PDR MEMBER LOGIN:
  • PDR Search

    Required field
  • Advertisement
  • CLASSES

    Opioid Agonists and Other Drug Combinations

    BOXED WARNING

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, coma, cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, nasal polyps, obesity, pulmonary disease, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus, urticaria

    Aspirin; oxycodone use is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression, acute or severe asthma (e.g., status asthmaticus), or hypercapnia in unmonitored care settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment.[29670] Additionally, avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible as this significantly increases the risk for respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and death.[61143] As with other opioid agonists, oxycodone should be avoided in patients with severe pulmonary disease. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, respiratory insufficiency, upper airway obstruction, or preexisting respiratory depression, it is recommended that non-opioid analgesics be considered as alternatives to oxycodone, as even usual therapeutic doses may decrease respiratory drive and cause apnea in these patient populations. Extreme caution should also be used in patients with chronic asthma, kyphoscoliosis (a type of scoliosis), hypoxemia, or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Oxycodone should not be used during impaired consciousness or coma, as significant decreases in respiratory drive may lead to adverse intracranial effects from carbon dioxide retention. Patients with advanced age, debilitation, or sleep apnea are at an increased risk for the development of respiratory depression associated with oxycodone. Use with caution in patients with obesity as this is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and/or decreased respiratory reserve. Use of aspirin; oxycodone is also contraindicated in patients with the syndrome of asthma, rhinitis, and nasal polyps; such patients have an increased risk of severe urticaria, angioedema, and bronchospasm. Avoid aspirin in patients with asthma who have a history of aspirin-induced acute bronchospasm.[29670]

    Alcoholism, depression, opioid overdose, opioid use disorder, substance abuse

    Oxycodone is an opioid agonist and therefore has abuse potential and risk of fatal overdose from respiratory failure. Addiction may occur in patients who obtain oxycodone illicitly or in those appropriately prescribed the drug. The risk of addiction in any individual is unknown. However, patients with mental illness (e.g., major depression) or a family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) have an increased risk of opioid abuse. Assess patients for risks of addiction, abuse, or misuse before drug initiation, and monitor patients who receive opioids routinely for development of these behaviors or conditions. A potential risk of abuse should not preclude appropriate pain management in any patient, but requires more intensive counseling and monitoring. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. To discourage abuse, the smallest appropriate quantity of oxycodone should be prescribed, and proper disposal instructions for unused drug should be given to patients. Discuss the availability of naloxone with all patients and consider prescribing it in patients who are at increased risk of opioid overdose, such as patients who are also using other CNS depressants, who have a history of opioid use disorder (OUD), who have experienced a previous opioid overdose, or who have household members or other close contacts at risk for accidental ingestion or opioid overdose.

    Accidental exposure, potential for overdose or poisoning

    Like all opioid analgesics, oxycodone is associated with a significant potential for overdose or poisoning; proper patient selection and counseling is recommended. Oxycodone should be kept out of the reach of pediatric patients, others for whom the drug was not prescribed, and pets as accidental exposure may cause respiratory failure and a fatal overdose.

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Avoid aspirin; oxycodone use during the third trimester of pregnancy (starting at 30 weeks of gestation) due to the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate. If NSAID treatment is deemed necessary between 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy, limit use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. Consider ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid if NSAID treatment extends beyond 48 hours. Discontinue the NSAID if oligohydramnios occurs and follow up according to clinical practice. These recommendations do not apply to low-dose 81 mg aspirin prescribed for certain conditions in pregnancy. Use of NSAIDs around 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy may cause fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. Oligohydramnios is often, but not always, reversible with treatment discontinuation. Complications of prolonged oligohydramnios may include limb contractures and delayed lung maturation. In some postmarketing cases of impaired neonatal renal function, invasive procedures such as exchange transfusion or dialysis were required. Salicylates have also been associated with alterations in maternal and neonatal hemostasis mechanisms, decreased birth weight, and perinatal mortality. Avoid aspirin 1 week prior to and during labor and obstetric delivery because it can result in excessive blood loss at delivery. Prolonged gestation and labor due to prostaglandin inhibition have been reported. Aspirin; oxycodone is not recommended for use during and immediately before labor when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioids can prolong labor and obstetric delivery by temporarily reducing the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. This effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilatation, which may shorten labor. Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in the neonate. An opioid antagonist (e.g., naloxone) should be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Further, prolonged maternal use of opioids during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Monitor the exposed neonate for withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight, and manage accordingly. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn. [55881] Guidelines recommend early universal screening of pregnant patients for opioid use and opioid use disorder at the first prenatal visit. Obtain a thorough history of substance use and review the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program to determine if patients have received prior prescriptions for opioids or other high-risk drugs such as benzodiazepines. Discuss the risks and benefits of opioid use during pregnancy, including the risk of becoming physiologically dependent on opioids, the possibility for NOWS, and how long-term opioid use may affect care during a future pregnancy.[64838] [64909] In women undergoing uncomplicated normal spontaneous vaginal birth, consider opioid therapy only if expected benefits for both pain and function are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. If opioids are used, use in combination with nonpharmacologic therapy and nonopioid pharmacologic therapy, as appropriate. Use immediate-release opioids instead of extended-release or long-acting opioids; order the lowest effective dosage and prescribe no greater quantity of opioids than needed for the expected duration of such pain severe enough to require opioids.[64909] For women using opioids for chronic pain, consider strategies to avoid or minimize the use of opioids, including alternative pain therapies (i.e., nonpharmacologic) and nonopioid pharmacologic treatments. Opioid agonist pharmacotherapy (e.g., methadone or buprenorphine) is preferable to medically supervised withdrawal in pregnant women with opioid use disorder.[64838]

