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  • CLASSES

    Selective Serotonin 1B/1D Receptor Agonists (Triptans)

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral serotonin agonist
    Used for acute migraine in patients >= 6 years old
    Causes less sustained coronary artery constriction than ergot alkaloids

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Maxalt, Maxalt-MLT

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Maxalt/Rizatriptan/Rizatriptan Benzoate Oral Tab: 5mg, 10mg
    Maxalt-MLT/Rizatriptan/Rizatriptan Benzoate Oral Tab Orally Dis: 5mg, 10mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of acute migraine attacks with or without aura.
    NOTE: Rizatriptan is not approved for prophylactic migraine therapy or for the treatment of hemiplegic or basilar migraines or cluster headaches.
    For acute treatment of migraine with or without aura using rizatriptan as a single agent.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    5 to 10 mg PO as a single dose at migraine onset. In geriatric patients, initiate dosing at the low end of the range and use with caution due to a greater frequency of concomitant disease states, organ impairment, and drug therapies. May repeat every 2 hours with no more than 30 mg in any 24-hour period. There is evidence that the 10 mg dose may be more efficacious than the 5 mg dose; therefore, the appropriate dose should be based on an individual basis with consideration of the potential for side effects.

    Adolescents and Children 6 years and older weighing 40 kg or more

    10 mg PO as a single dose. Safety and efficacy of more than 1 dose per 24 hours have not been established.

    Adolescents and Children 6 years and older weighing less than 40 kg

    5 mg PO as a single dose. Safety and efficacy of more than 1 dose per 24 hours have not been established.

    For treatment of migraine in patients who are receiving concomitant therapy with propranolol.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    5 mg PO at migraine onset. May repeat every 2 hours with no more than 15 mg PO in any 24-hour period. In general, use with caution in geriatric patients due to a greater frequency of concomitant disease states, organ impairment, and drug therapies.

    Adolescents and Children 6 years and older weighing 40 kg or more

    5 mg PO as a single dose. Administration of more than 1 dose per 24 hours is not recommended.

    Adolescents and Children 6 years and older weighing less than 40 kg

    Use is not recommended.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    30 mg/day PO per 24 hour period. If also receiving propranolol, do not exceed 15 mg/day PO. The safety of treating > 4 headaches in a 30-day period is not established.

    Geriatric

    30 mg/day PO per 24 hour period. If also receiving propranolol, do not exceed 15 mg/day PO. The safety of treating > 4 headaches in a 30-day period is not established.

    Adolescents

    >= 40 kg: 10 mg PO per 24 hour period. If also receiving propranolol, do not exceed 5 mg/day PO.
    < 40 kg: 5 mg PO per 24 hour period.

    Children

    >= 6 years and >= 40 kg: 10 mg PO per 24 hour period. If also receiving propranolol, do not exceed 5 mg/day PO.
    >= 6 years and < 40 kg: 5 mg PO per 24 hour period.
    < 6 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Use rizatriptan cautiously in patients with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction due to increased plasma concentrations of at least 30%.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl >= 10 ml/min: no dosage adjustment needed.
    CrCl < 10 ml/min: use rizatriptan with caution in dialysis patients as decreased clearance results in increased AUC.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    See dosage for patients with renal impairment. It is not known whether hemodialysis (or peritoneal dialysis) removes rizatriptan from plasma.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Rizatriptan may be given without regard to food.

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Maxalt tablets: Swallow whole with liquid.
    Maxalt-MLT oral disintegrating tablets: Do not remove from packaging until immediately prior to use. Open packaging with dry hands and place on the tongue where it will dissolve and be swallowed with the saliva. Rizatriptan does not need to be taken with fluids. The patient may take with fluids if desired.

    STORAGE

    Maxalt:
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Maxalt-MLT:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    - Store in carton until time of use

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Rizatriptan is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to rizatriptan or any of its inactive ingredients.

