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  • CLASSES

    Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4/DPP-4 Inhibitor Antidiabetics

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral DPP-4 inhibitor that inhibits the breakdown of GLP-1; GLP-1 increases insulin secretion and decreases glucagon secretion in response to a meal
    Used once daily for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults; mean A1C reduction 0.4 to 0.9%
    Used as monotherapy or in combination with other hypoglycemic agents including insulin, but not GLP-1 agonists

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Onglyza

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Onglyza Oral Tab: 2.5mg, 5mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in combination with diet and exercise.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    2.5 to 5 mg PO once daily. Limit the dose to 2.5 mg PO once daily if coadministered with a strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitor. Saxagliptin is used as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, with the exception of GLP-1 agonists. When used in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylureas) or insulin, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be necessary to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    5 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    5 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Not indicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    No dosage adjustments are needed.

    Renal Impairment

    eGFR 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more: No dosage adjustment needed.
    eGFR less than 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Limit dose to 2.5 mg PO once daily.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Limit dose to 2.5 mg PO once daily. Administer the dose after hemodialysis.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Saxagliptin may be taken with or without food.
    Do not split or cut tablets.

    STORAGE

    Onglyza:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Exfoliative dermatitis, history of angioedema, serious rash

    Saxagliptin is contraindicated in patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to saxagliptin, such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, or exfoliative dermatitis or other serious skin conditions (serious rash), including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. A risk of serious hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis has been reported in patients during the first 3 months of therapy with saxagliptin; some reports occurred after the first dose. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema to another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with saxagliptin. Postmarketing cases of serious rash, specifically bullous pemphigoid, requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. Treatment with topical or systemic immunosuppressives and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor has typically resulted in resolution of the rash. Inform patients of the risk of serious rash and tell them to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving saxagliptin. If a serious reaction is suspected, discontinue saxagliptin and refer the patient to a dermatologist for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

    Diabetic ketoacidosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Do not use saxagliptin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Both conditions require insulin receipt.

    Burns, fever, infection, surgery, trauma

    Temporary use of insulin in place of oral antidiabetic agents may be necessary during periods of physiologic stress (e.g., burns, systemic infection, trauma, surgery, or fever).

    Diarrhea, gastroparesis, GI obstruction, ileus, vomiting

    Changes in gastric emptying may alter blood glucose control; monitor patients with diarrhea, gastroparesis, GI obstruction, ileus, or vomiting taking saxagliptin carefully.

    Pancreatitis

    Acute pancreatitis has been reported in a randomized clinical trial and in postmarketing reports in patients taking saxagliptin or other members of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors class. Acute pancreatitis was confirmed in 17 of 8,240 (0.2%) patients treated with saxagliptin compared to 9 of 8,173 (0.1%) patients receiving placebo during a cardiovascular outcomes trial enrolling participants with established arthrosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or multiple risk factors for ASCVD (SAVOR trial). Preexisting risk factors for pancreatitis were identified in 88% (15/17) of patients receiving saxagliptin and in 100% (9/9) of those receiving placebo. The FDA continues to evaluate the risk for pancreatitis from saxagliptin and related agents. Prior to initiating therapy with saxagliptin, consider other risk factors for pancreatitis, such as a previous history of pancreatitis. Saxagliptin has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at an increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using saxagliptin. Carefully monitor all patients for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. Inform patients that persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, immediately discontinue saxagliptin and initiate appropriate management.

    Hypercortisolism, hyperglycemia, hyperthyroidism

    Conditions that predispose patients to developing hyperglycemia may alter saxagliptin efficacy. Hyperglycemia related conditions include drug interactions, female hormonal changes, high fever, severe psychological stress, and uncontrolled hypercortisolism, or hyperthyroidism. More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be necessary in patients with these conditions.

    Adrenal insufficiency, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, pituitary insufficiency

    Conditions that predispose patients to developing hypoglycemia may alter antidiabetic agent efficacy. Conditions associated with hypoglycemia include debilitated physical condition, drug interactions, malnutrition, uncontrolled adrenal insufficiency, pituitary insufficiency, or hypothyroidism. More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be necessary in patients with these conditions. The incidence of confirmed hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo when saxagliptin was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin. In order to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when saxagliptin is used in combination with sulfonylurea or insulin, a lower dose of the sulfonylurea or insulin may be required.

    Cardiac disease, heart failure

    Use saxagliptin with caution in patients who have a history of or who have increased risk factors for heart failure, including patients with existing cardiac disease or kidney disease. Observe patients receiving saxagliptin for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, consider discontinuing the drug. An increased risk of hospitalization for heart failure has been reported in patients receiving saxagliptin in a randomized, placebo-controlled postmarketing trial (SAVOR). The study included 16,492 patients with type 2 diabetes who had either a history of cardiovascular events or a risk for cardiovascular events. Patients were randomized to receive either saxagliptin therapy (n = 613) or placebo (n = 609) over a median of 2.1 years. Saxagliptin did not reduce or increase the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. However, 3.5% of patients in the saxagliptin group were hospitalized for heart failure compared to 2.8% of patients in the placebo group (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.51; p = 0.007). The SAVOR trial was not specifically designed to assess heart failure risk.

    Renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    A saxagliptin dosage adjustment is required in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment including renal failure and those patients on dialysis. Renal function assessment is recommended for all patients before saxagliptin initiation. Periodic renal function assessment is recommended during saxagliptin receipt. Saxagliptin may increase the risk of heart failure, particularly in patients who already have heart or renal disease. Observe patients with renal disease receiving saxagliptin for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, consider discontinuing the drug.

    Arthralgia

    Cases of severe, sometimes disabling, arthralgia (joint pain) have been reported with the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, including saxagliptin. Advise patients not to discontinue therapy but to contact their health care professional immediately if they experience severe and persistent joint pain while taking saxagliptin. Consider saxagliptin as a possible cause of joint pain and discontinue if appropriate. The FDA has identified 33 cases of severe arthralgia with the use of DPP-4 inhibitors, all of which resulted in substantial reduction of the patient’s prior level of activity and, in 10 cases, required hospitalization. In the reported cases, the onset of symptoms occurred from 1 day to several years after the start of therapy with a DPP-4 inhibitor. Symptoms resolved with discontinuation of therapy, usually in less than a month; however, some patients experienced a recurrence of joint pain when restarting the same drug or switching to another DPP-4 inhibitor.

    Geriatric

    During saxagliptin clinical trials, 42% (n = 11,301) of patients were 65 years and older and 10.7% (n = 1,210) of patients in clinical trials were 75 years of age and older; no overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between older and younger adult patients receiving saxagliptin alone. Greater sensitivity of some geriatric individuals to saxagliptin cannot be ruled out, particularly if the geriatric patient has co-existing cardiac or kidney disease, which may increase the risk for heart failure or renal impairment in some geriatric patients. Observe patients receiving saxagliptin for signs and symptoms of heart failure, and if heart failure develops, consider discontinuing the drug and monitoring for diabetic control. Dose adjustment based on renal function may be needed. Periodic renal function assessment is recommended during use. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, the use of antidiabetic medications should include monitoring (e.g., periodic blood glucose) for effectiveness based on desired goals for that individual and to identify complications of treatment such as hypoglycemia or impaired renal function.

    Pregnancy

    No adequate and well-controlled studies of saxagliptin use during human pregnancy exist; only use during pregnancy if clearly needed. Saxagliptin does cross the placenta in pregnant rats. Saxagliptin was not teratogenic at any dose tested when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during periods of organogenesis. Incomplete ossification of the pelvis, a form of developmental delay, occurred in rats at a dose of 240 mg/kg, or approximately 1,503 and 66-times the human exposure to saxagliptin and the active metabolite, respectively, at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 5 mg. Maternal toxicity and reduced fetal body weights were observed at 7,986 and 328-times the human exposure at the MRHD for saxagliptin and the active metabolite, respectively. Minor skeletal variations in rabbits occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 200 mg/kg, or approximately 1,432 and 992 times the MRHD. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) continue to recommend human insulin as the standard of care in women with diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring medical therapy; insulin does not cross the placenta.

    Breast-feeding

    Cautious use of saxagliptin by a mother who is breast-feeding an infant is advised, as many drugs are excreted in human milk. Saxagliptin excretion into human milk is unknown. If the drug is discontinued and blood glucose is not controlled on diet and exercise alone, insulin therapy should be considered. Other oral hypoglycemics may be considered as possible alternatives during breast-feeding. Because acarbose has limited systemic absorption, which results in minimal maternal plasma concentrations, clinically significant exposure via breast milk is not expected. Metformin monotherapy may also be a consideration; data have shown that metformin is excreted into breast milk in small amounts and adverse effects on infant plasma glucose have not been reported in human studies. Tolbutamide is usually considered compatible with breast-feeding. Glyburide may be a suitable alternative since it was not detected in the breast milk of lactating women who received single and multiple doses of glyburide. If any oral hypoglycemics are used during breast-feeding, the nursing infant should be monitored for signs of hypoglycemia, such as increased fussiness or somnolence. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Children