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, schedule II

    DESCRIPTION

    Combination product used to treat moderate to severe pain. Aspirin is an acetylated salicylate analgesic; oxycodone is an opiate analgesic. The combination produces a greater analgesic effect than either drug alone.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Endodan, Percodan

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Endodan/Oxycodone Hydrochloride, Aspirin/Oxycodone Hydrochloride, Oxycodone Terephthalate, Aspirin/Oxycodone, Aspirin/Percodan Oral Tab: 4.5-0.38-325mg, 4.8355-325mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of moderate pain to moderately-severe pain including the relief of dental pain† (e.g., toothache), headache†, migraine†, back pain†, bone pain†, arthralgia† and myalgia†.
    NOTE: Adjust dose based on patient response and pain severity. Opioid tolerance may necessitate higher oxycodone dosages, but do not exceed the maximum daily aspirin dosage.
    NOTE: 4.8355 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 4.3346 mg of oxycodone as the free base.
    Oral dosage (products containing aspirin 325 mg and oxycodone HCl 4.8355 mg per tablet; e.g., Endodan, Percodan)
    Adults and Geriatric

    Usual adult dosage is 1 tablet PO every 6 hours as needed. Do not exceed 12 tablets every 24 hours.

    Oral dosage (products containing aspirin 325 mg-oxycodone HCl 2.25 mg-oxycodone terphalate 0.19 mg per tablet; e.g., Percodan-Demi)
    Adults and Geriatric

    This product is discontinued in the United States.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    Aspirin 4 grams (12 tablets)/day PO. There is no maximum dose of oxycodone; however, careful titration of oxycodone, especially in opiate-naive patients, is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.

    Elderly

    Aspirin 4 grams (12 tablets)/day PO. There is no maximum dose of oxycodone; however, careful titration of oxycodone, especially in opiate-naive patients, is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.

    Adolescents

    Not recommended.

    Children

    Not recommended.

    Infants

    Not recommended.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Do not use in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Dosage should be modified for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment depending upon the clinical response and degree of hepatic impairment. No quantitative recommendations are available.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl >= 10 mL/min: Dosage should be modified for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment depending upon the clinical response and degree of renal impairment. No quantitative recommendations are available.
    CrCl < 10 mL/min: Do not use.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Administer with a full glass of water and food or milk to minimize GI irritation.
    Storage: Keep aspirin; oxycodone secured in a location not accessible by others.
    Disposal: Flush unused aspirin; oxycodone down the toilet when it is no longer needed if a drug take-back option is not readily available.

    STORAGE

    Endodan:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Percodan:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    NOTE: This monograph discusses the contraindications/precautions of aspirin; oxycodone combination products. Clinicians may wish to consult the individual monographs for more information about each agent.

    NSAID hypersensitivity, opiate agonist hypersensitivity, salicylate hypersensitivity

    Aspirin; ASA; oxycodone is contraindicated in patients with salicylate hypersensitivity, opioid hypersensitivity, NSAID hypersensitivity, or hypersensitivity to any other product components. The risk of cross-sensitivity with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is significantly greater with aspirin than with other salicylates. Although true opiate agonist hypersensitivity is rare, patients who have demonstrated a prior hypersensitivity reaction to oxycodone should not receive aspirin; oxycodone or other opioid agonists of the phenanthrene subclass, including codeine, hydromorphone, and morphine.