    Colitis, peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud's phenomenon

    Rizatriptan should be given cautiously to patients with peripheral vascular disease including Raynaud's phenomenon and ischemic bowel disease (colitis). 5-HT agonists may cause vasospastic reactions leading to vascular and colonic ischemia with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, arteriosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, tobacco smoking, vasospastic angina, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Rare, but serious adverse cardiac effects, including heart attacks, life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, and death have been reported within a few hours of receiving 5-HT1 agonists. Many of these patients had concurrent cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, it is difficult to assess causality. Rizatriptan and other 5-HT agonists may cause coronary vasospasm, and therefore are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), angina pectoris, vasospastic angina such as Prinzmetal's variant angina, arteriosclerosis, silent myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, history of myocardial infarction, or other significant cardiac disease. Patients with CAD risk factors (e.g., high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, tobacco smoking, family history of CAD, female with surgical or physiological menopause, or male > 40 yrs old) should not be given rizatriptan unless a cardiac evaluation determines they are reasonably free of CAD, myocardial ischemia or other significant cardiac disease. Patients who are long-term users of rizatriptan and who have or acquire risk factors predictive of CAD should undergo periodic cardiac evaluation. For patients with risk factors predictive of CAD who are determined to have a satisfactory cardiac evaluation, the first dose of rizatriptan should be given in a controlled setting such as a clinic or physician's office. ECG monitoring is strongly encouraged due to the possibility of asymptomatic cardiac ischemia during the time immediately following rizatriptan administration in patients with risk factors. In addition, patients with cardiac arrhythmias should not receive rizatriptan as rhythm disturbances have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or cardiac arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders should not receive rizatriptan because serious cardiac events have been reported within a few hours of receiving 5-HT1 agonists.

    Hypertension

    Rizatriptan is contraindicated in uncontrolled hypertension. Serotonin agonists can produce an increase in blood pressure in patients with and without a history of hypertension. Patients with controlled hypertension may experience mild and transient elevations in blood pressure.

    Cerebrovascular disease, intracranial bleeding, stroke

    Rizatriptan should be used with extreme caution in patients with cerebrovascular disease, including intracranial bleeding, stroke or transient ischemic attacks, due to the vasospastic effects of 5-HT agonists. While stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and related fatalities have been reported following administration of 5-HT1 agonists, these events may have been present prior to administration of the drug, and the drug was mistakenly given in response to the cerebrovascular symptoms. However, patients with migraines may be at an increased risk for cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage).

    Basilar/hemiplegic migraine

    Rizatriptan is contraindicated in basilar/hemiplegic migraine because safety and efficacy have not been established. Rizatriptan is not recommended for prophylaxis of migraine headaches or for the treatment of cluster headaches.

    Pregnancy

    Available data on the use of rizatriptan during human pregnancy are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. The rizatriptan prospective pregnancy registry did not identify any pattern of congenital anomalies or other adverse birth outcomes over 20 years. However, interpret the lack of identification of any pattern with caution, as outcomes data did not provide sufficient power to detect an increased risk of individual birth defects associated with the use of rizatriptan. An analysis of data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register reported a relative risk of malformations of 1.01 (95% CI 0.4 to 2.08) among live births with first-trimester exposure to rizatriptan. A study using linked data from a Norwegian birth registry and prescription database reported major congenital malformations in 10 infants of 310 women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan during the first trimester of pregnancy and in 12 infants of 271 women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan before, but not during, pregnancy. Compared to a general population group, the odds ratio for congenital malformation was 1.03 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.93) among women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan during the first trimester and 1.48 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.64) for those who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan before pregnancy. In animal studies, developmental toxicity was observed after oral administration of rizatriptan during pregnancy (decreased fetal body weight in rats) or throughout pregnancy and lactation (increased mortality, decreased body weight, and neurobehavioral impairment in rat offspring) at maternal plasma exposures higher than that expected at therapeutic doses in humans. Women with migraines may be at increased risk for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension during pregnancy.[31864]

    Breast-feeding

    There are no data on the presence of rizatriptan in human milk, the effects of rizatriptan on the breast-fed infant, or on milk production. Rizatriptan is excreted in rat milk, with milk concentrations approximately 6 times those in maternal plasma. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding along with the mother's clinical need for rizatriptan and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from rizatriptan or the underlying maternal condition.[31864] Sumatriptan was classified as compatible with breast-feeding by previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations and may be considered as an alternative to rizatriptan for the acute treatment of migraines in breast-feeding mothers.[27500]

    Hepatic disease

    Rizatriptan should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease experiencing moderate hepatic insufficiency due to an increase in plasma concentrations of approximately 30%.