    The safety and efficacy of saxagliptin have not been established in children and adolescents under the age of 18 years.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / 0.8-1.4
    pancreatitis / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    pemphigus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    bone fractures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hypoglycemia / Early / 1.6-5.6
    peripheral edema / Delayed / 2.0-3.6
    lymphopenia / Delayed / 0.5-1.5
    bullous rash / Early / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    infection / Delayed / 0.1-7.7
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 6.9-6.9
    headache / Early / 6.5-6.5
    sinusitis / Delayed / 2.6-2.9
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.7-2.4
    vomiting / Early / 2.2-2.3
    urticaria / Rapid / 1.5-1.5
    rash / Early / 0.2-1.5
    arthralgia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Amiodarone: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and amiodarone are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as amiodarone.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Major) The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as clarithromycin. The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia, especially with antidiabetic drugs metabolized via CYP3A4/5. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as clarithromycin. The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia, especially with antidiabetic drugs metabolized via CYP3A4/5. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Amprenavir: (Moderate) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as amprenavir, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Patients taking antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Androgens: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Moniitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for increased blood sugars if coadministration of saxagliptin with apalutamide is necessary. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inducer decreased saxagliptin exposure by 76%.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if saxagliptin and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in saxagliptin-related adverse effects, for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of saxagliptin. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Atazanavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as atazanavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with cobicistat due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively. (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as atazanavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus and cause metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia. Monitor patients on antidiabetic agents for worsening glycemic control. The atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Aggravation of diabetes mellitus has been reported. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Patients taking antidiabetic agents and receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood glucose levels and dosage adjustment of their medication.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood sugars and watch for an increase in saxagliptin-related adverse reactions if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary. Saxagliptin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Brigatinib inhibits P-gp in vitro and may have the potential to increase concentrations of P-gp substrates.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Bumetanide: (Minor) Bumetanide has been associated with hyperglycemia, possibly due to potassium depletion, and, glycosuria has been reported. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between bumetanide and all antidiabetic agents. This interference can lead to a loss of diabetic control, so diabetic patients should be monitored closely.
    Cabozantinib: (Minor) Monitor for an increase in saxagliptin-related adverse reactions if coadministration with cabozantinib is necessary; a dose adjustment of saxagliptin may be necessary. Saxagliptin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Cabozantinib is a P-gp inhibitor and has the potential to increase plasma concentrations of P-gp substrates; however, the clinical relevance of this finding is unknown.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Ceritinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood sugar if coadministration of ceritinib with saxagliptin is necessary; a dosage adjustment may be necessary. Ceritinib is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and saxagliptin is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased saxagliptin exposure by 2.45-fold to 3.67-fold, while concomitant use with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor increased saxagliptin exposure by approximately 2-fold. The degree of CYP3A4 inhibition by ceritinib is unknown.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chloramphenicol: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and chloramphenicol are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as chloramphenicol.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when chloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with chloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity. (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as clarithromycin. The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia, especially with antidiabetic drugs metabolized via CYP3A4/5. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Clonidine: (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Cobicistat: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with cobicistat due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with cobicistat due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with cobicistat due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Conivaptan: (Major) Avoid coadministration of conivaptan, a CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and saxagliptin, a CYP3A4/P-gp substrate. Concurrent use may result in increased serum concentrations of saxagliptin. According to the manufacturer of conivaptan, concomitant use of conivaptan with CYP3A4 substrates, such as saxagliptin, should be avoided. Subsequent treatment with CYP3A substrates may be initiated no sooner than 1 week after completion of conivaptan therapy. Coadministration of conivaptan with other CYP3A substrates (midazolam, simvastatin, amlodipine) has resulted in increased mean AUC values (2 to 3 times). Theoretically, similar pharmacokinetic effects could be seen with saxagliptin.
    Conjugated Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Corticotropin, ACTH: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Daclatasvir: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose to avoid hypoglycemia if daclatasvir is coadministered with saxagliptin due to the potential for increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; daclatasvir is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Dalfopristin; Quinupristin: (Major) The manufacturer recommends limiting the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg/day if used with strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as dalfopristin; quinupristin. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5, and maximum serum concentrations and exposure of saxagliptin are increased when administered with strong inhibitors. Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if these drugs are used together.
