesirable.

    Driving or operating machinery, ethanol ingestion

    Because any psychoactive drug may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should use caution when driving or operating machinery, until the full effect of escitalopram is determined. Although escitalopram has not been shown to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol, patients should be advised to avoid ethanol ingestion while taking escitalopram. Additionally, other coadministered centrally-acting drugs may augment cognitive impairment.

    Sexual dysfunction

    Sexual dysfunction can occur in individuals taking escitalopram. For males, these effects may present as ejaculatory failure or delay, decreased libido, and/or erectile dysfunction. Females may experience decreased libido and delayed or absent orgasm. Prescribers should discuss sexual function prior to initiating treatment with escitalopram and throughout treatment and obtain a detailed history and timeline of any changes in sexual function to determine whether the changes are medication-related or may be attributed to the underlying psychiatric disorder. Clinicians should also discuss management strategies and treatment options with patients.

    Neonates, pregnancy

    Available data from published epidemiologic studies and postmarketing reports have not established an increased risk of major birth defects or miscarriage from the use of escitalopram during pregnancy. There are risks to the mother associated with untreated depression (e.g., relapse) and a potential risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Some neonates exposed to SSRIs late in the third trimester have experienced poor neonatal adaptation resulting in complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding upon delivery. Symptoms have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with direct SSRI toxicity, serotonin syndrome, or a drug discontinuation syndrome. Some evidence suggests an association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and a subsequent diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. In 2 separate population-based case-control studies, an approximate 2-fold increased risk of autism spectrum disorder was observed. The effect of SSRIs on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors outcomes in pregnant patients exposed to escitalopram; information about the registry can be obtained at womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/antidepressants or by calling 1-844-405-6185.

    Breast-feeding

    Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of escitalopram exposure to the infant, and the risk to the mother of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. Escitalopram is excreted into human breast milk, and there are reports of excessive sedation, restlessness, agitation, poor feeding, and poor weight gain in infants exposed to escitalopram through breast milk. One study assessing escitalopram breastmilk concentrations from 8 women taking escitalopram 10 to 20 mg daily estimated that exclusively breastfed infants would receive 3.9% and 1.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose of escitalopram and its active metabolite desmethylescitalopram, respectively. Assessments of the infants in this study revealed normal development after a median of 55 days of escitalopram exposure (range: 23 to 240 days). If escitalopram is continued during breast-feeding, avoidance of feedings during the times of maximum maternal serum concentrations (i.e., within 4 hours of the daily dose) has been suggested. Alternatively, the mother may pump breast milk during times of lowest maternal serum concentrations and use this breast milk for feedings during the times of maximum maternal escitalopram concentrations or substitute these feedings with formula. Infants exposed to escitalopram through breastmilk should be monitored for excess sedation, restlessness, agitation, poor feeding, and poor weight gain. Alternative medications may also be considered. A pooled analysis found that maternal use of sertraline, nortriptyline, and paroxetine usually produced undetectable or low drug concentrations in infant serum and, therefore, may be the preferred antidepressants in breast-feeding mothers.

    Geriatric

    In clinical trials with escitalopram, 31% of patients were age 60 or older, 23% were 65 or older, and 10% were 75 or older. Geriatric patients may experience greater sensitivity to escitalopram and a lower dosage has been recommended for the geriatric adult. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may cause hyponatremia and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); elderly patients appear to be at greater risk. Geriatric patients may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation. Despite these cautions, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often a preferred antidepressant group for treatment of depression or other behavioral symptoms in the elderly, including patients with dementia. According to the Beers Criteria, SSRIs are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients with a history of falls or fractures and should be avoided, unless safer alternatives are not available. SSRIs can produce ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and additional falls. If an SSRI must be used, consider reducing the use of other CNS-active medications that increase the risk of falls and fractures and implement other strategies to reduce fall risk. Also, SSRIs can cause or exacerbate hyponatremia and SIADH, and the elderly are at increased risk of developing these conditions. Sodium levels should be closely monitored when starting or changing dosages in older adults.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates the use of antidepressants in residents of long-term care facilities; treatment duration should follow recommendations of pertinent literature and clinical practice guidelines for the condition treated. Monitor treated patients closely for worsening of depression and suicidal behavior or thinking, especially during initiation of therapy and during dose changes. Antidepressants may cause a variety of adverse effects; some side effects can increase the risk of falls. Before discontinuation, many antidepressants, such as the SSRIs, may need a taper to avoid a withdrawal syndrome. At least quarterly, the facility should review the continued need of the antidepressant and document the rationale for continuation. When the drug is being used to manage behavior, stabilize mood, or treat a psychiatric disorder, the facility should attempt to taper the medication as outlined in the OBRA guidelines, unless a taper is clinically contraindicated.[60742]

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tardive dyskinesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    suicidal ideation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    SIADH / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    aplastic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bradycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypertensive crisis / Early / Incidence not known
    torsade de pointes / Rapid / Incidence not known
    thrombosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    atrial fibrillation / Early / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ventricular tachycardia / Early / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    erythema multiforme / Delayed / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pulmonary embolism / Delayed / Incidence not known
    visual impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    ocular hypertension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    spontaneous fetal abortion / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bone fractures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neonatal abstinence syndrome / Early / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    ejaculation dysfunction / Delayed / 12.0-12.0
    constipation / Delayed / 3.0-5.0
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    akathisia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    choreoathetosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pseudoparkinsonism / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysarthria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ataxia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    migraine / Early / Incidence not known
    myoclonia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dystonic reaction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nystagmus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    amnesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    delirium / Early / Incidence not known
    hostility / Early / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hallucinations / Early / Incidence not known
    psychosis / Early / Incidence not known
    mania / Early / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    platelet dysfunction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypoprothrombinemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bleeding / Early / Incidence not known
    leukopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hematoma / Early / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral vasodilation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / Incidence not known
    phlebitis / Rapid / Incidence not known
    QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperbilirubinemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperprolactinemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    priapism / Early / Incidence not known
    urinary retention / Early / Incidence not known
    dysuria / Early / Incidence not known
    myasthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetes mellitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypoglycemia / Early / Incidence not known
    hypokalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    withdrawal / Early / Incidence not known
    growth inhibition / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    headache / Early / 24.0-24.0
    nausea / Early / 15.0-18.0
    drowsiness / Early / 6.0-13.0
    insomnia / Early / 9.0-12.0
    xerostomia / Early / 6.0-9.0
    diarrhea / Early / 8.0-8.0
    fatigue / Early / 5.0-8.0
    libido decrease / Delayed / 3.0-6.0
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 4.0-5.0
    dizziness / Early / 5.0-5.0
    rhinitis / Early / 5.0-5.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 3.0-3.0
    vomiting / Early / 3.0-3.0
    lethargy / Early / 3.0-3.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 3.0-3.0
    orgasm dysfunction / Delayed / 3.0-3.0
    dental pain / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 2.0-2.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    yawning / Early / 2.0-2.0
    menstrual irregularity / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    flatulence / Early / Incidence not known
    weight loss / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pyrosis (heartburn) / Early / Incidence not known
    gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypoesthesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nightmares / Early / Incidence not known
    tremor / Early / Incidence not known
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    restless legs syndrome (RLS) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    paranoia / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    irritability / Delayed / Incidence not known
    emotional lability / Early / Incidence not known
    restlessness / Early / Incidence not known
    agitation / Early / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known
    epistaxis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ecchymosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    rash / Early / Incidence not known
    photosensitivity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    alopecia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cough / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nasal congestion / Early / Incidence not known
    diplopia / Early / Incidence not known
    mydriasis / Early / Incidence not known
    tinnitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysmenorrhea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    menorrhagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    increased urinary frequency / Early / Incidence not known
    muscle cramps / Delayed / Incidence not known
    arthralgia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    back pain / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving abciximab. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with escitalopram may decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase diydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to diydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in > 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with aspirin the risk was increased by > 5-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with aspirin and a SSRI was low (20/2640 patients) in this cohort study and the clinician may determine that the combined use of these drugs is appropriate.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in > 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with aspirin the risk was increased by > 5-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with aspirin and a SSRI was low (20/2640 patients) in this cohort study and the clinician may determine that the combined use of these drugs is appropriate.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome reactions, caution should be observed when administering selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as pentazocine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agent(s) and institute appropriate therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including propoxyphene.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) If concomitant use of alfentanil and escitalopram is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Alfuzosin: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with alfuzosin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Alfuzosin may also prolong the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Almotriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering almotriptan with escitalopram. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue escitalopram and almotriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Alteplase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding when a thrombolytic agent is administered with an SSRI.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Amiodarone: (Major) Concomitant use of amiodarone and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. Due to the extremely long half-life of amiodarone, a drug interaction is possible for days to weeks after drug discontinuation.
    Amisulpride: (Major) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation when amisulpride is administered with escitalopram. Amisulpride causes dose- and concentration- dependent QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; consider a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the TCAs; elevated TCA concentrations may occur in some patients. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as clarithromycin, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Theoretically, clarithromycin may inhibit this enzyme and lead to elevated plasma levels of this SSRI. However, because escitalopram is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, inhibition of one pathway may not appreciably decrease its clearance. (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Amphetamines: (Moderate) Coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like escitalopram with amphetamines may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release and act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. If serotonin syndrome occurs, serotonergic drugs should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be initiated.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as anagrelide, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors (e.g., cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SSRI concurrently with an antiplatelet medication and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like antithrombin III. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Apixaban: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like apixaban. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with apomorphine since concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Dose-related QTc prolongation is associated with therapeutic apomorphine exposure.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if escitalopram and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in escitalopram-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Escitalopram is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of escitalopram. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Ardeparin: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like low molecular weight heparins. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for aripiprazole-related adverse reactions and QT prolongation if aripiprazole is administered with escitalopram. Increased aripiprazole plasma concentrations may occur during concurrent use of inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as escitalopram. In patients receiving a combination of a CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitor should have their oral aripiprazole dose reduced to one-quarter (25%) of the usual dose with subsequent adjustments based upon clinical response. Adults receiving a combination of a CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitor for more than 14 days should have their Abilify Maintena dose reduced from 400 mg/month to 200 mg/month or from 300 mg/month to 160 mg/month, respectively. There are no dosing recommendations for Aristada or Aristada Initio during use of a mild to moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Aripiprazole dosage adjustments are not required when aripiprazole is added as adjunctive treatment to antidepressants for major depressive disorder provided that the manufacturer's dosing guidelines for this indication are followed. Escitalopram is a CYP2D6 inhibitor that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Aripiprazole is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate; QT prolongation has occurred during therapeutic use of aripiprazole and following overdose.