    Dialysis, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Rizatriptan should be used with caution in patients with significant renal disease including severe renal failure (CrCl < 2 ml/min/1.73 m2), including patients receiving dialysis. The AUC of rizatriptan in patients with renal impairment (CrCl 10—60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was not significantly different from healthy volunteers.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Rizatriptan is not FDA-approved for use in neonates, infants, and children < 6 years of age.

    Phenylketonuria

    Patients with phenylketonuria should be warned that Maxalt-MLT (rizatriptan) disintegrating tablets contain phenylalanine. Each 5 mg disintegrating tablet contains 1.05 mg phenylalanine and each 10 mg disintegrating tablet contains 2.1 mg phenylalanine.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Patients should be advised to avoid driving or operating machinery until they know how rizatriptan will affect them.

    Geriatric

    Rizatriptan should be used with caution in geriatric patients and dose selection should be cautious, starting at the low end of the dosage range. Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased hepatic function, decreased renal function, more pronounced blood pressure increases, and are at a higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) than younger adults. Geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of coronary artery disease) should have a cardiovascular evaluation prior to receiving rizatriptan.

    MAOI therapy

    Rizatriptan is contraindicated in patients concurrently receiving or recently discontinuing (i.e., within 2 weeks) MAOI therapy, including MAO-A inhibitors or non-selective MAO inhibitors.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / 0.1-1.0
    bradycardia / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    akinesia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    muscle paralysis / Delayed / 0-0.1
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    coronary vasospasm / Early / Incidence not known
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bowel ischemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    intracranial bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    increased intracranial pressure / Early / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 0-3.0
    chest pressure syndrome / Rapid / 0-3.0
    ataxia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    dysarthria / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    hyperesthesia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    hypertension / Early / 0.1-1.0
    memory impairment / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    confusion / Early / 0.1-1.0
    depression / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    constipation / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    edema / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    myasthenia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    blurred vision / Early / 0.1-1.0
    dehydration / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    heat intolerance / Early / 0.1-1.0
    angina / Early / 0-0.1
    gastritis / Delayed / 0-0.1
    dysuria / Early / 0-0.1
    tachypnea / Early / 0-0.1
    erythema / Early / 0-0.1
    ocular inflammation / Early / 0-0.1
    hyperacusis / Delayed / 0-0.1
    photophobia / Early / 0-0.1
    photopsia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    palpitations / Early / 1.0
    euphoria / Early / 1.0
    hot flashes / Early / 1.0
    dyspnea / Early / 1.0
    withdrawal / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperthermia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peripheral vasoconstriction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    wheezing / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Mild