    Darunavir: (Minor) Monitor patients taking saxagliptin with darunavir for changes in glycemic control.The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as darunavir. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with cobicistat due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively. (Minor) Monitor patients taking saxagliptin with darunavir for changes in glycemic control.The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as darunavir. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with cobicistat due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively. (Minor) Monitor patients taking saxagliptin with darunavir for changes in glycemic control.The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as darunavir. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as ritonavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Delavirdine: (Major) The manufacturer recommends limiting the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg/day if used with strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as delavirdine. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5, and maximum serum concentrations and exposure of saxagliptin are increased when administered with strong inhibitors. Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if these drugs are used together.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diazoxide: (Minor) Diazoxide, when administered intravenously or orally, produces a prompt dose-related increase in blood glucose level, due primarily to an inhibition of insulin release from the pancreas, and also to an extrapancreatic effect. The hyperglycemic effect begins within an hour and generally lasts no more than 8 hours in the presence of normal renal function. The hyperglycemic effect of diazoxide is expected to be antagonized by certain antidiabetic agents (e.g., insulin or a sulfonylurea). Blood glucose should be closely monitored.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Diethylpropion: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diethylstilbestrol, DES: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) The AUC and Cmax of digoxin may be increased in the presence of saxagliptin. Dosage adjustment of digoxin is not recommended, but patients receiving these 2 drugs at the same time should be monitored closely.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diltiazem: (Minor) Saxagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem. However, coadministration increased the maximum serum saxagliptin concentration by 63% and the systemic exposure by 2.1-fold. As expected, the maximum serum concentration of the saxagliptin active metabolite was decreased by 44% and the systemic exposure was decreased by 36%. Saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised when coadministered with diltiazem.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) Disopyramide may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents. Patients receiving disopyramide concomitantly with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Dobutamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dopamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Dronedarone: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and dronedarone are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as dronedarone.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering metformin; saxagliptin with elbasvir; grazoprevir may result in elevated saxagliptin plasma concentrations. Saxagliptin is a substrate of CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of adverse events.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Enzalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for increased blood sugars if coadministration of saxagliptin with enzalutamide is necessary. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inducer decreased saxagliptin exposure by 76%.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Erythromycin: (Minor) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as erythromycin, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides. (Minor) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as erythromycin, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Esterified Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Estrogens: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estropipate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethanol: (Moderate) Patients should be advised to limit alcohol (ethanol) ingestion when treated with an antidiabetic agent. Ethanol inhibits gluconeogenesis, which can contribute to or increase the risk for hypoglycemia. In some patients, hypoglycemia can be prolonged. If a patient with diabetes ingests alcohol, they should be counselled to to avoid ingestion of alcohol on an empty stomach, which increases risk for low blood sugar. Patients should also be aware of the carbohydrate intake provided by certain types of alcohol in the diet, which can contribute to poor glycemic control. If a patient chooses to ingest alcohol, they should monitor their blood glucose frequently. Many non-prescription drug products may be formulated with alcohol; instruct patients to scrutinize product labels prior to consumption.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Ethotoin: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Etonogestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Fenofibrate: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Fibric acid derivatives: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) In patients with diabetes mellitus, fluoxetine may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy. Hyperglycemia has developed in patients with diabetes mellitus following discontinuation of the drug. The dosage of insulin and/or other antidiabetic agents may need to be adjusted when therapy with fluoxetine is instituted or discontinued.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) In patients with diabetes mellitus, fluoxetine may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy. Hyperglycemia has developed in patients with diabetes mellitus following discontinuation of the drug. The dosage of insulin and/or other antidiabetic agents may need to be adjusted when therapy with fluoxetine is instituted or discontinued.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluvoxamine: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and fluvoxamine are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as fluvoxamine.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as fosamprenavir, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Patients taking antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Fosphenytoin: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for saxagliptin toxicities that may require saxagliptin dose reduction if given concurrently with fostamatinib. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended. Concomitant use of fostamatinib with a P-gp substrate may increase the concentration of the P-gp substrate. Fostamatinib is a P-gp inhibitor; saxagliptin is a substrate for P-gp. Coadministration of fostamatinib with another P-gp substrate increased the P-gp substrate AUC by 37% and Cmax by 70%.
    Furosemide: (Minor) Furosemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents. This interference can lead to a loss of diabetic control, so diabetic patients should be monitored closely if these drugs are initiated.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Moderate) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should use dietary supplements of Garlic, Allium sativum with caution. Constituents in garlic might have some antidiabetic activity, and may increase serum insulin levels and increase glycogen storage in the liver. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control. Patients with diabetes should inform their health care professionals of their intent to ingest garlic dietary supplements. Some patients may require adjustment to their hypoglycemic medications over time. One study stated that additional garlic supplementation (0.05 to 1.5 grams PO per day) contributed to improved blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus within 1 to 2 weeks, and had positive effects on total cholesterol and high/low density lipoprotein regulation over time. It is unclear if hemoglobin A1C is improved or if improvements are sustained with continued treatment beyond 24 weeks. Other reviews suggest that garlic may provide modest improvements in blood lipids, but few studies demonstrate decreases in blood glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. More controlled trials are needed to discern if garlic has an effect on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. When garlic is used in foods or as a seasoning, or at doses of 50 mg/day or less, it is unlikely that blood glucose levels are affected to any clinically significant degree.
    Gemfibrozil: (Moderate) Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when antidiabetic agents are administered with fibric acid derivatives (e.g., clofibrate, fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil). Fibric acid derivatives may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents through increased insulin sensitivity and decreased glucagon secretion.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of glecaprevir and saxagliptin as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of saxagliptin and increase the risk of adverse effects. Saxagliptin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); glecaprevir is a P-gp inhibitor. (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of pibrentasvir and saxagliptin as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of saxagliptin and increase the risk of adverse effects. Saxagliptin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); pibrentasvir is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Grapefruit juice: (Minor) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as grapefruit juice, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised.