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, coma, cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, nasal polyps, obesity, pulmonary disease, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus, urticaria

    Aspirin; oxycodone use is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression, acute or severe asthma (e.g., status asthmaticus), or hypercapnia in unmonitored care settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment.[29670] Additionally, avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible as this significantly increases the risk for respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and death.[61143] As with other opioid agonists, oxycodone should be avoided in patients with severe pulmonary disease. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, respiratory insufficiency, upper airway obstruction, or preexisting respiratory depression, it is recommended that non-opioid analgesics be considered as alternatives to oxycodone, as even usual therapeutic doses may decrease respiratory drive and cause apnea in these patient populations. Extreme caution should also be used in patients with chronic asthma, kyphoscoliosis (a type of scoliosis), hypoxemia, or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Oxycodone should not be used during impaired consciousness or coma, as significant decreases in respiratory drive may lead to adverse intracranial effects from carbon dioxide retention. Patients with advanced age, debilitation, or sleep apnea are at an increased risk for the development of respiratory depression associated with oxycodone. Use with caution in patients with obesity as this is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and/or decreased respiratory reserve. Use of aspirin; oxycodone is also contraindicated in patients with the syndrome of asthma, rhinitis, and nasal polyps; such patients have an increased risk of severe urticaria, angioedema, and bronchospasm. Avoid aspirin in patients with asthma who have a history of aspirin-induced acute bronchospasm.[29670]

    Anemia, constipation, diarrhea, GI disease, GI obstruction, ileus, inflammatory bowel disease, peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis

    As opioid agonist are contraindicated in such patients, aspirin; oxycodone use is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected paralytic ileus. Further, aspirin; oxycodone should be used cautiously in patients with GI disease, including GI obstruction, peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or pre-existing constipation. Opiate agonists may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions. Patients with acute ulcerative colitis or other inflammatory bowel disease may be more sensitive to the constipating effects of opiate agonists. Although opiate agonists may exacerbate cases of diarrhea secondary to poisoning or infectious diarrhea, antimotility agents have been used successfully in these patients. If possible, opiate agonists should not be given until the toxic substance has been eliminated. Aspirin can induce gastric or intestinal ulceration that can occasionally be accompanied by anemia from the resultant blood loss. Gastric damage by aspirin is due to local irritation of the drug in addition to inhibition of the biosynthesis of gastric prostaglandins. Patients should not be treated with aspirin-oxycodone if they consume 3 or more alcoholic beverages per day because of the potential increased risk for gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Bone marrow suppression, coagulopathy, hemophilia, intramuscular injections, surgery, thrombocytopenia

    Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation by irreversibly suppressing the synthesis of platelet thromboxane A2. The use of aspirin; oxycodone is contraindicated in patients with hemophilia. Aspirin; oxycodone should be avoided or used cautiously in patients with underlying anemia. As aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation and increases bleeding time, aspirin should be administered cautiously to patients with preexisting thrombocytopenia or coagulopathy. It should also be avoided in patients with aplastic anemia or pancytopenia or other forms of bone marrow suppression. Aspirin; oxycodone should be discontinued at least 1 week before surgery to minimize postoperative bleeding. Finally, intramuscular injections should be administered cautiously to patients receiving aspirin; oxycodone. Intramuscular injections may cause bleeding, bruising, or hematomas due to aspirin-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation.

    Immunosuppression, infection

    Symptoms of acute infection (e.g., fever, pain) can be masked during treatment with aspirin; oxycodone in patients who have bone marrow depression or immunosuppression.

    Children, influenza, varicella, viral infection

    Aspirin; oxycodone is contraindicated in children or teenagers with viral infection with or without fever due to the risk of Reye's syndrome. Aspirin has been associated with the occurrence of Reye's syndrome when given to children with varicella (chickenpox) or influenza (flu). Although a causal relationship has not been confirmed, most authorities advise against the use of aspirin in children with chickenpox, flu, or other viral infection. Opiate agonists are may be used in children for moderate to severe pain. Paradoxical excitement can occur in children taking opiate agonists.

    G6PD deficiency

    Because salicylates may cause or aggravate hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency, some reference texts state that aspirin-containing products, such as aspirin; oxycodone, should be used cautiously in these patients. If hemolytic anemia occurs in patients receiving aspirin, it almost always occurs in G6PD-deficient individuals. It appears that aspirin can induce hemolysis at therapeutic concentrations if other oxidative stressors are present. Otherwise, hemolysis only occurs at much higher concentrations.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Abrupt discontinuation of prolonged aspirin; oxycodone therapy can result in withdrawal symptoms. Patients should be gradually tapered off aspirin; oxycodone to avoid a withdrawal reaction. Generally, a 50% decrease every 1—2 days of the daily aspirin; oxycodone dose will prevent withdrawal symptoms in patients who have been receiving > 60 mg/day of oxycodone.