    dizziness / Early / 4.0-9.0
    drowsiness / Early / 4.0-8.0
    fatigue / Early / 4.0-7.0
    asthenia / Delayed / 4.0-7.0
    nausea / Early / 4.0-6.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 3.0-4.0
    xerostomia / Early / 3.0-3.0
    headache / Early / 0-2.0
    insomnia / Early / 0.1-1.0
    vertigo / Early / 0.1-1.0
    agitation / Early / 0.1-1.0
    irritability / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    flatulence / Early / 0.1-1.0
    gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 0.1-1.0
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 0.1-1.0
    arthralgia / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    myalgia / Early / 0.1-1.0
    muscle cramps / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    menstrual irregularity / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    polyuria / Early / 0.1-1.0
    increased urinary frequency / Early / 0.1-1.0
    nasal congestion / Early / 0.1-1.0
    nasal irritation / Early / 0.1-1.0
    throat irritation / Early / 0.1-1.0
    infection / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    nasal dryness / Early / 0.1-1.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    yawning / Early / 0.1-1.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    rash / Early / 0.1-1.0
    xerophthalmia / Early / 0.1-1.0
    ocular pain / Early / 0.1-1.0
    otalgia / Early / 0.1-1.0
    lacrimation / Early / 0.1-1.0
    ocular irritation / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 0.1-1.0
    polydipsia / Early / 0.1-1.0
    chills / Rapid / 0.1-1.0
    hyporeflexia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    dysesthesia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    hyperkinesis / Delayed / 0-0.1
    eructation / Early / 0-0.1
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 0-0.1
    hoarseness / Early / 0-0.1
    cough / Delayed / 0-0.1
    sneezing / Early / 0-0.1
    hiccups / Early / 0-0.1
    rhinorrhea / Early / 0-0.1
    acne vulgaris / Delayed / 0-0.1
    photosensitivity / Delayed / 0-0.1
    parosmia / Delayed / 0-0.1
    ocular pruritus / Rapid / 0-0.1
    syncope / Early / 0-0.1
    fever / Early / 0-0.1
    tremor / Early / 1.0
    hypoesthesia / Delayed / 1.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0
    vomiting / Early / 1.0
    dysgeusia / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dihydrocodeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering oxycodone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering tramadol with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering alfentanil with rizatriptan. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Almotriptan: (Contraindicated) Almotriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with rizatriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.
    Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Although unlikely to occur during monotherapy with serotonin-receptor agonists (or "triptans"), serotonin syndrome may occur from combining these drugs with other medications that potentiate serotonin activity. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Although unlikely to occur during monotherapy with serotonin-receptor agonists (or "triptans"), serotonin syndrome may occur from combining these drugs with other medications that potentiate serotonin activity. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Although unlikely to occur during monotherapy with serotonin-receptor agonists (or "triptans"), serotonin syndrome may occur from combining these drugs with other medications that potentiate serotonin activity. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dihydrocodeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering oxycodone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and serotonin-receptor agonists increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering benzhydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and serotonin-receptor agonists increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Bromocriptine: (Major) There are limited clinical trial data supporting the safety of giving a serotonin-receptor agonist ("triptan") with bromocriptine, an ergot derivative. The concomitant use of these agents with bromocriptine should be avoided. There is concern that prolonged vasospastic reactions, hypertension, tachycardia, or other side effects may occur.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Buprenorphine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering buprenorphine with serotonergic-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering buprenorphine with serotonergic-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Buspirone should be used cautiously with serotonin-receptor agonists. Pharmacologically, buspirone is a serotonin agonist, and using in conjunction with other serotonin agonists could result in serotonin syndrome, which can be serious and consists of symptoms such as mental status changes, diaphoresis, tremor, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, and fever. Patients receiving serotonin-agonists and buspirone should be informed of the signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dihydrocodeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dihydrocodeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Clomipramine: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Cocaine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of cocaine with other drugs that have CNS serotonergic properties, such as serotonin-receptor agonists, could potentiate serotonin neurotransmission, and result in serotonergic side effects or rarely, serotonin syndrome. The actions of cocaine are presumed to include inhibition of presynaptic reuptake of serotonin. In most medical use cases, cocaine would be administered topically, and this interaction would not be of concern, as serotonin-agonists for migraine are used mostly "as needed". Illicit use of cocaine is of potential concern for interactions.
    Codeine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering codeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Desipramine: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Desvenlafaxine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering desvenlafaxine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Although unlikely to occur during monotherapy with serotonin-receptor agonists (or "triptans"), serotonin syndrome may occur from combining these drugs with other medications that potentiate serotonin activity. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Promethazine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dextromethorphan with serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustments. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering dihydrocodeine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Doxepin: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Droxidopa: (Major) Coadministration of droxidopa with other agents that increase blood pressure, such as serotonin-receptor agonists, would be expected to increase the risk for supine hypertension. Monitor supine blood pressure. Reduce or discontinue droxidopa if supine hypertension persists. If supine hypertension is not well-managed, droxidopa may increase the risk of cardiovascular events.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Eletriptan: (Contraindicated) Eletriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with rizatriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.