    Armodafinil: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with armodafinil, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as arsenic trioxide, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as artemether; lumefantrine, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, Aatemether; lumefantrine is an inhibitor and escitalopram is a substrate/inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme; therefore, coadministration may lead to increased escitalopram concentrations. (Moderate) Lumefantrine is an inhibitor and escitalopram is a substrate/inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme; therefore, coadministration may lead to increased escitalopram concentrations. Concomitant use warrants caution due to the potential for increased side effects.
    Asenapine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as asenapine, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is a modest inhibitor of CYP2D6 and may decrease the clearance of atypical antipsychotics that are CYP2D6 substrates including asenapine. Decreased metabolism of these CYP2D6 substrates may lead to clinically important adverse reactions that are associated with antipsychotic use, such as extrapyramidal symptoms.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with escitalopram may decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase diydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to diydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SSRIs due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and aspirin, ASA may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Close monitoring for antidepressant response and careful dose titrations of the antidepressant therapy is recommended during coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cobicistat. Concurrent use may result in elevated SSRI plasma concentrations. Predictions regarding this interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. All SSRIs are substrates for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, while citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are also substrates for CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of atomoxetine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with escitalopram can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Azithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of azithromycin and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Barbiturates: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Bedaquiline: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as bedaquiline, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates. (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including opium.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of benzhydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue benzhydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin.
    Betrixaban: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like betrixaban. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) When used in combination with boceprevir, the plasma concentrations of escitalopram are decreased. Escitalopram has a wide therapeutic index; however, dose adjustments may be needed. If dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Close clinical monitoring is advised.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Minor) Escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including timolol.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation, cautious use and close monitoring are advisable if concurrent use of escitalopram and buprenorphine is necessary. Escitalopram may cause QT interval prolongation and a risk for torsade de pointes (TdP); buprenorphine caused QT prolongation in some patients during clinical trials. In addition, concurrent use of opioids with other drugs that modulate serotonergic function, such as SSRIs, has resulted in serotonin syndrome in some cases. Patients should be carefully observed, particularly during treatment initiation and during dose adjustments. Discontinue the serotonergic medications if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation, cautious use and close monitoring are advisable if concurrent use of escitalopram and buprenorphine is necessary. Escitalopram may cause QT interval prolongation and a risk for torsade de pointes (TdP); buprenorphine caused QT prolongation in some patients during clinical trials. In addition, concurrent use of opioids with other drugs that modulate serotonergic function, such as SSRIs, has resulted in serotonin syndrome in some cases. Patients should be carefully observed, particularly during treatment initiation and during dose adjustments. Discontinue the serotonergic medications if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Coadministration of buspirone with escitalopram may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Buspirone has some serotonergic properties. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic drugs should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be initiated.
    Butabarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Cabotegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Cangrelor: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymosis, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors (e.g., cangrelor). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SSRI concurrently with an antiplatelet medication and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and metaxalone may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Monitor patients for serotonin syndrome if concomitant use is necessary.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Monitor for altered clinical effect of escitalopram when carbamazepine is coadministered. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of escitalopram and carbamazepine is a potent CYP3A4 inducer. Coadministration of citalopram (40 mg/day for 14 days) and carbamazepine (titrated to 400 mg/day for 35 days) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. Although trough citalopram plasma levels were unaffected, carbamazepine may increase the clearance of escitalopram. Additive CNS effects, such as sedation, may also be possible.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Escitalopram is a modest inhibitor of CYP2D6. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including beta-blockers such as carvedilol. In one study, concurrent use of escitalopram and the beta-blocker metoprolol resulted in a 50% increase in Cmax and 82% increase in AUC of metoprolol. It may be advisable to carefully monitor blood pressure and heart rate during coadministration of escitalopram and carvedilol, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of tramadol, signs of opioid withdrawal, seizures, or serotonin syndrome if coadministration with escitalopram is necessary. If escitalopram is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of tramadol and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Tramadol is a CYP2D6 substrate and escitalopram is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use of tramadol with CYP2D6 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of tramadol and decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite M1. Since M1 is a more potent mu-opioid agonist, decreased M1 exposure could result in decreased therapeutic effects, and may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in patients who have developed physical dependence to tramadol. Increased tramadol exposure can result in increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and increased risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Ceritinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ceritinib with escitalopram if possible due to the risk of QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, periodically monitor ECGs and electrolytes; an interruption of ceritinib therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Ceritinib causes concentration-dependent QT prolongation. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with chloramphenicol, a CYP2C19 and potent CYP3A4 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; consider a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the TCAs; elevated TCA concentrations may occur in some patients. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Chloroquine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of chloroquine with escitalopram due to the increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Chloroquine is associated with an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP); the risk of QT prolongation is increased with higher chloroquine doses. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with escitalopram may decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase diydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to diydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with escitalopram may decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase diydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to diydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as chlorpromazine, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram modestly inhibits CYP2D6. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including certain conventional antipsychotic agents (phenothiazines). Decreased metabolism of these CYP2D6 substrates may lead to arrhythmias or other clinically important adverse reactions associated with antipsychotic use such as sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in > 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with aspirin the risk was increased by > 5-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with aspirin and a SSRI was low (20/2640 patients) in this cohort study and the clinician may determine that the combined use of these drugs is appropriate.
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including escitalopram, due to platelet serotonin depletion. There may be an increased risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving platelet inhibitors, such as cilostazol. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with cimetidine, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ciprofloxacin and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Cisapride: (Contraindicated) Because of the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), use of cisapride with escitalopram is contraindicated.
    Citalopram: (Contraindicated) Due to the similarity in pharmacology of citalopram and escitalopram and the potential for serious adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should not be administered together. Also, both citalopram and escitalopram have been associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SSRI to another SSRI.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as clarithromycin, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Theoretically, clarithromycin may inhibit this enzyme and lead to elevated plasma levels of this SSRI. However, because escitalopram is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, inhibition of one pathway may not appreciably decrease its clearance.
    Clofazimine: (Major) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation when clofazimine is administered with escitalopram. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported in patients receiving clofazimine in combination with QT prolonging medications. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Clomipramine: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Elevated concentrations of the tricyclic antidepressant may occur. Symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Carefully monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding during coadministration of escitalopram and clopidogrel. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect platelet activation; therefore, concomitant use may increase the risk of bleeding.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Consider a clozapine dose reduction if coadministered with escitalopram and monitor for adverse reactions, inlcuding QT prolongation. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor for lack of clozapine effect, and increase dose if necessary. A clinically relevant increase in the plasma concentration of clozapine and increased risk of QT prolongation may occur during concurrent use. Clozapine is partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and has been associated with QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), cardiac arrest, and sudden death. Escitalopram is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Close monitoring for antidepressant response and careful dose titrations of the antidepressant therapy is recommended during coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cobicistat. Concurrent use may result in elevated SSRI plasma concentrations. Predictions regarding this interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. All SSRIs are substrates for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, while citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are also substrates for CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
    Cocaine: (Major) Concomitant use of cocaine with drugs that have CNS serotonergic properties, such as SSRIs, could potentiate serotonin neurotransmission, and result in the serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions. Additionally, citalopram causes dose-dependent QT interval prolongation. Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine) are associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and according to the manufacturer of citalopram, concurrent use of citalopram with other drugs that prolong the QT interval is not recommended. If concurrent therapy is considered essential, ECG monitoring is recommended.
    Codeine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Concomitant use of promethazine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of codeine with escitalopram may decrease codeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Concomitant use of promethazine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Crizotinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of crizotinib with escitalopram due to the risk of QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes. An interruption of therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary for crizotinib if QT prolongation occurs. Crizotinib has been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, concurrent use of cyclobenzaprine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), should generally be avoided. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, milnacipran and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) Cyproheptadine is a serotonin antagonist in the CNS and can oppose the pharmacologic actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as escitalopram. Cyproheptadine has been used for the management of orgasm dysfunction caused by the SSRIs and for the adjunctive treatment of SSRI overdose (i.e., serotonin syndrome) in emergency situations; however, a reversal of antidepressant effects may occur when cyproheptadine is given in a routine manner along with the SSRIs due to the serotonin antagonistic effects of cyproheptadine.
    Dabigatran: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like dabigatran. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Dalteparin: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like low molecular weight heparins. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Danaparoid: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like danaparoid. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Darifenacin: (Moderate) Escitalopram, a modest CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of darifenacin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Clinicians should monitor patients for increased anticholinergic effects; dosage adjustments of darifenacin may be necessary.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Close monitoring for antidepressant response and careful dose titrations of the antidepressant therapy is recommended during coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cobicistat. Concurrent use may result in elevated SSRI plasma concentrations. Predictions regarding this interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. All SSRIs are substrates for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, while citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are also substrates for CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Close monitoring for antidepressant response and careful dose titrations of the antidepressant therapy is recommended during coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cobicistat. Concurrent use may result in elevated SSRI plasma concentrations. Predictions regarding this interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. All SSRIs are substrates for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, while citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are also substrates for CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
    Dasatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) if coadministration of dasatinib and escitalopram is necessary. In vitro studies have shown that dasatinib has the potential to prolong the QT interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Degarelix: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy outweigh the potential risks in patients receiving escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., degarelix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with delavirdine, a CYP2C19 and potent CYP3A4 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Desflurane: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as halogenated anesthetics, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Desipramine: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Coadministration of escitalopram and desipramine, resulted in a 40% increase in Cmax and a 100% increase in AUC of desipramine. The clinical significance of the elevation in desipramine concentration is unknown. However, symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Desmopressin: (Minor) Additive hyponatremic effects may be seen in patients treated with desmopressin and drugs associated with water intoxication, hyponatremia, or SIADH including SSRIs. Use combination with caution, and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, which may include monitoring serum sodium or electrolytes periodically. Ensure the patient is compliant with fluid restrictions and intake.
