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  • CLASSES

    Other Antidiarrheals

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    CFTR chloride channel and calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitor at the luminal membrane of intestinal cells; reduces gastrointestinal fluid accumulation.
    Used for symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy.
    Botanical prescription drug derived from the red sap of the Croton lechleri plant; no affect on gut motility, not absorbed systemically.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Mytesi

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Mytesi Oral Tab DR: 125mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in patients with HIV-infection/AIDS receiving anti-retroviral therapy.
    Oral dosage (delayed-release tablets, e.g., Mytesi)
    Adults

    125 mg PO twice daily, taken with or without food. LIMITATION OF USE: Before initiating crofelemer, rule out infectious etiologies of diarrhea.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    250 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    250 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustment in hepatic impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustment in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer with or without food.
    Swallow the tablets whole; do not cut, chew, or crush.

    STORAGE

    FULYZAQ:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Mytesi:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    GI disease, malabsorption syndrome, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis

    During clinical evaluation of crofelemer, patients with a history of ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac sprue (gluten-enteropathy), chronic pancreatitis, malabsorption syndrome, or any other GI disease associated with diarrhea were excluded. Therefore, it may be prudent to avoid the use of crofelemer in these patients until more is known about any potential differences in the effects of therapy in patients with the above concomitant conditions.

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with crofelemer in pregnant women; this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. There are no adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women.. Reproduction studies performed with crofelemer in rats at oral doses up to 177-times the recommended daily human dose of 250 mg (approximately 4.2 mg/kg) revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. In pregnant rabbits,doses 96-times above the recommended human dose caused abortions and resorptions of fetuses. However, it is not clear whether these effects were directly related to the maternal toxicity that was observed. A pre- and postnatal development study performed with crofelemer in rats at oral doses of up to 177-times the recommended daily human dose of 4.2 mg/kg revealed no evidence of adverse pre- or postnatal effects in offspring. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response.

    Breast-feeding

    It is not known whether crofelemer is excreted in human milk; however, crofelemer is not measurable in plasma following oral administration at recommended clinical doses. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when crofelemer is administered to breast-feeding women. To reduce the risk of postnatal transmission, HIV-infected mothers within the United States are advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to avoid breast-feeding; this recommendation applies to both untreated women and women who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. In other patients, consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Children, infants, neonates

    The safety and effectiveness of crofelemer in neonates, infants, children and adolescents have not been established.

    Infection

    Crofelemer is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of non-infectious diarrhea. Crofelemer is not FDA-approved for the treatment of diarrhea associated with infection. In clinical trials, patients were excluded if they had diarrhea caused by organisms that penetrate the intestinal mucosa such as multiple bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Mycobacterium), bacterial toxins (Clostridium difficile), ova and parasites (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora, Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium), or viruses (Cytomegalovirus), or diarrhea due to pseudomembranous colitis associated with broad spectrum antibiotics. Diarrhea of infectious etiology should be ruled out and appropriate anti-infective therapy initiated before crofelemer treatment is considered.

    Black patients

    In the randomized clinical trial, no differences in response to treatment were observed between subjects with varying duration of diarrhea, baseline number of daily watery bowel movements, use of protease inhibitors, CD4 cell count or age. Among race subgroups, there were no differences in the consistency of the crofelemer treatment effect except for a subgroup of Black patients; crofelemer was comparatively less effective in African Americans than non-African Americans. There were too few females (85% of subjects were male) and patients with an HIV viral load greater than 400 copies/mL to adequately assess differences in effects in these populations.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Moderate

    hyperbilirubinemia / Delayed / 1.0-3.1
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 1.0-2.2
    hemorrhoids / Delayed / 2.2-2.2
    constipation / Delayed / 1.0-2.0
    depression / Delayed / 1.0-2.0
    leukopenia / Delayed / 1.0-2.0
    nephrolithiasis / Delayed / 1.0-2.0
    contact dermatitis / Delayed / 1.0-2.0

    Mild

    infection / Delayed / 3.9-5.7
    cough / Delayed / 3.5-3.5
    flatulence / Early / 3.1-3.1
    nausea / Early / 2.6-2.6
    arthralgia / Delayed / 2.6-2.6
    back pain / Delayed / 2.6-2.6
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 2.2-2.2
    anxiety / Delayed / 2.2-2.2
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 2.2-2.2
    xerostomia / Early / 1.0-2.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 1.0-2.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.0-2.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 1.0-2.0
    acne vulgaris / Delayed / 1.0-2.0
    increased urinary frequency / Early / 1.0-2.0
    dizziness / Early / 1.0-2.0

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Alosetron: (Severe) Serious and life-threatening constipation and bowel obstruction has been reported in IBS patients taking alosetron in combination with other agents to control diarrhea. The mechanism is pharmacodynamic additive constipation. Patients who have previously been on alosetron should discontinue this medication prior to taking crofelemer.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Antidiarrheals: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Atropine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration. (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Atropine; Diphenoxylate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration. (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration. (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Benztropine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Codeine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Dicyclomine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Flavoxate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration. (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hydromorphone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Levorphanol: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Lubiprostone: (Moderate) Crofelemer, through its local effects as an antidiarrheal on chloride channels in the intestine, may theoretically antagonize the pharmacologic effects of lubiprostone. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer crofelemer in combination with lubiprostone. While lubiprostone may cause diarrhea as a side effect, drug discontinuation alone may resolve the diarrhea.
    Mepenzolate: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Meperidine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Methadone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Morphine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Opiate Agonists: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Oxybutynin: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Oxycodone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Oxymorphone: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Propantheline: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Propoxyphene: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Scopolamine: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Trihexyphenidyl: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with crofelemer in pregnant women; this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. There are no adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women.. Reproduction studies performed with crofelemer in rats at oral doses up to 177-times the recommended daily human dose of 250 mg (approximately 4.2 mg/kg) revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. In pregnant rabbits,doses 96-times above the recommended human dose caused abortions and resorptions of fetuses. However, it is not clear whether these effects were directly related to the maternal toxicity that was observed. A pre- and postnatal development study performed with crofelemer in rats at oral doses of up to 177-times the recommended daily human dose of 4.2 mg/kg revealed no evidence of adverse pre- or postnatal effects in offspring. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response.

    It is not known whether crofelemer is excreted in human milk; however, crofelemer is not measurable in plasma following oral administration at recommended clinical doses. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when crofelemer is administered to breast-feeding women. To reduce the risk of postnatal transmission, HIV-infected mothers within the United States are advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to avoid breast-feeding; this recommendation applies to both untreated women and women who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. In other patients, consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Crofelemer is an inhibitor of both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride ion channel, and the calcium-activated chloride ion channels (CaCC) at the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These channels regulate fluid secretion by intestinal epithelial cells. Crofelemer acts by blocking the channels and accompanying high volume water loss in diarrhea, normalizing the flow of chloride ions and water in the GI tract.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Crofelemer is administered orally. Distribution has not been determined. No metabolites have been identified in healthy subjects or patients in clinical trials. The elimination route has not been identified in humans.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporter: none
    In vitro studies indicated that crofelemer has the potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A and transporters MRP2 and OATP1A2 at concentrations expected in the gut. However, due to its minimal absorption, it is not likely to inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzymes systemically.

    Oral Route

    The absorption of crofelemer is minimal following oral dosing in healthy adults and HIV-positive patients and concentrations of crofelemer in plasma are below the level of quantitation (i.e., < 50 ng/mL). Therefore, standard pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under the curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax), and half-life cannot be estimated.