    Ergot alkaloids: (Contraindicated) Serotonin-receptor agonists (triptans) are contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with ergot alkaloids (e.g., dihydroergotamine, methysergide) or ergot-type medications to avoid the potential for serious coronary ischemia. Ergot alkaloids have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions which may be additive with the effects of triptans. Additionally, ergot alkaloids are serotonergic agents whose effects on serotonin may be additive to those of the serotonin-receptor agonists.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Use fenfluramine and serotonin receptor agonists with caution due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) If concomitant use of fentanyl and rizatriptan is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Frovatriptan: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with frovatriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Major) Concurrent administration of propranolol 240 mg/day and a single dose of rizatriptan 10 mg resulted in a 70% increase in the mean rizatriptan AUC. The AUC of the active N-monodesmethyl metabolite was not affected by propranolol. This interaction is most likely due to first-pass metabolic interaction between rizatriptan and propranolol. Based on in vitro data, no pharmacokinetic interaction is expected with timolol or atenolol. This interaction requires a dose adjustment of rizatriptan when it is given concurrently with propranolol. The recommended dose of rizatriptan 5 mg up to a maximum of 15 mg in 24 hours when given with propranolol. Patients receiving concomitant administration of other antimigraine agents (e.g., beta-blockers including propranolol) with rizatriptan had similar adverse reaction rates as compared to those who did not receive these medications concomitantly.
    Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hydromorphone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydromorphone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and serotonin-receptor agonists increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering oxycodone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Imipramine: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Isocarboxazid: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use with a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor (MAO-A inhibitor) or nonselective MAOI (e.g., isocarboxazid) or within 2 weeks of discontinuing such a MAOI, due to the risk for serotonin syndrome and increased rizatriptan exposure. Rizatriptan is principally metabolized by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). During a drug interaction study with meclobemide (a selective MAO-A inhibitor), the mean increase in rizatriptan Cmax was 41%, and the mean increases in the AUC of rizatriptan and its metabolite were 119% and 400%, respectively.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of lasmiditan and serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering levomilnacipran with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Levorphanol: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering levorphanol with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Linezolid: (Major) Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a reversible, non-selective inhibitor of MAO and should not be administered with serotonin-receptor agonists. The monoamine oxidase type A enzyme metabolizes serotonin. Non-selective MAO inhibitors increase the plasma concentrations of these drugs and some of their active metabolites, thus increasing levels of serotonin. This interaction could lead to serotonin syndrome. The manufacturers of serotonin agonists contraindicate the administration of their drugs to patients receiving non-selective MAO inhibitors like linezolid or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of a MAO inhibitor.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Lithium: (Major) There is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome during concurrent use of drugs with central serotonergic properties such as lithium and serotonin-receptor agonists. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include autonomic instability (e.g., labile blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, dizziness, hyperthermia), mental status changes (e.g., delirium, confusion, coma), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), gastrointestinal effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), seizures, and in rare cases, death. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome and inform patients of the increased risk. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Lorcaserin: (Major) Based on the mechanism of action of lorcaserin and the theoretical potential for serotonin syndrome, use with extreme caution in combination with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, including, serotonin-receptor agonists. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) like signs and symptoms.
    Meperidine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering meperidine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering meperidine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Methadone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering methadone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as methamphetamine and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and serotonin-receptor agonists increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Methylene Blue: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and serotonin-receptor agonists increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering milnacipran with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Mirtazapine: (Major) Based on the mechanism of action of mirtazapine and the potential for serotonin syndrome, caution is advised when mirtazapine is coadministered with other drugs that may affect these neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans"). The co-use of serotonergic antidepressants with serotonin-agonists has sometimes resulted in serotonin syndrome. Careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, and hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea). Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which includes hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuation of vital signs, and mental status changes. Discontinue the serotonergic agents immediately if serotonin syndrome reactions occur and initiate supportive symptomatic treatment.