    Desvenlafaxine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like desvenlafaxine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Discontinuation symptoms have been reported when switching from other antidepressants to desvenlafaxine. It may be advisable to taper the previous antidepressant to minimize discontinuation symptoms.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with deutetrabenazine. The risk of QT prolongation may be increased with coadministration of deutetrabenazine and escitalopram. Deutetrabenazine may prolong the QT interval, but the degree of QT prolongation is not clinically significant when deutetrabenazine is administered within the recommended dosage range. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Dexamethasone: (Minor) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Dexamethasone can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking dexamethasone.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as quinidine, should be done with caution and close monitoring. (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Diazepam: (Moderate) The effect of escitalopram on benzodiazepine metabolism is not known. The combined administration of citalopram with triazolam has not been reported to significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of either drug. However, clinicians should use citalopram or escitalopram cautiously with alprazolam or diazepam since coadministration could potentially result in additive pharmacodynamic effects within the CNS.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of dihydrocodeine with escitalopram may decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase diydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to diydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Dihydroergotamine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Diltiazem: (Minor) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Diltiazem can inhibit the metabolism of CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those that are responsible for the metabolism of escitalopram. Although clinical studies have not been done to determine the clinical significance of such an interaction, the potential for increased adverse effects and toxicity associated with elevated plasma levels of escitalopram theoretically exists.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with escitalopram can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SSRIs due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
    Disopyramide: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as disopyramide, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Diuretics: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Coadministration of dofetilide and escitalopram is not recommended as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Dofetilide, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Dolasetron: (Moderate) Administer dolasetron with caution in combination with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Dolasetron has been associated with a dose-dependent prolongation in the QT, PR, and QRS intervals on an electrocardiogram.
    Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) While both escitalopram and donepezil have been reported to cause cases of QT prolongation, the American Psychiatric Association and other experts recommend use of SSRIs including escitalopram in patients with Alzheimer's disease (who are treated with cholinesterase inhibitors) to treat depression, anxiety, or agitation. More study is needed to identify the most effective treatments in this challenging population. If use together is necessary, monitor heart rate and monitor patients for QT prolongation, unusual changes in mood or behaviors, and efficacy of combined treatment.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) While both escitalopram and donepezil have been reported to cause cases of QT prolongation, the American Psychiatric Association and other experts recommend use of SSRIs including escitalopram in patients with Alzheimer's disease (who are treated with cholinesterase inhibitors) to treat depression, anxiety, or agitation. More study is needed to identify the most effective treatments in this challenging population. If use together is necessary, monitor heart rate and monitor patients for QT prolongation, unusual changes in mood or behaviors, and efficacy of combined treatment.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Minor) Escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including timolol.
    Doxepin: (Major) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Elevated concentrations of the tricyclic antidepressant may occur. Symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) Doxercalciferol is converted in the liver to 1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol, the major active metabolite, and 1-alpha, 24-dihydroxyvitamin D2, a minor metabolite. Although not specifically studied, cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol, thereby decreasing the formation of the active metabolite and thus, decreasing efficacy. Patients should be monitored for a decrease in efficacy if SSRIs are coadministered with doxercalciferol.
    Doxorubicin Liposomal: (Major) Avoid coadministration of escitalopram with doxorubicin due to increased systemic exposure of doxorubicin resulting in increased treatment-related adverse reactions. Escitalopram is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3D6. Concurrent use of CYP2D6 inhibitors with doxorubicin has resulted in clinically significant interactions.
    Doxorubicin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of escitalopram with doxorubicin due to increased systemic exposure of doxorubicin resulting in increased treatment-related adverse reactions. Escitalopram is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major substrate of CYP3D6. Concurrent use of CYP2D6 inhibitors with doxorubicin has resulted in clinically significant interactions.
    Dronedarone: (Contraindicated) Because of the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), use of dronedarone with escitalopram is contraindicated.
    Droperidol: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as droperidol, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Duloxetine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as escitalopram should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as duloxetine.
    Dutasteride; Tamsulosin: (Moderate) Use caution when administering tamsulosin with a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor such as escitalopram. Tamsulosin is extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 hepatic enzymes. In clinical evaluation, concomitant treatment with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor resulted in increases in tamsulosin exposure; interactions with moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors have not been evaluated. If concomitant use in necessary, monitor patient closely for increased side effects.
    Edoxaban: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like edoxaban. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Consider alternatives to efavirenz when coadministering with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation has been observed with use of efavirenz. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Consider alternatives to efavirenz when coadministering with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation has been observed with use of efavirenz. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Consider alternatives to efavirenz when coadministering with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation has been observed with use of efavirenz. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering escitalopram with elbasvir; grazoprevir may result in elevated escitalopram plasma concentrations. Escitalopram is a substrate of CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of adverse events.
    Eletriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering eletriptan with escitalopram. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue escitalopram and eletriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Eliglustat: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with eliglustat as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Eliglustat is predicted to cause PR, QRS, and/or QT prolongation at significantly elevated plasma concentrations.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Close monitoring for antidepressant response and careful dose titrations of the antidepressant therapy is recommended during coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cobicistat. Concurrent use may result in elevated SSRI plasma concentrations. Predictions regarding this interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. All SSRIs are substrates for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, while citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are also substrates for CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Close monitoring for antidepressant response and careful dose titrations of the antidepressant therapy is recommended during coadministration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cobicistat. Concurrent use may result in elevated SSRI plasma concentrations. Predictions regarding this interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. All SSRIs are substrates for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, while citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are also substrates for CYP3A4; cobicistat is an inhibitor of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Encainide: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including encainide.
    Encorafenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of encorafenib and escitalopram due to QT prolongation. If concurrent use cannot be avoided, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia prior to treatment. Encorafenib is associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Enflurane: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as halogenated anesthetics, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Enoxaparin: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like low molecular weight heparins. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Entrectinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of entrectinib with escitalopram due to the risk of QT prolongation. Entrectinib has been associated with QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Eptifibatide: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SSRIs due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
    Ergoloid Mesylates: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Ergonovine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Ergot alkaloids: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Ergotamine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Eribulin: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as eribulin, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as erythromycin, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Theoretically, erythromycin may inhibit this enzyme and lead to elevated plasma levels of this SSRI. However, because escitalopram is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, inhibition of one pathway may not appreciably decrease its clearance.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as erythromycin, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Theoretically, erythromycin may inhibit this enzyme and lead to elevated plasma levels of this SSRI. However, because escitalopram is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, inhibition of one pathway may not appreciably decrease its clearance.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be altered when administered concurrently with eslicarbazepine, a CYP2C19 inhibitor and CYP3A4 inducer. Because escitalopram is extensively metabolized by both CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, the outcome of the interaction is unpredictable. If these drugs are used together, monitor for reduced efficacy of escitalopram as well as escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Esomeprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for serotonin excess or symptoms of other escitalopram-related side effects during coadministration of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor, may increase concentrations of escitalopram, which may increase the risk for side effects. In one study, escitalopram concentrations were significantly higher (increased 81.8%) in patients treated with esomeprazole.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Ethanol: (Moderate) Although escitalopram has not been shown to increase mental and motor skill impairments related to alcohol consumption, the combination of escitalopram and alcohol in depressed patients is not advised.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be altered when administered concurrently with etravirine, a CYP2C19 inhibitor and CYP3A4 inducer. Because escitalopram is extensively metabolized by both CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, the outcome of the interaction is unpredictable. If these drugs are used together, monitor for reduced efficacy of escitalopram as well as escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with ezogabine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Ezogabine has been associated with QT prolongation.
    Felbamate: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with felbamate, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Use fenfluramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with caution due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Minor) At therapeutic concentrations, fenofibric acid is a weak inhibitor of CYP2C19. Concomitant use of fenofibric acid with CYP2C19 substrates, such as escitalopram, has not been formally studied. Fenofibric acid may theoretically increase plasma concentrations of CYP2C19 substrates and could lead to toxicity for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Monitor the therapeutic effect of escitalopram during coadministration with fenofibric acid.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists like fentanyl with serotonergic drugs, such as escitalopram. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fingolimod: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with fingolimod. Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Fingolimod initiation results in decreased heart rate and may prolong the QT interval. After the first fingolimod dose, overnight monitoring with continuous ECG in a medical facility is advised for patients taking QT prolonging drugs with a known risk of TdP, such as escitalopram. Fingolimod has not been studied in patients treated with drugs that prolong the QT interval, but drugs that prolong the QT interval have been associated with cases of TdP in patients with bradycardia.
    Flecainide: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as flecainide, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including flecainide.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of fluconazole and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluoxetine: (Major) Due to the similarity in pharmacology of fluoxetine and escitalopram and the potential for serious adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should not be administered together. Also, both fluoxetine and escitalopram have been associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), which could theoretically result in additive effects on the QT interval. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SSRI to another SSRI.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with fluphenazine. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Fluphenazine is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Fluvoxamine: (Major) Due to the similarity in pharmacology of fluvoxamine and escitalopram and the potential for serious adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should not be administered together. Also, both fluvoxamine and escitalopram have been associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), which could theoretically result in additive effects on the QT interval. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SSRI to another SSRI.
    Fondaparinux: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like fondaparinux. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Foscarnet: (Major) When possible, avoid concurrent use of foscarnet with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval, such as escitalopram. Foscarnet has been associated with postmarketing reports of both QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. If these drugs are administered together, obtain an electrocardiogram and electrolyte concentrations before and periodically during treatment.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Monitor for altered clinical effect of escitalopram when fosphenytoin is coadministered. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary isozymes involved in the N-demethylation of escitalopram. Given the enzyme-inducing properties of fosphenytoin, the possibility that the drug may increase the clearance of escitalopram should be considered if the 2 drugs are coadministered. Additive CNS effects, such as sedation, may also be possible.