    Green Tea: (Moderate) Green tea catechins have been shown to decrease serum glucose concentrations in vitro. Patients with diabetes mellitus taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored closely for hypoglycemia if consuming green tea products.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydantoins: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity. (Minor) Triamterene can interfere with the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents. This can lead to a loss of diabetic control, so diabetic patients should be monitored closely.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when hydroxychloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with hydroxychloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Hydroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Imatinib: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and imatinib, STI-571 are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as imatinib, STI-571.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) A potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between indapamide and antidiabetic agents, like saxagliptin. Indapamide can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia.
    Indinavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as indinavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with saxagliptin may result in increased serum concentrations of saxagliptin. Saxagliptin is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Caution and close monitoring for adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOI-type medications, including the selective MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.Although at low doses selegiline is selective for MAO type B, in doses above 30 to 40 mg/day, this selectivity is lost.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Minor) Coadministration of saxagliptin and rifampin decreased the maximum serum saxagliptin concentration by 53% and the systemic exposure by 76%. As expected, the maximum serum concentration of the saxagliptin active metabolite was increased by 39%; no significant change in the systemic exposure was noted. Saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised when coadministered with rifampin, as the plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity over a 24-hour period was unaffected.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Minor) Coadministration of saxagliptin and rifampin decreased the maximum serum saxagliptin concentration by 53% and the systemic exposure by 76%. As expected, the maximum serum concentration of the saxagliptin active metabolite was increased by 39%; no significant change in the systemic exposure was noted. Saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised when coadministered with rifampin, as the plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity over a 24-hour period was unaffected.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Do not exceed 2.5 mg PO daily of saxagliptin when combined with itraconazole; monitor for evidence of hypoglycemia. Itraconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor; saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration of another CYP3A4 substrate the saxagliptin AUC up to 3.7-fold.
    Ketoconazole: (Major) Saxagliptin is a p-glycoprotein substrate, and the metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. Ketoconazole is a strong inhibitor of both p-glycoprotein and CYP3A4/5. Saxagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole, but coadministration increased the maximum serum saxagliptin concentration by 62% and the systemic exposure by 2.5-fold. As expected, the maximum serum concentration of the saxagliptin active metabolite was decreased by 95% and the systemic exposure was decreased by 91%. In another study, the maximum serum saxagliptin concentration increased by 2.4-fold and the systemic exposure increased by 3.4-fold. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitor such as ketoconazole.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when lanreotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with lanreotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Lapatinib: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and lapatinib are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as lapatinib.
    Letermovir: (Moderate) An increase in the plasma concentration of saxagliptin may occur if given with letermovir. Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg once per day if the patient is also receiving cyclosporine because the magnitude of this interaction may be increased. Saxagliptin is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Letermovir is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor; however, when given with cyclosporine, the combined effect on CYP3A4 substrates may be similar to a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Concurrent administration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased the maximum plasma concentration and exposure of saxagliptin by 1.62- and 2.45-fold, respectively.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levocarnitine: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Levothyroxine: (Minor) Addition of thyroid hormones to antidiabetic or insulin therapy may result in increased dosage requirements of the antidiabetic agents. Blood sugars should be carefully monitored when thyroid therapy is added, discontinued or doses changed.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Minor) Addition of thyroid hormones to antidiabetic or insulin therapy may result in increased dosage requirements of the antidiabetic agents. Blood sugars should be carefully monitored when thyroid therapy is added, discontinued or doses changed.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Minor) Addition of thyroid hormones to antidiabetic or insulin therapy may result in increased dosage requirements of the antidiabetic agents. Blood sugars should be carefully monitored when thyroid therapy is added, discontinued or doses changed.
    Linezolid: (Moderate) Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes, has been noted in post-marketing reports with linezolid in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving therapy with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetic patients should be monitored for potential hypoglycemic reactions while on linezolid. If hypoglycemia occurs, discontinue or decrease the dose of the antidiabetic agent or discontinue the linezolid therapy. Linezolid is a reversible, nonselective MAO inhibitor and other MAO inhibitors have been associated with hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.
    Liothyronine: (Minor) Addition of thyroid hormones to antidiabetic or insulin therapy may result in increased dosage requirements of the antidiabetic agents. Blood sugars should be carefully monitored when thyroid therapy is added, discontinued or doses changed.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Lithium may cause variable effects on glycemic control when used in patients receiving antidiabetic therapy. Blood glucose concentrations should be closely monitored if lithium is taken by the patient. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lomefloxacin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including saxagliptin, are coadministered. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent.
    Lomitapide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of lomitapide and saxagliptin may result in increased serum concentrations of saxagliptin. According to the manufacturer of lomitapide, dose reduction of saxagliptin should be considered during concurrent use. Lomitapide is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and saxagliptin is a P-gp substrate.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitor such as the ritonavir component of lopinavir; ritonavir. In addition, new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated. (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as ritonavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) In general, weight reduction may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylureas). In clinical trials, lorcaserin use was associated with reports of hypoglycemia. Blood glucose monitoring is warranted in patients with type 2 diabetes prior to starting and during lorcaserin treatment. Dosage adjustments of anti-diabetic medications should be considered. If a patient develops hypoglycemia during treatment, adjust anti-diabetic drug regimen accordingly. Of note, lorcaserin has not been studied in combination with insulin.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter the systemic exposure of saxagliptin; if used together, monitor blood glucose concentrations closely. Saxagliptin is a substrate of CYP3A (primary) and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data also suggest lumacaftor; ivacaftor may induce and/or inhibit P-gp. Although induction of saxagliptin metabolism through the CYP3A pathway may lead to decreased drug efficacy, the net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on P-gp transport is not clear.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Mecasermin rinfabate: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methazolamide: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Because metoclopramide can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents, including saxagliptin. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive metoclopramide concomitantly.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) In patients taking insulin or other antidiabetic agents, the signs and symptoms of acute metyrapone toxicity (e.g., symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency) may be aggravated or modified.
    Midodrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Mifepristone: (Moderate) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and mifepristone are used together; dosage reduction of saxagliptin may be needed in some patients. In patients taking CYP3A substrates, the manufacturer of mifepristone recommends that the lowest dose of the CYP3A substrate that achieves the proper clinical response and tolerability be used. When potent CYP3A inhibitors are used, the initial dose of saxagliptin should be limited to 2.5 mg/day; mifepristone is a CYP3A inhibitor and has been noted to increase concentrations of CYP3A substrates. Due to the slow elimination of mifepristone from the body, such interactions may be observed for a prolonged period after mifepristone administration.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOI-type medications, including the selective MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.Although at low doses selegiline is selective for MAO type B, in doses above 30 to 40 mg/day, this selectivity is lost.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nefazodone: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitor such as nefazodone.
    Nelfinavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as nelfinavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of protease inhibitors. Patients taking antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Nicardipine: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and nicardipine are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as nicardipine.
    Nicotine: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose concentrations for needed antidiabetic agent dosage adjustments in diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs. Nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine levels) and may increase plasma glucose. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose.
    Norepinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Norethindrone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Norgestrel: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving octreotide concomitantly with insulin or other antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control and adjust doses of these medications accordingly. Octreotide alters the balance between the counter-regulatory hormones of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone, which may result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia which occurs during octreotide acetate therapy is usually mild, but may result in overt diabetes mellitus or necessitate dose changes in insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. In patients with concomitant type1 diabetes mellitus, octreotide is likely to affect glucose regulation, and insulin requirements may be reduced. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, which may be severe, has been reported in type 1 diabetic patients. In Type 2 diabetes patients with partially intact insulin reserves, octreotide administration may result in decreases in plasma insulin levels and hyperglycemia.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as ritonavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Orlistat: (Minor) Weight-loss may affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In many patients, glycemic control may improve. A reduction in dose of oral hypoglycemic medications may be required in some patients taking orlistat. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control and adjust therapy as clinically indicated.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pasireotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pasireotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with pasireotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pegvisomant treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pegvisomant increases sensitivity to insulin by lowering the activity of growth hormone, and in some patients glucose tolerance improves with treatment. Patients with diabetes treated with pegvisomant and antidiabetic agents may be more likely to experience hypoglycemia.
    Pemoline: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Pentamidine can be harmful to pancreatic cells. This effect may lead to hypoglycemia acutely, followed by hyperglycemia with prolonged pentamidine therapy. Patients on antidiabetic agents should be monitored for the need for dosage adjustments during the use of pentamidine.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Pentoxiphylline has been used concurrently with antidiabetic agents without observed problems, but it may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents. Patients should be monitored for changes in glycemic control while receiving pentoxifylline in combination with antidiabetic agents.
    Phendimetrazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOI-type medications, including the selective MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.Although at low doses selegiline is selective for MAO type B, in doses above 30 to 40 mg/day, this selectivity is lost.
    Phenothiazines: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should monitor for worsening glycemic control when a phenothiazine is instituted.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenytoin: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Ponatinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ponatinib, a P-gp inhibitor, and saxagliptin, a P-gp substrate, may increase the exposure of saxagliptin.
    Posaconazole: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and posaconazole are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as posaconazole.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Progesterone: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Progestins: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Quinine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and quinine are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as quinine.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose carefully when systemic quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, are coadministered. Discontinue the quinolone if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and initiate appropriate therapy immediately. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Hypoglycemia, sometimes resulting in coma, can occur.
    Racepinephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Reserpine may mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia because of their sympatholytic activity. Patients receiving reserpine concomitantly with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with ribociclib due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with ribociclib due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively.
    Rifampin: (Minor) Coadministration of saxagliptin and rifampin decreased the maximum serum saxagliptin concentration by 53% and the systemic exposure by 76%. As expected, the maximum serum concentration of the saxagliptin active metabolite was increased by 39%; no significant change in the systemic exposure was noted. Saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised when coadministered with rifampin, as the plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity over a 24-hour period was unaffected.
    Ritodrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ritonavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor such as ritonavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion, decreasing blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving saxagliptin.
    Sapropterin: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of sapropterin and saxagliptin as coadministration may result in increased systemic exposure of saxagliptin. Saxagliptin is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); in vitro data show that sapropterin may inhibit P-gp. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for increased side effects of saxagliptin.