    Morphine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering morphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering morphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Nalbuphine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with sumatriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.
    Naratriptan: (Contraindicated) Naratriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with rizatriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.
    Nefazodone: (Major) Medications that augment release, decrease the metabolism of, or decrease the reuptake of serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists, may interact with nefazodone by causing serotonin-related side effects, including serotonin syndrome. Whenever possible, these drug combinations should be avoided. If serotonin-syndrome is suspected, offending agents should be discontinued.
    Nortriptyline: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Oliceridine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of oliceridine and serotonin-receptor agonists is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Oxycodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering oxycodone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Oxymorphone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering oxymorphone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Ozanimod: (Major) Coadministration of ozanimod with serotonin receptor agonists "triptans" is not recommended due to the potential for hypertensive crisis or serotonin syndrome. If coadministration is necessary, closely monitor patients for hypertension and serotonergic effects. An active metabolite of ozanimod inhibits MAO-B, which may increase the potential for hypertensive crisis or serotonin syndrome. Serotonin receptor agonists may increase blood pressure by increasing serotonin concentrations.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Phenelzine: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use with a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor (MAO-A inhibitor) or nonselective MAOI (e.g., phenelzine) or within 2 weeks of discontinuing such a MAOI, due to the risk for serotonin syndrome and increased rizatriptan exposure. Rizatriptan is principally metabolized by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). During a drug interaction study with meclobemide (a selective MAO-A inhibitor), the mean increase in rizatriptan Cmax was 41%, and the mean increases in the AUC of rizatriptan and its metabolite were 119% and 400%, respectively.
    Propranolol: (Major) Concurrent administration of propranolol 240 mg/day and a single dose of rizatriptan 10 mg resulted in a 70% increase in the mean rizatriptan AUC. The AUC of the active N-monodesmethyl metabolite was not affected by propranolol. This interaction is most likely due to first-pass metabolic interaction between rizatriptan and propranolol. Based on in vitro data, no pharmacokinetic interaction is expected with timolol or atenolol. This interaction requires a dose adjustment of rizatriptan when it is given concurrently with propranolol. The recommended dose of rizatriptan 5 mg up to a maximum of 15 mg in 24 hours when given with propranolol. Patients receiving concomitant administration of other antimigraine agents (e.g., beta-blockers including propranolol) with rizatriptan had similar adverse reaction rates as compared to those who did not receive these medications concomitantly.
    Protriptyline: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Use together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since rasagiline selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with rizatriptan would be expected with normal prescription use. However, there is a decline in MAO-B selectivity with increasing rasagiline doses. Monitor for potential serotonin-related side effects. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering remifentanil with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Safinamide: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with transdermal selegiline, orally disintegrating selegiline tablets, and high doses of oral selegiline capsules and tablets. Since selegiline oral tablets and capsules selectively inhibit MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with rizatriptan would be expected with normal prescription use. However, MAO-B selectivity decreases with increasing doses, therefore, an interaction may occur with high dose treatment. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue rizatriptan and selegiline and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering rizatriptan with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and SSRIs. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase of the SSRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SSRI regimen. Discontinue the SSRI and rizatriptan and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sibutramine: (Major) Sibutramine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Concomitant use of two serotonin-augmenting drugs has been associated with serotonin syndrome, so concurrent use of the serotonin-receptor agonists with sibutramine is not recommended.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) Although unlikely to occur during monotherapy with 5-HT1 agonists such as sumatriptan, serotonin syndrome may occur from combining medications that potentiate serotonin activity. Serotonin syndrome, while uncommon, can be serious and consists of symptoms such as mental status changes, diaphoresis, tremor, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, and fever. St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum can potentiate the effects of serotonin through inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering sufentanil with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sumatriptan: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with sumatriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.
    Tapentadol: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering tapentadol with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Tedizolid: (Minor) Caution is warranted with the concurrent use of tedizolid and serotonin-receptor agonists such as rizatriptan. Tedizolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak reversible, non-selective inhibitor of MAO. The monoamine oxidase (MAO) type A enzyme metabolizes serotonin. Non-selective traditional MAO inhibitors increase the plasma concentrations of these drugs and some of their active metabolites, thus increasing levels of serotonin. Serious CNS reactions, such as serotonin syndrome, have been reported during the concurrent use of linezolid, which is structurally similar to tedizolid, and psychiatric medications that enhance central serotonergic activity; therefore, caution is warranted with concomitant use of other agents with serotonergic activity. This interaction could lead to 'serotonin syndrome' (presenting as agitation, restlessness, aggressive behavior, insomnia, poor concentration, headache, paresthesia, incoordination, worsening of obsessive thoughts or compulsive behavior, nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, palpitations, or chills). The manufacturers of serotonin agonists contraindicate the administration of their drugs to patients receiving non-selective MAO inhibitors or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of a MAO inhibitor.