    Alcoholism, depression, opioid overdose, opioid use disorder, substance abuse

    Oxycodone is an opioid agonist and therefore has abuse potential and risk of fatal overdose from respiratory failure. Addiction may occur in patients who obtain oxycodone illicitly or in those appropriately prescribed the drug. The risk of addiction in any individual is unknown. However, patients with mental illness (e.g., major depression) or a family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) have an increased risk of opioid abuse. Assess patients for risks of addiction, abuse, or misuse before drug initiation, and monitor patients who receive opioids routinely for development of these behaviors or conditions. A potential risk of abuse should not preclude appropriate pain management in any patient, but requires more intensive counseling and monitoring. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. To discourage abuse, the smallest appropriate quantity of oxycodone should be prescribed, and proper disposal instructions for unused drug should be given to patients. Discuss the availability of naloxone with all patients and consider prescribing it in patients who are at increased risk of opioid overdose, such as patients who are also using other CNS depressants, who have a history of opioid use disorder (OUD), who have experienced a previous opioid overdose, or who have household members or other close contacts at risk for accidental ingestion or opioid overdose.

    Head trauma, increased intracranial pressure

    Patients with head trauma or with increased intracranial pressure should be given aspirin; oxycodone with extreme caution, because, in addition to potential bleeding complications, this combination can make it difficult to evaluate neurologic parameters. Hypoventilation due to the oxycodone component can produce cerebral hypoxia and raise CSF pressure, exaggerating the injury.

    Geriatric

    Use aspirin, ASA; oxycodone with caution in the geriatric patient. Geriatric patients are more sensitive to the adverse effects of opiate agonists, especially sedation and respiratory depression, probably as a result of the altered distribution of the drug and decreased elimination. Consider initial dose reduction and careful titration taking into account clinical response and tolerance in the older adult. The older adult receiving high doses of aspirin is also more likely to experience gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, including ulceration or GI bleeding.[29670] According to the Beers Criteria, aspirin is a potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in geriatric patients. Aspirin may cause new or worsening gastric or duodenal ulcers, and there is an increased risk of GI bleeding and peptic ulcer disease in high-risk groups including those above 75 years of age, or those taking oral or parenteral corticosteroids, anticoagulants, or antiplatelet medications. The risk of ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation is cumulative with continued use. The Beers panel recommends avoiding chronic use of aspirin doses above 325 mg/day in high-risk patients unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastroprotective agent. Also, aspirin doses above 325 mg/day should be avoided in patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers, unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastroprotective agent, which reduces but does not eliminate GI risks. Opiate agonists are PIMs in geriatric patients with a history of falls or fractures and should be avoided in these patient populations, except in the setting of severe acute pain, since opiates can produce ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and additional falls. If an opiate must be used, consider reducing the use of other CNS-active medications that increase the risk of falls and fractures and implement other strategies to reduce fall risk.[63923]

    Cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, hypovolemia

    Opiate agonists, such as oxycodone, produce cholinergic side effects (by stimulating medullary vagal nuclei) causing bradycardia and vasovagal syncope, and induce the release of histamine, causing peripheral vasodilatation and orthostatic hypotension. These effects can cause problems in patients with cardiac disease. Aspirin-oxycodone should be used with caution in patients with cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, or hypovolemia.

    Hepatic disease, hypoprothrombinemia, vitamin K deficiency

    Liver function should be monitored in patients with preexisting hepatic disease in order to prevent reversible, dose-dependent aspirin-induced hepatotoxicity and hypoprothrombinemia. Patients with vitamin K deficiency require close monitoring during aspirin therapy. Oxycodone may accumulate leading to a prolonged duration of action in patients with decreased liver function. Avoid aspirin; oxycodone in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency, and use care when aspirin; oxycodone is used in patients with milder hepatic impairment. In acute situations, patients require close monitoring to avoid excessive toxicity. Patients with chronic liver disease may require less frequent dosing intervals.

    Bladder obstruction, oliguria, prostatic hypertrophy, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), urethral stricture, urinary retention

    Avoid aspirin; oxycodone in patients with severe renal failure, which is defined as a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/minute. Aspirin; oxycodone should be used cautiously in patients with milder renal impairment; dosage adjustments may be required. Aspirin may cause reversible decreases in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in patients with renal disease or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Oxycodone can cause urinary retention and oliguria due to increasing the tension of the detrusor muscle. Patients more prone to these effects include those with prostatic hypertrophy, urethral stricture, bladder obstruction, or pelvic tumors. In addition, oxycodone may accumulate in these patients leading to a prolonged duration of action and potential increase in side effects.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Any patient receiving aspirin; oxycodone should be warned about the possibility of sedation and to use caution when driving or operating machinery.

    Adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, myxedema

    Use oxycodone with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency (i.e., Addison's disease), hypothyroidism, or myxedema. Such patients may be at increased risk of adverse events. Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH); however, the thyroid stimulating hormone may be either stimulated or inhibited by opioids. Rarely, adrenal insufficiency has been reported in association with opioid use. Patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, or hypotension. If adrenocortical insufficiency is suspected, confirm with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If diagnosed, the patient should be treated with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids, and if appropriate, weaned off of opioid therapy. If the opioid can be discontinued, a follow-up assessment of adrenal function should be performed to determine if corticosteroid treatment can be discontinued. Other opioids may be tried; some cases reported use of a different opioid with no recurrence of adrenocortical insufficiency. It is unclear which, if any, opioids are more likely to cause adrenocortical insufficiency. In addition, chronic opioid use may lead to symptoms of hypogonadism, resulting from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy, particularly those receiving a daily dose equivalent to 100 mg or more of morphine. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    Accidental exposure, potential for overdose or poisoning

    Like all opioid analgesics, oxycodone is associated with a significant potential for overdose or poisoning; proper patient selection and counseling is recommended. Oxycodone should be kept out of the reach of pediatric patients, others for whom the drug was not prescribed, and pets as accidental exposure may cause respiratory failure and a fatal overdose.

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Avoid aspirin; oxycodone use during the third trimester of pregnancy (starting at 30 weeks of gestation) due to the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate. If NSAID treatment is deemed necessary between 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy, limit use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. Consider ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid if NSAID treatment extends beyond 48 hours. Discontinue the NSAID if oligohydramnios occurs and follow up according to clinical practice. These recommendations do not apply to low-dose 81 mg aspirin prescribed for certain conditions in pregnancy. Use of NSAIDs around 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy may cause fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. Oligohydramnios is often, but not always, reversible with treatment discontinuation. Complications of prolonged oligohydramnios may include limb contractures and delayed lung maturation. In some postmarketing cases of impaired neonatal renal function, invasive procedures such as exchange transfusion or dialysis were required. Salicylates have also been associated with alterations in maternal and neonatal hemostasis mechanisms, decreased birth weight, and perinatal mortality. Avoid aspirin 1 week prior to and during labor and obstetric delivery because it can result in excessive blood loss at delivery. Prolonged gestation and labor due to prostaglandin inhibition have been reported. Aspirin; oxycodone is not recommended for use during and immediately before labor when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioids can prolong labor and obstetric delivery by temporarily reducing the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. This effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilatation, which may shorten labor. Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in the neonate. An opioid antagonist (e.g., naloxone) should be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Further, prolonged maternal use of opioids during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Monitor the exposed neonate for withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight, and manage accordingly. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn. [55881] Guidelines recommend early universal screening of pregnant patients for opioid use and opioid use disorder at the first prenatal visit. Obtain a thorough history of substance use and review the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program to determine if patients have received prior prescriptions for opioids or other high-risk drugs such as benzodiazepines. Discuss the risks and benefits of opioid use during pregnancy, including the risk of becoming physiologically dependent on opioids, the possibility for NOWS, and how long-term opioid use may affect care during a future pregnancy.[64838] [64909] In women undergoing uncomplicated normal spontaneous vaginal birth, consider opioid therapy only if expected benefits for both pain and function are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. If opioids are used, use in combination with nonpharmacologic therapy and nonopioid pharmacologic therapy, as appropriate. Use immediate-release opioids instead of extended-release or long-acting opioids; order the lowest effective dosage and prescribe no greater quantity of opioids than needed for the expected duration of such pain severe enough to require opioids.[64909] For women using opioids for chronic pain, consider strategies to avoid or minimize the use of opioids, including alternative pain therapies (i.e., nonpharmacologic) and nonopioid pharmacologic treatments. Opioid agonist pharmacotherapy (e.g., methadone or buprenorphine) is preferable to medically supervised withdrawal in pregnant women with opioid use disorder.[64838]