    Fostemsavir: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and fostemsavir together with caution due to the potential for QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) Supratherapeutic doses of fostemsavir (2,400 mg twice daily, 4 times the recommended daily dose) have been shown to cause QT prolongation. Fostemsavir causes dose-dependent QT prolongation.
    Frovatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering frovatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and frovatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Gefitinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in gefitinib-related adverse reactions if coadministration with escitalopram is necessary; the risk is increased in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Based on in vitro data, gefitinib is metabolized to O-desmethyl gefitinib by CYP2D6 and escitalopram is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. In healthy CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the concentration of O-desmethyl gefitinib was not measurable and mean exposure to gefitinib was 2-fold higher compared to extensive metabolizers. The impact of CYP2D6 inhibitors on gefitinib pharmacokinetics has not been evaluated; however, the manufacturer recommends precautions based on exposure in patients with poor CYP2D6 metabolism.
    Gemifloxacin: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with gemifloxacin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Gemifloxacin may prolong the QT interval in some patients. The maximal change in the QTc interval occurs approximately 5 to 10 hours following oral administration of gemifloxacin. The likelihood of QTc prolongation may increase with increasing dose of the drug; therefore, the recommended dose should not be exceeded especially in patients with renal or hepatic impairment where the Cmax and AUC are slightly higher.
    Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin: (Moderate) Use gemtuzumab ozogamicin and escitalopram together with caution due to the potential for additive QT interval prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). If these agents are used together, obtain an ECG and serum electrolytes prior to the start of gemtuzumab and as needed during treatment. Although QT interval prolongation has not been reported with gemtuzumab, it has been reported with other drugs that contain calicheamicin. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Gilteritinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of escitalopram with gilteritinib if possible due to the potential for decreased response to escitalopram and additive QT prolongation. Gilteritinib inhibits human 5HT2B receptor or sigma nonspecific receptors, which may reduce the effects of drugs like escitalopram that target these receptors. In addition, both drug have been associated with QT prolongation.
    Glasdegib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of glasdegib with escitalopram due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of QT prolongation with increased frequency of ECG monitoring. Glasdegib therapy may result in QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Goserelin: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., goserelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Granisetron: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with granisetron as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Granisetron has been associated with QT prolongation.
    Grapefruit juice: (Moderate) Interactions between citalopram and grapefruit juice have been documented. Grapefruit juice is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A4, a metabolic enzyme utilized by escitalopram. Theoretically, elevated levels of escitalopram may occur. Until further information is available, clinicians should warn patients to avoid consumption of grapefruit juice while taking escitalopram.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as halogenated anesthetics, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with haloperidol as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and haloperidol-related adverse effects. Escitalopram is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Haloperidol is a CYP2D6 substrate; QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been observed during haloperidol treatment. Excessive doses (particularly in the overdose setting) or IV administration of haloperidol may be associated with a higher risk of QT prolongation. Mild to moderately increased haloperidol concentrations have been reported when haloperidol was given concomitantly with CYP2D6 inhibitors.
    Halothane: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as halogenated anesthetics, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Heparin: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like heparin. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Histrelin: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., histrelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving escitalopram. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Hydromorphone: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including hydromorphone.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydroxychloroquine and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydroxyzine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Ibutilide: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as ibutilide, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Idelalisib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with escitalopram, a CYP3A substrate, as escitalopram toxicities may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib.
    Iloperidone: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as iloperidone, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is a modest inhibitor of CYP2D6 and may decrease the clearance of atypical antipsychotics that are CYP2D6 substrates including iloperidone. Decreased metabolism of these CYP2D6 substrates may lead to clinically important adverse reactions that are associated with antipsychotic use, such as extrapyramidal symptoms.
    Imipramine: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Elevated concentrations of the tricyclic antidepressant may occur. Symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of inotuzumab ozogamicin with escitalopram due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). If coadministration is unavoidable, obtain an ECG and serum electrolytes prior to the start of treatment, after treatment initiation, and periodically during treatment. Inotuzumab has been associated with QT interval prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with escitalopram may result in increased serum concentrations of escitalopram. Escitalopram is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Contraindicated) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat psychiatric disorders are contraindicated for use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). MAOIs should not be used within 5 weeks of discontinuing treatment with fluoxetine or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with other SSRIs. Conversely, SSRIs should not be initiated within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. Monitor the patient for serotonin-related effects during therapy transitions.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as halogenated anesthetics, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Isoniazid, INH: (Moderate) Concurrent use of isoniazid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as escitalopram, should be approached with caution. Isoniazid is chemically related to iproniazid, a drug that was known to possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity. Although isoniazid does not inhibit mitochondrial MAO, it does appear to inhibit plasma MAO. Isoniazid may possess enough MAO inhibiting activity to produce clinical symptoms consistent with serotonergic excess when combined with escitalopram, including serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic drugs should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Moderate) Concurrent use of isoniazid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as escitalopram, should be approached with caution. Isoniazid is chemically related to iproniazid, a drug that was known to possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity. Although isoniazid does not inhibit mitochondrial MAO, it does appear to inhibit plasma MAO. Isoniazid may possess enough MAO inhibiting activity to produce clinical symptoms consistent with serotonergic excess when combined with escitalopram, including serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic drugs should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented. (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Rifampin can induce the metabolism of escitalopram via induction of CYP3A4. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking rifampin.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Moderate) Concurrent use of isoniazid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as escitalopram, should be approached with caution. Isoniazid is chemically related to iproniazid, a drug that was known to possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity. Although isoniazid does not inhibit mitochondrial MAO, it does appear to inhibit plasma MAO. Isoniazid may possess enough MAO inhibiting activity to produce clinical symptoms consistent with serotonergic excess when combined with escitalopram, including serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic drugs should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented. (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Rifampin can induce the metabolism of escitalopram via induction of CYP3A4. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking rifampin.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Use itraconazole with caution in combination with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Itraconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Ivosidenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ivosidenib with escitalopram due to an increased risk of QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor ECGs for QTc prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct any electrolyte abnormalities as clinically appropriate. An interruption of therapy and dose reduction of ivosidenib may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Prolongation of the QTc interval and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients treated with ivosidenib. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Ketoconazole: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of ketoconazole and escitalopram due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation. Ketoconazole is associated with a risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation has been reported postmarketing with escitalopram. Pharmacokinetic interactions are not expected based on studies with citalopram.
    Lansoprazole: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as clarithromycin, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Theoretically, clarithromycin may inhibit this enzyme and lead to elevated plasma levels of this SSRI. However, because escitalopram is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, inhibition of one pathway may not appreciably decrease its clearance. (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of QT prolongation if lapatinib is administered with escitalopram. Lapatinib has been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation; ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported in postmarketing experience with lapatinib. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of lasmiditan and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Lefamulin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lefamulin with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor ECG during treatment. Lefamulin has a concentration dependent QTc prolongation effect. The pharmacodynamic interaction potential to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram between lefamulin and other drugs that effect cardiac conduction is unknown. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Lenvatinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lenvatinib with escitalopram due to the risk of QT prolongation. Prolongation of the QT interval has been reported with lenvatinib therapy. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Leuprolide: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., leuprolide) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., leuprolide) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Levofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of levofloxacin and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Levoketoconazole: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of ketoconazole and escitalopram due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation. Ketoconazole is associated with a risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation has been reported postmarketing with escitalopram. Pharmacokinetic interactions are not expected based on studies with citalopram.
    Levomethadyl: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including levomethadyl.
    Levomilnacipran: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, concurrent use of levomilnacipran with other drugs that have serotonergic properties, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), should generally be avoided. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, levomilnacipran and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Levorphanol: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including levorphanol.
    Linezolid: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving linezolid due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with linezolid, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and linezolid therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid. Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. Since monoamine oxidase type A deaminates serotonin, administration of a non-selective MAO inhibitor concurrently with escitalopram can lead to serious reactions including serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving either citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, or paroxetine in combination with linezolid.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Coadministration of escitalopram and lithium may increase the risk for QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome. Lithium has been associated with QT prolongation and escitalopram also has this potential. Lithium is an effective augmenting agent to antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression; however, lithium has central serotonin-enhancing effects and may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome when combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as escitalopram. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dosage increases. If serotonin syndrome occurs, serotonergic agents should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor the ECG for QT prolongation during concurrent use of lofexidine and escitalopram. Lofexidine may prolong the QT interval, and torsade de pointes (TdP) has been reported during postmarketing use. Escitalopram is associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of loperamide and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of loperamide and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lopinavir with escitalopram due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain a baseline ECG to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Lopinavir is associated with QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Lorcaserin: (Major) Based on the mechanism of action of lorcaserin and the theoretical potential for serotonin syndrome, use with extreme caution in combination with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, including, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) like signs and symptoms.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Low Molecular Weight Heparins: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like low molecular weight heparins. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Luliconazole: (Moderate) Theoretically, luliconazole may increase the side effects of escitalopram, which is a CYP2C19 and a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor patients for adverse effects of escitalopram, such as GI effects or serotonin sydrome. In vitro, therapeutic doses of luliconazole inhibit the activity of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 and small systemic concentrations may be noted with topical application, particularly when applied to patients with moderate to severe tinea cruris. No in vivo drug interaction trials were conducted prior to the approval of luliconazole.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may reduce the efficacy of escitalopram by decreasing its systemic exposure. If used together, a higher dose of escitalopram may be required to obtain the desired therapeutic effect. Do not exceed the recommended maximum dose. Escitalopram is a CYP3A and CYP2C19 substrate. Lumacaftor; ivacaftor is a strong inducer of CYP3A and has the potential to induce CYP2C19.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may reduce the efficacy of escitalopram by decreasing its systemic exposure. If used together, a higher dose of escitalopram may be required to obtain the desired therapeutic effect. Do not exceed the recommended maximum dose. Escitalopram is a CYP3A and CYP2C19 substrate. Lumacaftor; ivacaftor is a strong inducer of CYP3A and has the potential to induce CYP2C19.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of macimorelin with drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as escitalopram. Use of these drugs together may increase the risk of developing torsade de pointes-type ventricular tachycardia. Sufficient washout time of drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval prior to administration of macimorelin is recommended. Treatment with macimorelin has been associated with an increase in the corrected QT (QTc) interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in > 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with aspirin the risk was increased by > 5-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with aspirin and a SSRI was low (20/2640 patients) in this cohort study and the clinician may determine that the combined use of these drugs is appropriate.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with maprotiline as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Maprotiline has been reported to prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Cases of long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes (TdP) tachycardia have been described with maprotiline use, but rarely occur when the drug is used alone in normal prescribed doses and in the absence of other known risk factors for QT prolongation. Limited data are available regarding the safety of maprotiline in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs.