    Tramadol: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering tramadol with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use with a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor (MAO-A inhibitor) or nonselective MAOI (e.g., tranylcypromine) or within 2 weeks of discontinuing such a MAOI, due to the risk for serotonin syndrome and increased rizatriptan exposure. Rizatriptan is principally metabolized by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). During a drug interaction study with meclobemide (a selective MAO-A inhibitor), the mean increase in rizatriptan Cmax was 41%, and the mean increases in the AUC of rizatriptan and its metabolite were 119% and 400%, respectively. Tranylcypromine should not be used within 4 to 5 half-lives of discontinuing treatment with rizatriptan.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Coadministration of trazodone and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with both drugs when taken alone, but especially when coadministered with other serotonergic agents. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue the serotonin-receptor agonist and trazodone and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Trimipramine: (Moderate) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should be used cautiously with drugs that also augment serotonin, like the serotonin-receptor agonists ("triptans") used for the treatment of migraine. Additive effects may occur, and the risk of serotonin syndrome may be increased. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, but rarely cause serotonin syndrome when used alone. However, the risk may be increased when combined with other serotonergic agents, especially at times of antidepressant dose increases.
    Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan: (Contraindicated) Combining medications that potentiate serotonin neurotransmission, such as serotonin-receptor agonists and tryptophan, could result in serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome, while uncommon, can be serious and consists of symptoms such as mental status changes, diaphoresis, tremor, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, and fever.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering venlafaxine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin-receptor agonists and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Discontinue serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Vilazodone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering vilazodone with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with serotonin-receptor agonists. Of the 27 cases reviewed by the FDA, 2 were considered life-threatening and 13 required hospitalization. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident. Eight of 27 cases involved a recent dose increase or addition of another serotonergic drug to the regimen, with a median onset of 1 day (range: 10 minutes to 6 days). It is thought that the interaction between SNRIs or SSRIs and serotonin-receptor agonists is the result of increased serotonergic activity by each of the drug classes. Serotonin syndrome consists of symptoms such as mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion, hallucinations), diaphoresis, hyperreflexia, hypertension, diarrhea, fever, tremor, and, in some instances, respiratory failure. At least 6 patients taking an SSRI antidepressant are known to have received sumatriptan for migraine where no apparent adverse effects were seen. In another case report, the addition of fluoxetine lead to loss of migraine control with sumatriptan. Patients receiving vilazodone and a serotonin-receptor agonist should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. Vilazodone and the serotonin-receptor agonist should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
    Vortioxetine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering vortioxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of serotonergic antidepressants with the serotonin-receptor agonists. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Some cases have involved hospitalization. Serotonin syndrome consists of symptoms such as mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion, hallucinations), diaphoresis, hyperreflexia, hypertension, diarrhea, fever, tremor, and, in some instances, respiratory failure. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Careful monitoring for serotonin syndrome is recommended if combination therapy with is required. Risk factors can include a recent dose increase of the sertonergic antidepressant or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing antidepressant regimen.
    Zolmitriptan: (Contraindicated) Rizatriptan is contraindicated for use within 24 hours of treatment with zolmitriptan due to the risk for additive vasospastic reactions. Additive serotonergic effects, including serotonin syndrome, may also occur.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Available data on the use of rizatriptan during human pregnancy are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. The rizatriptan prospective pregnancy registry did not identify any pattern of congenital anomalies or other adverse birth outcomes over 20 years. However, interpret the lack of identification of any pattern with caution, as outcomes data did not provide sufficient power to detect an increased risk of individual birth defects associated with the use of rizatriptan. An analysis of data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register reported a relative risk of malformations of 1.01 (95% CI 0.4 to 2.08) among live births with first-trimester exposure to rizatriptan. A study using linked data from a Norwegian birth registry and prescription database reported major congenital malformations in 10 infants of 310 women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan during the first trimester of pregnancy and in 12 infants of 271 women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan before, but not during, pregnancy. Compared to a general population group, the odds ratio for congenital malformation was 1.03 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.93) among women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan during the first trimester and 1.48 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.64) for those who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan before pregnancy. In animal studies, developmental toxicity was observed after oral administration of rizatriptan during pregnancy (decreased fetal body weight in rats) or throughout pregnancy and lactation (increased mortality, decreased body weight, and neurobehavioral impairment in rat offspring) at maternal plasma exposures higher than that expected at therapeutic doses in humans. Women with migraines may be at increased risk for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension during pregnancy.[31864]