    Breast-feeding

    Breast-feeding is not recommended during aspirin, ASA; oxycodone therapy. Oxycodone is distributed into breast milk at varying degrees depending upon the dose. There is no information available on the effects of oxycodone on milk production. Monitor infants who are exposed to oxycodone through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-fed infants if oxycodone or breast-feeding is discontinued by the mother.[57732] A retrospective study compared central nervous system (CNS) depression in breast-feeding infants of mothers receiving oxycodone (n = 139) or acetaminophen (n = 184). Symptoms of CNS depression were determined through questionnaires completed by the mothers. CNS depression was significantly higher in breast-fed infants exposed to oxycodone compared to acetaminophen (20.1% vs. 0.5%, p less than 0.0001). The median dose of oxycodone in the mothers with infants that experienced symptoms was significantly higher compared to those that did not (0.4 mg/kg/day vs. 0.15 mg/kg/day, p = 0.0005).[45800] Salicylic acid is excreted in breast milk. Adverse effects on platelet function may occur in the infant. The risk of Reye Syndrome caused by salicylate in breast milk is unknown. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding along with the mother's clinical need for aspirin, ASA; oxycodone and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from aspirin, ASA; oxycodone or the underlying maternal condition.[57732] Alternative analgesics considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding by previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and morphine.[27500]