    Saquinavir: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitor such as saquinavir. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Selegiline: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOI-type medications, including the selective MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.Although at low doses selegiline is selective for MAO type B, in doses above 30 to 40 mg/day, this selectivity is lost.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Plasma concentrations of saxagliptin, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with voxilaprevir, a P-gp inhibitor. Monitor patients for changes in blood sugars and increased side effects if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Sparfloxacin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including saxagliptin, are coadministered. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent.
    Streptogramins: (Major) The manufacturer recommends limiting the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg/day if used with strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as dalfopristin; quinupristin. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5, and maximum serum concentrations and exposure of saxagliptin are increased when administered with strong inhibitors. Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if these drugs are used together.
    Sulfadiazine: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfasalazine: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sulfonamides: (Moderate) Sulfonamides may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents; patients with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored during sulfonamide treatment. Sulfonamides may induce hypoglycemia in some patients by increasing the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. Patients at risk include those with compromised renal function, those fasting for prolonged periods, those that are malnourished, and those receiving high or excessive doses of sulfonamides.
    Sympathomimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Tacrolimus has been reported to cause hyperglycemia. Monitor for worsening of glycemic control if therapy with tacrolimus is initiated in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Tegaserod: (Moderate) Because tegaserod can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive tegaserod concomitantly.
    Telithromycin: (Major) The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5. The saxagliptin dose is limited to 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitor such as telithromycin.
    Telotristat Ethyl: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of telotristat ethyl and saxagliptin is necessary, as the systemic exposure of saxagliptin may be decreased resulting in reduced efficacy. If these drugs are used together, monitor patients for suboptimal efficacy of saxagliptin; consider increasing the dose of saxagliptin if necessary. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate. The mean Cmax and AUC of another sensitive CYP3A4 substrate was decreased by 25% and 48%, respectively, when coadministered with telotristat ethyl; the mechanism of this interaction appears to be that telotristat ethyl increases the glucuronidation of the CYP3A4 substrate.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in saxagliptin-related adverse reactions including hypoglycemia if coadministration with temsirolimus is necessary. Saxagliptin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and temsirolimus is a P-gp inhibitor. Concomitant use is likely to lead to increased concentrations of saxagliptin.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. Finally, both thiazides and sulfonylureas have been reported to cause photosensitivity reactions; concomitant use may increase the risk of photosensitivity.
    Thyroid hormones: (Minor) Addition of thyroid hormones to antidiabetic or insulin therapy may result in increased dosage requirements of the antidiabetic agents. Blood sugars should be carefully monitored when thyroid therapy is added, discontinued or doses changed.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Tipranavir: (Major) The manufacturer recommends limiting the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg/day if used with strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors such as tipranavir boosted with ritonavir. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5, and maximum serum concentrations and exposure of saxagliptin are increased when administered with strong inhibitors. Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if these drugs are used together. New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have also been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Tobacco: (Minor) Tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose. Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored more closely whenever a change in either smoking status occurs; dosage adjustments in antidiabetic agents may be needed.
    Torsemide: (Minor) Torsemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between these drugs and all antidiabetic agents. This interference can lead to a loss of diabetic control, so diabetic patients should be monitored closely if these drugs are initiated.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Minor) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as verapamil, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Animal data indicate that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) may stimulate insulin secretion. Inhibitors of MAO type A have been shown to prolong the hypoglycemic response to insulin and oral sulfonylureas. Serum glucose should be monitored closely when MAOI-type medications, including the selective MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, are added to any regimen containing antidiabetic agents.Although at low doses selegiline is selective for MAO type B, in doses above 30 to 40 mg/day, this selectivity is lost.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Triamterene: (Minor) Triamterene can interfere with the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents. This can lead to a loss of diabetic control, so diabetic patients should be monitored closely.
    Trovafloxacin, Alatrofloxacin: (Moderate) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including saxagliptin, are coadministered. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent.
    Verapamil: (Minor) Saxagliptin plasma concentrations are expected to increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as verapamil, but saxagliptin dose adjustment is not advised.
    Voriconazole: (Major) Limit the dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg PO once daily when administered with voriconazole due to significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4 substrate; voriconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with a single 100 mg dose of saxagliptin and a single 20 mg dose of saxagliptin increased the saxagliptin AUC by 2.45-fold and 3.67-fold, respectively.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) Monitor patients for hypoglycemia if saxagliptin and zafirlukast are used together. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5; saxagliptin plasma concentrations may increase in the presence of moderate CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors such as zafirlukast.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Zonisamide is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and saxagliptin is a substrate of P-gp. There is theoretical potential for zonisamide to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates. Use caution when starting or stopping zonisamide or changing the zonisamide dosage in patients also receiving drugs which are P-gp substrates.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    No adequate and well-controlled studies of saxagliptin use during human pregnancy exist; only use during pregnancy if clearly needed. Saxagliptin does cross the placenta in pregnant rats. Saxagliptin was not teratogenic at any dose tested when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during periods of organogenesis. Incomplete ossification of the pelvis, a form of developmental delay, occurred in rats at a dose of 240 mg/kg, or approximately 1,503 and 66-times the human exposure to saxagliptin and the active metabolite, respectively, at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 5 mg. Maternal toxicity and reduced fetal body weights were observed at 7,986 and 328-times the human exposure at the MRHD for saxagliptin and the active metabolite, respectively. Minor skeletal variations in rabbits occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 200 mg/kg, or approximately 1,432 and 992 times the MRHD. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) continue to recommend human insulin as the standard of care in women with diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring medical therapy; insulin does not cross the placenta.