    There are no data on the presence of rizatriptan in human milk, the effects of rizatriptan on the breast-fed infant, or on milk production. Rizatriptan is excreted in rat milk, with milk concentrations approximately 6 times those in maternal plasma. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding along with the mother's clinical need for rizatriptan and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from rizatriptan or the underlying maternal condition.[31864] Sumatriptan was classified as compatible with breast-feeding by previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations and may be considered as an alternative to rizatriptan for the acute treatment of migraines in breast-feeding mothers.[27500]

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action: Rizatriptan is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT 1B/1D) receptor agonist. It has very weak activity at other 5-HT receptors, but has no activity at alpha, beta, dopaminergic, histaminergic, muscarinic, or benzodiazepine receptors. The pathophysiology of migraine is not completely understood, and therefore the action of the serotonin-agonists (i.e., 'triptans' ) in treating migraine is not completely certain. Multiple pharmacological actions have been derived that appear important for antimigraine effects.. 'Triptans' stimulate presynaptic 5-HT1D receptors, an action that inhibits both dural vasodilation and inflammation. They directly inhibit trigeminal nuclei cell nociceptive neurotransmission via 5-HT1B/D receptor agonism within the trigeminocervical complex of the brainstem and upper spinal cord. Additionally, vascular 5-HT1B receptor agonism results in vasoconstriction of painfully dilated intracranial extracerebral vessels.. Although rizatriptan has little effect on other 5-HT receptors, activation of coronary 5-HT 1B receptors could result in clinically significant cardiac events in patients with cardiac disease or risk factors for cardiac disease. However, it appears the cardiac effects of rizatriptan in vitro are less than those of sumatriptan.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Rizatriptan is administered orally; there are two distinct solid oral dosage forms. There is no accumulation of rizatriptan with repeated dosing. Rizatriptan is metabolized via oxidative deamination by monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to the inactive indoleacetic acid metabolite and to a small degree, to N-monodesmethyl-rizatriptan which has similar activity as the parent compound. Rizatriptan undergoes significant first pass metabolism with only 14% of the oral dose excreted in the urine as unchanged drug and 51% is excreted as the indole acetic acid metabolite. The half-life of rizatriptan averages 2—3 hours. Rizatriptan is a competitive inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2D6 but only at high, clinically irrelevant concentrations. Rizatriptan does not inhibit P450 isoforms 3A4/5, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, or 2E1.

    Oral Route

    Rizatriptan is rapidly absorbed orally with a bioavailability of about 45%. The time to peak plasma concentrations is approximately 1—1.5 hours. Food does not affect the availability of rizatriptan but delays the time to peak concentration by an hour and increases AUC. The bioavailability and peak plasma concentrations are similar between Maxalt tablets and Maxalt-MLT disintegrating tablets; however, the time to peak plasma concentration is longer with the Maxalt-MLT disintegrating tablets with a time to peak plasma concentration of 1.6—2.5 hours.