    Infertility, reproductive risk

    Chronic opioid use may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to hormonal changes that may manifest as hypogonadism (gonadal suppression) and pose a reproductive risk. Although the exact causal role of opioids in the clinical manifestations of hypogonadism is unknown, patients could experience libido decrease, impotence, amenorrhea, or infertility. It is not known whether the effects on fertility are reversible. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pulmonary edema / Early / Incidence not known
    apnea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    respiratory arrest / Rapid / Incidence not known
    peptic ulcer / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ileus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI perforation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI obstruction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal stricture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    odynophagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    laryngeal edema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    bronchospasm / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Reye's syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal papillary necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    interstitial nephritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    erythema nodosum / Delayed / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    aplastic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    coma / Early / Incidence not known
    cerebral edema / Early / Incidence not known
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
    bradycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    visual impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    fetal death / Delayed / Incidence not known
    postpartum hemorrhage / Early / Incidence not known
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hearing loss / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    physiological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    psychological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    withdrawal / Early / Incidence not known
    tolerance / Delayed / Incidence not known
    respiratory depression / Rapid / Incidence not known
    tachypnea / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    hypoventilation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    constipation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bleeding / Early / Incidence not known
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophagitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    encephalopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urinary retention / Early / Incidence not known
    proteinuria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    prolonged bleeding time / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    platelet dysfunction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperuricemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hallucinations / Early / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    euphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    infertility / Delayed / Incidence not known
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    adrenocortical insufficiency / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    rhinitis / Early / 2.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 20.0
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    eructation / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspepsia / Early / Incidence not known
    diarrhea / Early / Incidence not known
    abdominal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    xerostomia / Early / Incidence not known
    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tinnitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dizziness / Early / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known
    maculopapular rash / Early / Incidence not known
    rash / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    ecchymosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known
    restlessness / Early / Incidence not known
    drowsiness / Early / Incidence not known
    agitation / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    lethargy / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    miosis / Early / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    hypothermia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    amenorrhea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    libido decrease / Delayed / Incidence not known
    gonadal suppression / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) Unless contraindicated, aspirin is used in combination with abciximab. However, both drugs are associated with bleeding. Monitor for bleeding during concomitant therapy.
    Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with doxylamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with doxylamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pentazocine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Pentazocine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of oxycodone. Pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of pentazocine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Major) Propoxyphene is a weak mu-opiate receptor agonist. As other opiate agonists bind to mu-opiate receptors, concurrent use of an opiate agonist with propoxyphene is not desirable. Also, propoxyphene will only partially suppress the withdrawal syndrome in patients physically dependent on morphine or other narcotics. The choice of one mu-opiate receptor agonist needs to be made to avoid duplicate therapy and possible adverse effects. For example, concomitant use of propoxyphene with other CNS depressants (e.g., other opiate agonists) can potentiate the effects of respiratory depression and/or sedation. Propoxyphene in combination with other CNS depressants is a major cause of drug-related death. Fatalities within the first hour of overdosage are not uncommon. Extreme caution is needed during concomitant use of any CNS-depressant drug and propoxyphene. Assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Major) Concomitant use of tramadol increases the seizure risk in patients taking opiate agonists. Also, tramadol can cause additive CNS depression and respiratory depression when used with opiate agonists; avoid concurrent use whenever possible. If used together, extreme caution is needed, and a reduced tramadol dose is recommended. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Acetazolamide: (Major) Avoid the coadministration of high-dose salicylates and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors whenever possible. There were reports of anorexia, tachypnea, lethargy, metabolic acidosis, coma, and death with high-dose aspirin and acetazolamide. Two mechanisms could cause increased acetazolamide concentrations, resulting in CNS depression and metabolic acidosis: first, competition with aspirin for renal tubular secretion and, second, displacement by salicylates from plasma protein binding sites. Additionally, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors alkalinize urine and increase the excretion of normal doses of salicylates; decreased plasma salicylate concentrations may or may not be clinically significant.
    Acetohexamide: (Moderate) If salicylates and sulfonylureas are to be administered together, patients should be monitored for changes in glycemic control. Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood sugar and may potentiate the effects of other antidiabetic agents. This mechanism may explain how salicylates can potentiate the clinical effects of sulfonylureas; however, displacement of sulfonylureas from protein binding sites has also been reported. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria.
    Acidifying Agents: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of opioid agonists with acrivastine due to the risk of additive CNS depression.
    Ado-Trastuzumab emtansine: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of aspirin with ado-trastuzumab emtansine is necessary due to reports of severe and sometimes fatal hemorrhage, including intracranial bleeding, with ado-trastuzumab emtansine therapy. Consider additional monitoring when concomitant use is medically necessary. While some patients who experienced bleeding during ado-trastuzumab therapy were also receiving anticoagulation therapy, others had no known additional risk factors
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may affect CNS function significantly. Therefore, psychotropic pharmacodynamic interactions could occur following concomitant administration of drugs with significant CNS or psychotropic activity such as opiate agonists. In addition, aldesleukin, IL-2, is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and may increase oxycodone plasma concentrations and related toxicities including potentially fatal respiratory depression. If therapy with both agents is necessary, monitor patients for an extended period and adjust oxycodone dosage as necessary.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Alkalinizing Agents: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid.
    Almotriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering oxycodone with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Alogliptin: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Large doses of salicylates may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. If these agents are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Salicylates can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood sugar. In large doses, salicylates can cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Alosetron: (Major) Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from alosetron, like constipation, via a pharmacodynamic interaction. Constipation is the most frequently reported adverse effect with alosetron. Alosetron, if used with drugs such as opiate agonists, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstruction/impaction or paralytic ileus.
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood sugar. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Alprazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Alvimopan: (Moderate) Patients should not take alvimopan if they have received therapeutic doses of opiate agonists for more than seven consecutive days immediately before initiation of alvimopan therapy. Patients recently exposed to opioids are expected to be more sensitive to the effects of mu-opioid receptor antagonists and may experience adverse effects localized to the gastrointestinal tract such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