    Mefloquine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with mefloquine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). There is evidence that the use of halofantrine after mefloquine causes a significant lengthening of the QTc interval. Mefloquine alone has not been reported to cause QT prolongation.
    Meperidine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of meperidine and escitalopram is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of promethazine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) If concomitant use of meperidine and escitalopram is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Mephobarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Mesoridazine: (Contraindicated) Because of the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), concurrent use of phenothiazine antipsychotics such as mesoridazine with escitalopram is contraindicated. In addition, many phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates, and use with a modest CYP2D6 inhibitor, such as escitalopram, can result in increased phenothiazine plasma concentrations.
    Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and metaxalone may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Monitor patients for serotonin syndrome if concomitant use is necessary.
    Methadone: (Major) Coadministration may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, QT prolongation, or torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. The need to coadminister methadone with drugs known to prolong the QT interval should be done with extreme caution and a careful assessment of treatment risks versus benefits. Methadone is associated with an increased risk for QT prolongation and TdP, especially at higher doses (greater than 200 mg/day but averaging approximately 400 mg/day in adult patients). Most cases involve patients being treated for pain with large, multiple daily doses of methadone, although cases have been reported in patients receiving doses commonly used for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. In addition, both escitalopram and methadone have central serotonergic properties and serotonin syndrome is possible. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Methohexital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Methylene Blue: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Methylergonovine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Moderate) Caution should be observed when coadministering methylphenidate derivatives and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There are postmarketing reports of serotonin syndrome during concurrent use of methylphenidate derivatives with other serotonergic medications. Human pharmacologic studies have shown that methylphenidate may inhibit the metabolism of some SSRIs and downward dose adjustment of the SSRI may be required in some patients. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical management should be implemented.
    Methysergide: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metoclopramide and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as escitalopram may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Monitor patients for serotonin syndrome if concomitant use is necessary. In rare cases postmarketing, NMS-like symptoms, which may overlap with serotonin syndrome symptoms, have been reported with metoclopramide when used with serotonergic agents.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Escitalopram is a modest inhibitor of CYP2D6, which can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including metoprolol. In one study, administration of 20 mg/day of escitalopram for 21 days in healthy volunteers resulted in a 50% increase in Cmax and 82% increase in AUC of metoprolol (given in a single dose of 100 mg). Coadministration of escitalopram and metoprolol had no clinically significant effects on blood pressure or heart rate; however, until further information becomes available, it may be advisable to monitor blood pressure and heart rate during coadministration of these drugs, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Escitalopram is a modest inhibitor of CYP2D6, which can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including metoprolol. In one study, administration of 20 mg/day of escitalopram for 21 days in healthy volunteers resulted in a 50% increase in Cmax and 82% increase in AUC of metoprolol (given in a single dose of 100 mg). Coadministration of escitalopram and metoprolol had no clinically significant effects on blood pressure or heart rate; however, until further information becomes available, it may be advisable to monitor blood pressure and heart rate during coadministration of these drugs, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Metronidazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mexiletine: (Moderate) Caution is recommended during the coadministration of escitalopram with drugs metabolized by CYP2D6, such as mexiletine. Limited in vivo data suggest a modest inhibitory effect of CYP2D6 by escitalopram, which may result in increased concentrations of CYP2D6 substrates.
    Midostaurin: (Major) The concomitant use of midostaurin and escitalopram may lead to additive QT interval prolongation. If these drugs are used together, consider electrocardiogram monitoring. In clinical trials, QT prolongation has been reported in patients who received midostaurin as single-agent therapy or in combination with cytarabine and daunorubicin. In rare instances, QT prolongation and torsade de pointes have been reported during therapeutic use of escitalopram and following overdose.
    Mifepristone: (Major) Concomitant use of mifepristone and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Milnacipran: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, concurrent use of milnacipran with other drugs that have serotonergic properties, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), should generally be avoided. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, milnacipran and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of mirtazapine and escitalopram may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. Cases of QT prolongation, TdP, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death have been reported during use of mirtazapine, primarily after overdose or in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation (e.g., concurrent use of other medications associated with QT prolongation). Both mirtazapine and SSRIs such as escitalopram have central serotonin-enhancing effects, and case reports suggest that serotonin syndrome is possible. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued, and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Use caution if mitotane and escitalopram are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of escitalopram and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and escitalopram is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of escitalopram.
    Mobocertinib: (Major) Concomitant use of mobocertinib and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Modafinil: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be altered when administered concurrently with modafinil, a CYP2C19 inhibitor and CYP3A4 inducer. Because escitalopram is extensively metabolized by both CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, the outcome of the interaction is unpredictable. If these drugs are used together, monitor for reduced efficacy of escitalopram as well as escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat psychiatric disorders are contraindicated for use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). MAOIs should not be used within 5 weeks of discontinuing treatment with fluoxetine or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with other SSRIs. Conversely, SSRIs should not be initiated within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. Monitor the patient for serotonin-related effects during therapy transitions.
    Morphine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists like morphine with serotonergic drugs, such as escitalopram. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists like morphine with serotonergic drugs, such as escitalopram. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Moxifloxacin: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as moxifloxacin, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Naproxen; Esomeprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for serotonin excess or symptoms of other escitalopram-related side effects during coadministration of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor, may increase concentrations of escitalopram, which may increase the risk for side effects. In one study, escitalopram concentrations were significantly higher (increased 81.8%) in patients treated with esomeprazole.
    Naratriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering naratriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") and SSRIs. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after initiation of SSRI treatment or any dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Monitor for increased toxicity as well as increased therapeutic effect of nebivolol if coadministered with escitalopram. Nebivolol is metabolized by CYP2D6. Although data are lacking, CYP2D6 inhibitors, such as escitalopram, could potentially increase nebivolol plasma concentrations via CYP2D6 inhibition; the clinical significance of this potential interaction is unknown, but an increase in adverse effects is possible.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor for increased toxicity as well as increased therapeutic effect of nebivolol if coadministered with escitalopram. Nebivolol is metabolized by CYP2D6. Although data are lacking, CYP2D6 inhibitors, such as escitalopram, could potentially increase nebivolol plasma concentrations via CYP2D6 inhibition; the clinical significance of this potential interaction is unknown, but an increase in adverse effects is possible.
    Nefazodone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as nefazodone and escitalopram. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least one case report of serotonin syndrome from the concurrent use of nefazodone and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (i.e., paroxetine) has been published. Additionally, when a 200 mg dose of nefazodone was administered to subjects who had been receiving fluoxetine for 1 week, there was an increased incidence of transient serotonin-related adverse events. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Netupitant, Fosnetupitant; Palonosetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution and monitor closely when administering palonosetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties, such as escitalopram. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue palonosetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with nicardipine, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Nilotinib: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nilotinib with other agents that prolong the QT interval, such as escitalopram. Nilotinib is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and escitalopram is a substrate of CYP3A4; administering these drugs together may result in increased escitalopram levels. If the use of escitalopram is necessary, hold nilotinib therapy. If these drugs are used together, consider an escitalopram dose reduction and monitor patients for toxicity (e.g., QT interval prolongation).
    Nitroglycerin: (Minor) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as antidepressants. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin is used concurrently with antidepressants.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of bleeding, including an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs. Additionally, NSAIDs impair the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in more than 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with NSAIDs, the risk was increased by more than 12.2-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with NSAIDs and a SSRI was low (17/4107 patients).
    Norfloxacin: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with norfloxacin. Escitalopram and quinolones have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Although extremely rare, TdP has been reported during postmarketing surveillance of norfloxacin. These reports generally involved patients with concurrent medical conditions or concomitant medications that may have been contributory.
    Nortriptyline: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Elevated concentrations of the tricyclic antidepressant may occur. Symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with octreotide as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Arrhythmias, sinus bradycardia, and conduction disturbances have occurred during octreotide therapy. Since bradycardia is a risk factor for development of torsade de pointes (TdP), the potential occurrence of bradycardia during octreotide administration could theoretically increase the risk of TdP in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval.
    Ofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ofloxacin and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with olanzapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Major) Due to the similarity in pharmacology of fluoxetine and escitalopram and the potential for serious adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should not be administered together. Also, both fluoxetine and escitalopram have been associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), which could theoretically result in additive effects on the QT interval. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SSRI to another SSRI. (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with olanzapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with olanzapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval.
    Oliceridine: (Moderate) Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals and base subsequent doses on the patient's severity of pain and response to treatment if concomitant administration of oliceridine and escitalopram is necessary; less frequent dosing of oliceridine may be required. Concomitant use of oliceridine and escitalopram may increase the plasma concentration of oliceridine, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. If escitalopram is discontinued, consider increasing the oliceridine dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oliceridine is a CYP2D6 substrate and escitalopram is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Omeprazole: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin: (Moderate) CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary isozymes involved in the N-demethylation of escitalopram. Rifabutin can induce the metabolism of escitalopram via induction of CYP3A4. Given the enzyme-inducing properties rifabutin, the possibility that the drug may increase the clearance of escitalopram should be considered if the 2 drugs are coadministered. (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Ondansetron: (Major) Concomitant use of ondansetron and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), and serotonin syndrome. Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. If concomitant use is necessary, consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, and monitor for serotonin syndrome.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Coadministration of oritavancin and escitalopram may result in increases or decreases in escitalopram exposure and may increase side effects or decrease efficacy of escitalopram. Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Oritavancin weakly induces CYP3A4, while weakly inhibiting CYP2C19. If these drugs are administered concurrently, monitor the patient for signs of toxicity or lack of efficacy.