    Cautious use of saxagliptin by a mother who is breast-feeding an infant is advised, as many drugs are excreted in human milk. Saxagliptin excretion into human milk is unknown. If the drug is discontinued and blood glucose is not controlled on diet and exercise alone, insulin therapy should be considered. Other oral hypoglycemics may be considered as possible alternatives during breast-feeding. Because acarbose has limited systemic absorption, which results in minimal maternal plasma concentrations, clinically significant exposure via breast milk is not expected. Metformin monotherapy may also be a consideration; data have shown that metformin is excreted into breast milk in small amounts and adverse effects on infant plasma glucose have not been reported in human studies. Tolbutamide is usually considered compatible with breast-feeding. Glyburide may be a suitable alternative since it was not detected in the breast milk of lactating women who received single and multiple doses of glyburide. If any oral hypoglycemics are used during breast-feeding, the nursing infant should be monitored for signs of hypoglycemia, such as increased fussiness or somnolence. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Saxagliptin is a competitive dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, which exerts its actions in patients with type 2 diabetes by slowing the inactivation of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP). Both GLP-1 and GIP are released by the intestine throughout the day, and their concentrations are increased in response to a meal. Normally, both GLP-1 and GIP are inactivated by DPP-4 within minutes. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells leading to reduced hepatic glucose production, and GLP-1 slows gastric emptying time, which decreases postprandial glucose excursions. Saxagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon concentrations in the circulation in a glucose-dependent manner; GLP-1 does not increase insulin secretion when the glucose concentration is less than 90 mg/dL. Saxagliptin is of benefit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as their GLP-1 concentrations are decreased in response to a meal. Although GLP-1 concentrations are reduced, the insulin response to GLP-1 is preserved. Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who receive saxagliptin, both fasting and postprandial serum glucose concentrations are reduced in a glucose-dependent manner. The long-term safety of DPP-4 inhibitors is currently under investigation as DPP-4 is not an enzyme specific for the breakdown of incretin hormones. In fact, DPP-4 is responsible for the metabolism of many peptides including pancreatic peptide YY, neuropeptide Y, and growth hormone-releasing hormone. DPP-4 is involved with T-cell activation and is expressed on lymphocytes as CD26. Long-term neurological or immunological consequences of inhibiting DPP-4 are unknown.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Saxagliptin is administered orally. In vitro, protein binding of saxagliptin and its active metabolite was negligible. Metabolism is primarily mediated hepatically by CYP3A4/5 to produce 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, which is one-half as potent as saxagliptin as a DPP-IV inhibitor. Saxagliptin and its active metabolite are renally eliminated; some active renal excretion appears to occur. After a 50 mg oral, radiolabeled dose, 24% of the dose was excreted renally as saxagliptin, and 36% was excreted renally as 5-hydroxy saxagliptin. In addition to renal excretion, some fecal elimination also occurs. Of the administered radioactivity, 22% was recovered in the feces; some was excreted in the bile, and some was unabsorbed drug from the gastrointestinal tract. Among healthy patients who took a single 5 mg oral dose, the mean plasma terminal half-life was 2.5 hours for saxagliptin and 3.1 hours for 5-hydroxy saxagliptin.
     
    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) enzyme by saxagliptin lasts for 24 hours. After an oral glucose load or meal, the circulating concentrations of active glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide increased 2- to 3-fold. Also, glucagon concentrations decreased and glucose-dependent insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells increased.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4/5, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)
    Saxagliptin is a CYP3A4/5 substrate. Thus, strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors or inducers will alter pharmacokinetic parameters. Neither saxagliptin nor its active metabolite are inhibitors of CYP isozymes 3A4, 2C9, 2D6, 1A2, 2C19, 2A6, 2E1, or 2B6 or inducers of CYP 3A4, 2B6, 2C9, or 1A2. Saxagliptin is also is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate but is not a significant inhibitor or inducer of P-gp.

    Oral Route

    After a 5 mg oral dose, the mean time to the maximum saxagliptin concentration was 2 hours, and the mean time to the maximum concentration of the active metabolite, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, was 4 hours. Administration of saxagliptin with a high-fat meal increased the time to the maximum saxagliptin concentration by about 20 minutes, and the systemic exposure increased by 27%.