    Osilodrostat: (Moderate) Monitor ECGs in patients receiving osilodrostat with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Osilodrostat is associated with dose-dependent QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes.
    Osimertinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of escitalopram with osimertinib if possible due to the risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If concomitant use is unavoidable, periodically monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; an interruption of osimertinib therapy with dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Concentration-dependent QTc prolongation occurred during clinical trials of osimertinib. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Oxaliplatin: (Major) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes if coadministration of escitalopram with oxaliplatin is necessary; correct electrolyte abnormalities prior to administration of oxaliplatin. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP); QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including fatal TdP have also been reported with oxaliplatin use in postmarketing experience.
    Oxycodone: (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Oxymorphone: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including oxymorphone.
    Ozanimod: (Major) In general, do not initiate ozanimod in patients taking escitalopram due to the risk of additive bradycardia, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes (TdP). Additionally, there is a potential for hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome. If treatment initiation is considered, seek advice from a cardiologist and monitor for hypertension and serotonergic effects. Ozanimod is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor that may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays. Ozanimod has not been studied in patients taking concurrent QT prolonging drugs; however, QT prolonging drugs have been associated with TdP in patients with bradycardia. Escitalopram is a serotonergic drug that is associated with QT prolongation and TdP.
    Pacritinib: (Major) Concomitant use of pacritinib and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Paliperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; torsade de pointes (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation have been reported in the setting of overdose. Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation and TdP. According to the manufacturer of paliperidone, the drug should be avoided in combination with other agents also known to prolong the QT interval. However, if coadministration is necessary and the patient has known risk factors for cardiac disease or arrhythmias, close monitoring is essential.
    Palonosetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution and monitor closely when administering palonosetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties, such as escitalopram. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue palonosetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Panobinostat: (Major) QT prolongation has been reported with panobinostat therapy in patients with multiple myeloma in a clinical trial; use of panobinostat with other agents that prolong the QT interval is not recommended. Obtain an electrocardiogram at baseline and periodically during treatment. Hold panobinostat if the QTcF increases to >= 480 milliseconds during therapy; permanently discontinue if QT prolongation does not resolve. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with panobinostat include escitalopram.
    Paroxetine: (Major) Due to the similarity in pharmacology of paroxetine and escitalopram and the potential for serious adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should not be administered together. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SSRI to another SSRI.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with pasireotide as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation has occurred with pasireotide at therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses.
    Pazopanib: (Major) Because both pazopanib and escitalopram are associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), the combination should be used cautiously and with close monitoring. In addition, pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and escitalopram, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of escitalopram. Use caution when administering these drugs concomitantly.
    Pentamidine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as pentamidine, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Pentazocine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome reactions, caution should be observed when administering selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as pentazocine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agent(s) and institute appropriate therapy.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome reactions, caution should be observed when administering selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as pentazocine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agent(s) and institute appropriate therapy.
    Pentobarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Pentosan: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and pentosan, which has weak anticoagulant properties. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Pergolide: (Moderate) Use escitalopram and ergot alkaloids together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination have been reported rarely when ergot alkaloids or other serotonin agonists have been coadministered with SSRIs, which may be indicative of serotonin excess. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue the offending agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with perphenazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Perphenazine is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, perphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; consider a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the TCAs; elevated TCA concentrations may occur in some patients. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). (Minor) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with perphenazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Perphenazine is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, perphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Phenelzine: (Contraindicated) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat psychiatric disorders are contraindicated for use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). MAOIs should not be used within 5 weeks of discontinuing treatment with fluoxetine or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with other SSRIs. Conversely, SSRIs should not be initiated within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. Monitor the patient for serotonin-related effects during therapy transitions.
    Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Use phentermine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Monitor weight, cardiovascular status, and for potential serotonergic adverse effects. Phentermine is related to the amphetamines, and there has been historical concern that phentermine might exhibit potential to cause serotonin syndrome when combined with serotonergic agents. However, recent data suggest that phentermine's effect on MAO inhibition and serotonin augmentation is minimal at therapeutic doses and some large controlled clinical studies have allowed patients to start phentermine-based therapy for obesity along with their SSRI as long as the antidepressant dose had been stable for at least 3 months prior. Such therapy was generally well-tolerated, especially at lower phentermine doses. Because depression and obesity often coexist, the study data may be important to providing optimal co-therapies.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Use phentermine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) together with caution due to a potential for serotonin syndrome. Monitor weight, cardiovascular status, and for potential serotonergic adverse effects. Phentermine is related to the amphetamines, and there has been historical concern that phentermine might exhibit potential to cause serotonin syndrome when combined with serotonergic agents. However, recent data suggest that phentermine's effect on MAO inhibition and serotonin augmentation is minimal at therapeutic doses and some large controlled clinical studies have allowed patients to start phentermine-based therapy for obesity along with their SSRI as long as the antidepressant dose had been stable for at least 3 months prior. Such therapy was generally well-tolerated, especially at lower phentermine doses. Because depression and obesity often coexist, the study data may be important to providing optimal co-therapies.
    Phenytoin: (Moderate) Monitor for altered clinical effect of escitalopram when phenytoin is coadministered. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary isozymes involved in the N-demethylation of escitalopram. Given the enzyme-inducing properties of phenytoin, the possibility that the drug may increase the clearance of escitalopram should be considered if the 2 drugs are coadministered. Additive CNS effects, such as sedation, may also be possible.
    Pimavanserin: (Major) Pimavanserin may cause QT prolongation and should generally be avoided in patients receiving other medications known to prolong the QT interval, such as escitalopram. Coadministration may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Pimozide: (Contraindicated) Pimozide is contraindicated for use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Pimozide is thought to be primarily metabolized through CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. Elevated plasma concentrations of pimozide occurring through inhibition of one or more of these isoenzymes by SSRIs can lead to QT prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Additionally, most SSRIs are also associated with QT prolongation, further increasing the risk of additive QT prolongation.
    Pitolisant: (Major) Avoid coadministration of pitolisant with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Pitolisant prolongs the QT interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Ponesimod: (Major) In general, do not initiate ponesimod in patients taking escitalopram due to the risk of additive bradycardia, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes (TdP). If treatment initiation is considered, seek advice from a cardiologist. Ponesimod initiation may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays. Ponesimod has not been studied in patients taking concurrent QT prolonging drugs; however, QT prolonging drugs have been associated with TdP in patients with bradycardia. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Use posaconazole with caution in combination with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Posaconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval as well as rare cases of torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving prasugrel. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SSRI concurrently with an antiplatelet medication and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Primaquine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with primaquine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Primaquine has shown potential for QT prolongation.
    Primidone: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Procainamide: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as procainamide, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Procarbazine is a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Although procarbazine appears to be less likely than other MAOIs to produce serious drug interactions, clinicians should avoid the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients receiving MAOIs. Fatalities have been reported when fluoxetine was administered to patients receiving MAOIs. Confusion, seizures, severe hypertension, and other, less severe symptoms have also been reported with this drug combination. Non-selective MAOIs inhibit both MAO types A and B. Since serotonin is metabolized by MAO type A, it is thought that this drug interaction may lead to serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. At least 2 weeks should elapse between the discontinuation of MAOI therapy and the start of therapy with an SSRI except fluoxetine. At least 5 weeks should elapse between the discontinuation of fluoxetine therapy and commencement of MAOI therapy. This 5-week period is needed because of the long half-lives of fluoxetine and its principle metabolite norfluoxetine.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with prochlorperazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Prochlorperazine is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, prochlorperazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of promethazine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with escitalopram. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) Concomitant use of promethazine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of promethazine and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Propafenone: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as propafeone, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including some antiarrhythmics like propafenone.
    Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including propoxyphene.
    Propranolol: (Minor) Escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including propranolol. Increased serum levels of the beta-blockers could result in reductions in cardioselectivity.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia. (Minor) Escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including propranolol. Increased serum levels of the beta-blockers could result in reductions in cardioselectivity.
    Protriptyline: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Elevated concentrations of the tricyclic antidepressant may occur. Symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Quetiapine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as quetiapine, should be done with caution and close monitoring. In addition, because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering escitalopram with drugs that are dopamine antagonists such as atypical antipsychotics. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving escitalopram and atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, or other adverse effects.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Quinidine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as quinidine, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Quinine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with quinine, a CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Rabeprazole: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with rabeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for escitalopram-associated adverse reactions.
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with ranolazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Ranolazine is associated with dose- and plasma concentration-related increases in the QTc interval.
    Rasagiline: (Major) It is recommended to avoid concurrent use of rasagiline and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Severe CNS toxicity with hyperpyrexia has been reported during concurrent use of antidepressants and selective or non-selective MAOIs. During postmarketing use of rasagiline, non-fatal cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during concomitant antidepressant administration. At least 2 weeks should elapse between stopping rasagiline treatment and beginning therapy with any SSRI. Conversely, when discontinuing an SSRI, it is advisable to wait the length of 4 to 5 half-lives of the individual agent being discontinued prior to initiation with rasagiline. At least 5 weeks should elapse between the discontinuation of fluoxetine therapy and initiation of rasagiline. If coadministration of rasagiline and fluvoxamine is required, do not exceed a rasagiline dose of 0.5 mg once daily. Rasagiline is primarily metabolized by CYP1A2; fluvoxamine is a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor. When rasagiline was administered with another strong CYP1A2 inhibitor, the AUC of rasagiline increased by 83%.
    Relugolix: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with relugolix. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., relugolix) may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with relugolix. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., relugolix) may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) If concomitant use of remifentanil and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Reteplase, r-PA: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding when a thrombolytic agent is administered with an SSRI.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ribociclib with escitalopram due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Ribociclib has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. Concomitant use may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ribociclib with escitalopram due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Ribociclib has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. Concomitant use may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Rifabutin: (Moderate) CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary isozymes involved in the N-demethylation of escitalopram. Rifabutin can induce the metabolism of escitalopram via induction of CYP3A4. Given the enzyme-inducing properties rifabutin, the possibility that the drug may increase the clearance of escitalopram should be considered if the 2 drugs are coadministered.
    Rifampin: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP3A4. Rifampin can induce the metabolism of escitalopram via induction of CYP3A4. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking rifampin.
    Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Use risperidone and escitalopram together with caution due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Risperidone has been associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or TdP, primarily in the overdose setting. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Rivaroxaban: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like rivaroxaban. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Rizatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after the initiation of the SSRI or dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Romidepsin: (Moderate) Consider monitoring electrolytes and ECGs at baseline and periodically during treatment if romidepsin is administered with escitalopram. Romidepsin has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Safinamide: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) The combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis may elevate the risk for an upper GI bleed. SSRIs may inhibit serotonin uptake by platelets, augmenting the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Additionally, aspirin impairs the gastric mucosa defenses by inhibiting prostaglandin formation. A cohort study in > 26,000 patients found that SSRI use alone increased the risk for serious GI bleed by 3.6-fold; when an SSRI was combined with aspirin the risk was increased by > 5-fold. The absolute risk of GI bleed from concomitant therapy with aspirin and a SSRI was low (20/2640 patients) in this cohort study and the clinician may determine that the combined use of these drugs is appropriate.
    Saquinavir: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of saquinavir boosted with ritonavir with escitalopram. If use together is necessary, obtain a baseline ECG and carefully follow monitoring recommendations. Saquinavir boosted with ritonavir increases the QT interval in a dose-dependent fashion, which may increase the risk for serious arrhythmias such as torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Secobarbital: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Selegiline: (Contraindicated) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are contraindicated for use with selegiline, a selective monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor (MAO-B inhibitor). At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of selegiline and initiation of treatment with an SSRI. With the exception of fluoxetine, a time period equal to 4 to 5 half-lives of the SSRI or any active metabolite should elapse after discontinuing treatment with the SSRI and before starting therapy with selegiline. Because of the long half-life of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, at least 5 weeks should elapse between discontinuation of fluoxetine and initiation of treatment with selegiline. Serotonin syndrome has occurred in patients receiving selective MAO-B inhibitors and serotonin-augmenting antidepressants simultaneously. Monitor for serotonergic side effects during therapy transitions.
    Selpercatinib: (Major) Monitor ECGs more frequently for QT prolongation if coadministration of selpercatinib with escitalopram is necessary due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. Concentration-dependent QT prolongation has been observed with selpercatinib therapy. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Sertraline: (Major) Due to the similarity in pharmacology of sertraline and escitalopram and the potential for serious adverse reactions, including serotonin syndrome, these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should not be administered together. Also, both sertraline and escitalopram have been associated with QT prolongation, which could theoretically result in additive effects on the QT interval. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SSRI to another SSRI.
    Sevoflurane: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as halogenated anesthetics, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Sibutramine: (Major) Sibutramine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering sibutramine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In addition, in vitro studies indicate that metabolism of sibutramine is mediated through CYP3A4. Theoretically, the metabolism of sibutramine may be decreased as a result of CYP3A4 inhibition by fluoxetine or fluvoxamine. Patients receiving sibutramine in combination with an SSRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, or other adverse effects.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Simeprevir, a mild intestinal CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the side effects of escitalopram, which is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor patients for adverse effects of escitalopram, such as GI effects or serotonin syndrome.
    Siponimod: (Major) In general, do not initiate treatment with siponimod in patients receiving escitalopram due to the potential for QT prolongation. Consult a cardiologist regarding appropriate monitoring if siponimod use is required. Siponimod therapy prolonged the QT interval at recommended doses in a clinical study. Escitalopram is associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid in patients taking concomitant medications that are known to induce Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), such as tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychotics and carbamazepine, as these drugs may increase the risk of water retention and/or electrolyte imbalance.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with solifenacin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Solifenacin has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. TdP has been reported with postmarketing use, although causality was not determined.
    Sorafenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of sorafenib with escitalopram due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor electrocardiograms and correct electrolyte abnormalities. An interruption or discontinuation of sorafenib therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Sorafenib is also associated with QTc prolongation.
    Sotalol: (Major) Concomitant use of sotalol and escitalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering escitalopram and St. John's Wort. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. If serotonin syndrome occurs, serotonergic drugs should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be initiated.
    Streptokinase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding when a thrombolytic agent is administered with an SSRI.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) Escitalopram modestly inhibits metabolism via the CYP2D6 pathway. Theoretically, this can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including sufentanil.
    Sumatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering sumatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") and SSRIs. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after initiation of SSRI treatment or any dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering sumatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") and SSRIs. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after initiation of SSRI treatment or any dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sunitinib: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with sunitinib as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Sunitinib can prolong the QT interval.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Consider ECG and electrolyte monitoring periodically during treatment if tacrolimus is administered with escitalopram. Tacrolimus may prolong the QT interval and cause torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Tamoxifen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of tamoxifen and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tamsulosin: (Moderate) Use caution when administering tamsulosin with a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor such as escitalopram. Tamsulosin is extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 hepatic enzymes. In clinical evaluation, concomitant treatment with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor resulted in increases in tamsulosin exposure; interactions with moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors have not been evaluated. If concomitant use in necessary, monitor patient closely for increased side effects.
    Tapentadol: (Moderate) If concomitant use of tapentadol and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Tedizolid: (Minor) Caution is warranted with the concurrent use of tedizolid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to the theoretical risk of serotonin syndrome. Animal studies did not predict serotonergic effects; however, patients on concurrent SSRIs were excluded from clinical trials. Addtionally, tedizolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak reversible, non-selective MAO inhibitor and monoamine oxidase type A deaminates serotonin; therefore, coadministration theoretically could lead to serious reactions including serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving either citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, or paroxetine in combination with linezolid, which is structurally similar to tedizolid.
    Telaprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering escitalopram with telaprevir due to a potential decreased escitalopram efficacy. When used in combination, the plasma concentrations of escitalopram were decreased, resulting in an increased potential for mood alterations. If escitalopram dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of telaprevir treatment.
    Telavancin: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with telavancin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Telavancin has been associated with QT prolongation.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with telithromycin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Telithromycin is associated with QT prolongation and TdP.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Tenecteplase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding when a thrombolytic agent is administered with an SSRI.
    Terbinafine: (Moderate) Systemic terbinafine inhibits hepatic isoenzyme CYP2D6, and thus may inhibit the clearance of drugs metabolized by this isoenzyme, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The clinical relevance of the interaction is not known. Topical forms of terbinafine do not interact.
    Tetrabenazine: (Major) Escitalopram has been associated with QT prolongation. Coadministration with other drugs that have a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as tetrabenazine, should be done with caution and close monitoring.
    Thiopental: (Moderate) Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Barbiturates can induce the metabolism of various CYP 450 isoenzymes, including those involved in escitalopram metabolism. Although no clinical data are available to support a clinically significant interaction, escitalopram may need to be administered in higher doses in patients chronically taking barbiturates.
    Thioridazine: (Contraindicated) Because of the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), concurrent use of phenothiazine antipsychotics such as thioridazine with escitalopram is contraindicated. In addition, thioridazine is a CYP2D6 substrate, and use with a modest CYP2D6 inhibitor, such as escitalopram, can result in increased plasma concentrations, further increasing the risk for cardiac or other phenothiazine-related side effects.
    Thrombin Inhibitors: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other drugs that affect coagulation like thrombin inhibitors. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Thrombolytic Agents: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding when a thrombolytic agent is administered with an SSRI.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving prasugrel. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SSRI concurrently with an antiplatelet medication and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Ticlopidine: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of escitalopram, a CYP2C19 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with ticlopidine, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. In addition, platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors (e.g., ticlopidine). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of escitalopram-related adverse events and bleeding while taking an SSRI concurrently with ticlopidine and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Timolol: (Minor) Escitalopram modestly inhibits the hepatic CYP2D6 isoenzyme. This can result in increased concentrations of drugs metabolized via the same pathway, including timolol.
    Tinzaparin: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticoagulants like low molecular weight heparins. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Tirofiban: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SSRIs due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with tolterodine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Tolterodine has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval, especially in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers.
    Toremifene: (Major) Avoid coadministration of escitalopram with toremifene if possible due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, closely monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to administration of toremifene. Toremifene has been shown to prolong the QTc interval in a dose- and concentration-related manner. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Torsemide: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Tramadol: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of tramadol, signs of opioid withdrawal, seizures, or serotonin syndrome if coadministration with escitalopram is necessary. If escitalopram is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of tramadol and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Tramadol is a CYP2D6 substrate and escitalopram is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use of tramadol with CYP2D6 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of tramadol and decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite M1. Since M1 is a more potent mu-opioid agonist, decreased M1 exposure could result in decreased therapeutic effects, and may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in patients who have developed physical dependence to tramadol. Increased tramadol exposure can result in increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and increased risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of tramadol, signs of opioid withdrawal, seizures, or serotonin syndrome if coadministration with escitalopram is necessary. If escitalopram is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of tramadol and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Tramadol is a CYP2D6 substrate and escitalopram is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Concomitant use of tramadol with CYP2D6 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of tramadol and decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite M1. Since M1 is a more potent mu-opioid agonist, decreased M1 exposure could result in decreased therapeutic effects, and may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in patients who have developed physical dependence to tramadol. Increased tramadol exposure can result in increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and increased risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat psychiatric disorders are contraindicated for use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). MAOIs should not be used within 5 weeks of discontinuing treatment with fluoxetine or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with other SSRIs. Conversely, SSRIs should not be initiated within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. Monitor the patient for serotonin-related effects during therapy transitions.
    Trazodone: (Major) Due to the risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), the manufacturer of trazodone recommends avoiding use with other drugs that increase the QT interval. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. In addition, coadministration of trazodone and escitalopram may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with both drugs when taken alone, but especially when coadministered with other serotonergic agents. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue escitalopram and trazodone and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Triclabendazole: (Moderate) Monitor ECGs in patients receiving triclabendazole with escitalopram as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Transient prolongation of the mean QTc interval was noted on the ECG recordings in dogs administered triclabendazole. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes.
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with trifluoperazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Trifluoperazine is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, trifluoperazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Trimipramine: (Moderate) Use tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and escitalopram together with caution as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and serotonin syndrome; a decreased dosage of the TCA or the avoidance of concomitant SSRI therapy should be considered. Elevated concentrations of the tricyclic antidepressant may occur. Symptoms of toxicity, including seizures, have been reported when drugs from these 2 classes were used together. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all serotonergic agents. Escitalopram is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 that has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). CYP2D6 is responsible for metabolism of many of the tricyclic antidepressants. TCAs share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Triptorelin: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., triptorelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving escitalopram. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan: (Major) Concurrent use of tryptophan and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is not recommended. Since tryptophan is converted to serotonin, the use of tryptophan in patients receiving SSRIs could lead to serotonin excess and, potentially, serotonin syndrome. Discontinuation of tryptophan usually resolves symptoms.
    Urokinase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding when a thrombolytic agent is administered with an SSRI.
    Valerian, Valeriana officinalis: (Moderate) Substances that act on the CNS, including psychoactive drugs, may theoretically interact with valerian, Valeriana officinalis. These interactions are probably pharmacodynamic in nature, or result from additive mechanisms of action. Persons taking medications such as SSRIs should discuss the use of herbal supplements with their health care professional prior to consuming these herbs. Patients should not abruptly stop taking their prescribed psychoactive medication.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with escitalopram may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH has been reported during therapy with SSRIs. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have occurred. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of escitalopram should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
    Vandetanib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of vandetanib with escitalopram due to an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and/or hypomagnesemia prior to vandetanib administration. An interruption of vandetanib therapy or dose reduction may be necessary for QT prolongation. Vandetanib can prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner; TdP and sudden death have been reported in patients receiving vandetanib. Escitalopram has also been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Vardenafil: (Moderate) Concomitant use of vardenafil and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vasopressin, ADH: (Moderate) Monitor hemodynamics and adjust the dose of vasopressin as needed when used concomitantly with drugs suspected of causing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Use together may increase the pressor and antidiuretic effects of vasopressin.
    Vemurafenib: (Major) Because both vemurafenib and escitalopram are associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), the combination should be used cautiously and with close monitoring. In addition, concomitant use of vemurafenib and escitalopram may result in altered concentrations of escitalopram. Vemurafenib is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 and an inducer of CYP3A4. Escitalopram is a substrate of CYP3A4. Use caution and monitor patients for toxicity and efficacy.
    Venlafaxine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome and QT prolongation, escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) should generally not be administered with venlafaxine, a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI).
    Vilazodone: (Major) Due to possible additive effects on serotonin concentrations, it is advisable to avoid combining selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as escitalopram, with vilazodone. Interactions between serotonergic agents can lead to serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving vilazodone and escitalopram should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. Vilazodone and escitalopram should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
    Voclosporin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of voclosporin and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Consider interventions to minimize the risk of progression to torsades de pointes (TdP), such as ECG monitoring and correcting electrolyte abnormalities, particularly in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Voclosporin has been associated with QT prolongation at supratherapeutic doses. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Because vorapaxar inhibits platelet aggregation, a potential additive risk for bleeding exists if vorapaxar is given in combination with other agents that affect hemostasis such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SSRIs due to platelet serotonin depletion. In addition, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine are CYP3A4 inhibitors and coadministration with vorapaxar, a CYP3A4 substrate, may result in increased serum concentrations of vorapaxar. Increased exposure to vorapaxar may increase the risk of bleeding complications. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking a SSRI with vorapaxar and to promptly report any bleeding events.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Administer voriconazole with caution in combination with escitalopram due to additive QT prolongation. Voriconazole has been associated with QT prolongation and rare cases of torsade de pointes (TdP). Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Vorinostat: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with vorinostat as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Vorinostat therapy is associated with a risk of QT prolongation.
    Vortioxetine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, vortioxetine should generally not be co-administered with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Advise patients of the increased bleeding risk associated with the concomitant use of escitalopram and warfarin. Carefully monitor patients receiving warfarin therapy if escitalopram is initiated or discontinued. Although the pharmacokinetics of warfarin were unaffected by citalopram, prothrombin time was increased by 5%; the clinical significance is unknown. Case reports and epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Ziprasidone: (Major) Concomitant use of ziprasidone and escitalopram should be avoided due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. Clinical trial data indicate that ziprasidone causes QT prolongation; there are postmarketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP) in patients with multiple confounding factors. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Zolmitriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering zolmitriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") and SSRIs. Inform patients of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after initiation of SSRI treatment or any dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) Disorientation, delusions, or hallucinations have been reported rarely during co-administration of zolpidem and SSRIs (i.e., fluoxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine). The duration of the visual hallucinations has ranged from 30 minutes to 7 hours. Data from a clinical study in which SSRI-treated patients were given immediate-release zolpidem revealed that four of the seven discontinuations during double-blind treatment with zolpidem (n = 95) were associated with impaired concentration, continuing or aggravated depression, and manic reaction. The mechanism for the interaction is thought to be pharmacodynamic in nature; therefore, a similar reaction is possible with other SSRIs such as escitalopram.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of escitalopram exposure to the infant, and the risk to the mother of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. Escitalopram is excreted into human breast milk, and there are reports of excessive sedation, restlessness, agitation, poor feeding, and poor weight gain in infants exposed to escitalopram through breast milk. One study assessing escitalopram breastmilk concentrations from 8 women taking escitalopram 10 to 20 mg daily estimated that exclusively breastfed infants would receive 3.9% and 1.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose of escitalopram and its active metabolite desmethylescitalopram, respectively. Assessments of the infants in this study revealed normal development after a median of 55 days of escitalopram exposure (range: 23 to 240 days). If escitalopram is continued during breast-feeding, avoidance of feedings during the times of maximum maternal serum concentrations (i.e., within 4 hours of the daily dose) has been suggested. Alternatively, the mother may pump breast milk during times of lowest maternal serum concentrations and use this breast milk for feedings during the times of maximum maternal escitalopram concentrations or substitute these feedings with formula. Infants exposed to escitalopram through breastmilk should be monitored for excess sedation, restlessness, agitation, poor feeding, and poor weight gain. Alternative medications may also be considered. A pooled analysis found that maternal use of sertraline, nortriptyline, and paroxetine usually produced undetectable or low drug concentrations in infant serum and, therefore, may be the preferred antidepressants in breast-feeding mothers.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Escitalopram, an SSRI, is the the S-enantiomer of the SSRI citalopram. Escitalopram is at least 100-fold more potent than the R-enantiomer of citalopram with respect to inhibition of 5-HT reuptake and inhibition of 5-HT neuronal firing rate, but a clinical benefit over citalopram or other SSRIs has not been shown. The precise antidepressant effect of SSRIs is not fully understood, but involves selective serotonin reuptake blockade at the neuronal membrane, which enhances the actions of serotonin (5-HT). Initially, SSRIs increase availability of serotonin in the somatodendritic area through serotonin reuptake blockade at the serotonin transport pump. During long-term administration of SSRIs, serotonin autoreceptors are down-regulated and desensitized, allowing the neuron to increase serotonin release in the axon terminal synapses and increase its neuronal impulses. Because of the delay in therapeutic response to SSRIs, it is theorized that the change in the balance of serotonin receptors over time is an important mechanism of effect. The therapeutic action of SSRIs in treating anxiety disorders is thought to occur from potent central serotonin reuptake blockade, although the exact mechanism is unknown. SSRIs have less sedative, anticholinergic, and cardiovascular effects than do tricyclic antidepressants due to dramatically decreased binding to histaminergic, muscarinic, and alpha-adrenergic receptors. The metabolites of escitalopram do not appear to contribute to the pharmacologic activity of the drug.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Escitalopram is administered orally. Pharmacokinetic parameters are similar to citalopram. Manufacturer-sponsored pharmacokinetic studies suggest that 20 mg of escitalopram is bioequivalent to 40 mg of citalopram; however, head-to-head therapeutic interchange studies have not been performed. The volume of distribution of citalopram is 12 L/kg; data are not available for escitalopram. Dosing is linear and proportional in a range of 10 to 30 mg/day. The binding of escitalopram to plasma proteins is clinically insignificant. Hepatic metabolism of escitalopram is the primary route for biotransformation. In vitro studies indicate CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the main isozymes involved in N-demethylation of escitalopram. Due to metabolism by more than one isozyme, genetic polymorphism or concurrent use of CYP450 inhibitors is unlikely to have a large effect of net metabolic clearance. S(+)-desmethylcitalopram is the primary metabolite. In the plasma at steady state, the concentration of the primary metabolite is one-third that of the parent compound. S(+)-didesmethylcitalopram is a secondary metabolite. Both primary and secondary metabolites have minimal biological activity in humans. Renal excretion of escitalopram is similar to citalopram with 8% excreted as the unchanged drug and 10% excreted as S(+)-desmethylcitalopram. The elimination half-life of escitalopram is roughly 27 to 32 hours and that of S(+)-desmethylcitalopram (inactive) is 59 hours.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C19
    Escitalopram is extensively metabolized by 2C19 and 3A4. Because it is metabolized by multiple isoenzymes, inhibition of a single enzyme, such as CYP3A4, may not significantly decrease escitalopram clearance. No clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of escitalopram was observed in drug interaction studies with the strong CYP3A4 inhibitors ritonavir and ketoconazole, suggesting that drug interactions with other CYP3A4 inhibitors and escitalopram are unlikely. In vitro data indicate that escitalopram does not inhibit 1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2E1, and 3A4. In vivo data suggest a modest inhibitory effect on CYP2D6.

    Oral Route

    The absolute bioavailability of citalopram is roughly 80%; however, data are not available for escitalopram. The tablet and the oral solution dosage forms are bioequivalent. The absorption of escitalopram is not affected by food. Peak concentrations occur about 5 hours after a single 20 mg dose. Peak concentrations of the major metabolite, S(+)-desmethylcitalopram occurred in 14 hours. Steady-state concentrations are achieved in roughly 1 week. Clinical trials suggest that a significant onset of antidepressant activity may occur by the end of the first or second week of treatment.