    Amide local anesthetics: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when amiloride is administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal insufficiency in patients receiving diuretics, secondary to effects on renal blood flow. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin production, which causes salt and water retention and decreased renal blood flow. Coadministration may cause hyperkalemia.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when amiloride is administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal insufficiency in patients receiving diuretics, secondary to effects on renal blood flow. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin production, which causes salt and water retention and decreased renal blood flow. Coadministration may cause hyperkalemia. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Aminoglycosides: (Minor) Due to the inhibition of renal prostaglandins by salicylates, concurrent use of salicylates and other nephrotoxic agents like the aminoglycosides may lead to additive nephrotoxicity.
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amiodarone is necessary. If amiodarone is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like amiodarone can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amiodarone is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amitriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA may reduce the vasodilatory efficacy of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. This interaction has been documented primarily in heart failure patients. However, the established benefits of using aspirin in combination with an ACE inhibitor in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction generally outweigh this concern. Patients receiving concurrent salicylates and ACE inhibitor therapy should be monitored for antihypertensive or vasodilatory efficacy; the dose of the ACE inhibitor can be adjusted if indicated based on clinical evaluation. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Major) Concomitant use of analgesic doses of aspirin and celecoxib is generally not recommended due to the increased risks of bleeding and nephrotoxicity. Concurrent use of aspirin with NSAIDs does not produce a greater analgesic effect compared to the use of NSAIDs alone. Celecoxib (200 to 400 mg daily) did not interfere with the cardioprotective antiplatelet effect of aspirin (100 to 325 mg) in 2 studies in healthy volunteers and in patients with osteoarthritis and established heart disease. Concurrent use does not produce greater therapeutic effect. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amoxapine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with amoxapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with amoxapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Amoxicillin: (Minor) Due to the high protein binding of aspirin, it could displace or be displaced from binding sites by other highly protein-bound drugs, such as penicillins. Also, aspirin may compete with penicillin for renal tubular secretion, increasing penicillin serum concentrations. Overall, this combination should be used with caution and patients monitored for increased side effects.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. If clarithromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like clarithromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If clarithromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Minor) Due to the high protein binding of aspirin, it could displace or be displaced from binding sites by other highly protein-bound drugs, such as penicillins. Also, aspirin may compete with penicillin for renal tubular secretion, increasing penicillin serum concentrations. Overall, this combination should be used with caution and patients monitored for increased side effects.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. If clarithromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like clarithromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If clarithromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Minor) Due to the high protein binding of aspirin, it could displace or be displaced from binding sites by other highly protein-bound drugs, such as penicillins. Also, aspirin may compete with penicillin for renal tubular secretion, increasing penicillin serum concentrations. Overall, this combination should be used with caution and patients monitored for increased side effects.
    Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid: (Minor) Due to the high protein binding of aspirin, it could displace or be displaced from binding sites by other highly protein-bound drugs, such as penicillins. Also, aspirin may compete with penicillin for renal tubular secretion, increasing penicillin serum concentrations. Overall, this combination should be used with caution and patients monitored for increased side effects.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of oxycodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of oxycodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphetamines: (Moderate) If concomitant use of oxycodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other potentially nephrotoxic medications, like the salicylates, may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other potentially nephrotoxic medications, like the salicylates, may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other potentially nephrotoxic medications, like the salicylates, may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity.
    Amphotericin B: (Minor) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other potentially nephrotoxic medications, like the salicylates, may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity.
    Ampicillin: (Minor) Due to the high protein binding of aspirin, it could displace or be displaced from binding sites by other highly protein-bound drugs, such as penicillins. Also, aspirin may compete with penicillin for renal tubular secretion, increasing penicillin serum concentrations. Overall, this combination should be used with caution and patients monitored for increased side effects.
    Ampicillin; Sulbactam: (Minor) Due to the high protein binding of aspirin, it could displace or be displaced from binding sites by other highly protein-bound drugs, such as penicillins. Also, aspirin may compete with penicillin for renal tubular secretion, increasing penicillin serum concentrations. Overall, this combination should be used with caution and patients monitored for increased side effects.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) Use caution with the coadministration of aspirin and anagrelide. The coadministration of single or repeated doses of anagrelide and aspirin resulted in greater ex vivo anti-platelet aggregation effects than administration of aspirin alone. In an observational study, the concomitant use of anagrelide and aspirin increased the rate of major hemorrhagic events compared to patients receiving other cytoreductive therapy. Assess the risks and benefits of concomitant aspirin and anagrelide use, particularly in patients at high risk for hemorrhage. Monitor for bleeding during concomitant therapy.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA may reduce the vasodilatory efficacy of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. This interaction has been documented primarily in heart failure patients. However, the established benefits of using aspirin in combination with an ACE inhibitor in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction generally outweigh this concern. Patients receiving concurrent salicylates and ACE inhibitor therapy should be monitored for antihypertensive or vasodilatory efficacy; the dose of the ACE inhibitor can be adjusted if indicated based on clinical evaluation.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxycodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) Large doses of salicylates (more than 3 to 4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Patients taking large doses of salicylates and antithrombin III should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Antithymocyte Globulin: (Moderate) An increased risk of bleeding may occur when salicylates are used with agents that cause clinically significant thrombocytopenia due to decreases in platelet aggregation, such as anti-thymocyte immune globulin.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with apalutamide is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If apalutamide is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Apixaban: (Major) Large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Patients taking large doses of salicylates and apixaban should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Apomorphine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with apomorphine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with apomorphine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents like apomorphine have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Theoretically, apraclonidine might potentiate the effects of CNS depressant drugs such as opiate agonists. Although no specific drug interactions were identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials, apraclonidine can cause dizziness and somnolence.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of aprepitant/fosaprepitant is necessary. If aprepitant/fosaprepitant is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like aprepitant/fosaprepitant can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If aprepitant/fosaprepitant is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. When administered as a single oral or single intravenous dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak and did not result in a clinically significant increase in the AUC of a sensitive substrate.
    Ardeparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving a low molecular weight heparin in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as salicylates. Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with aripiprazole may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with aripiprazole to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Armodafinil: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with armodafinil is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If armodafinil is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and armodafinil is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C: (Minor) Agents that acidify the urine should be avoided in patients receiving high-dose salicylates. Urinary pH changes can decrease salicylate excretion. However, if the urine is acidic prior to administration of an acidifying agent, the increase in salicylic acid concentrations should be minimal.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with asenapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with asenapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with orphenadrine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with orphenadrine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Reduce the initial oxycodone dosage by one-third to one-half when using the extended-release tablets.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Reduce the initial oxycodone dosage by one-third to one-half when using the extended-release tablets.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Reduce the initial oxycodone dosage by one-third to one-half when using the extended-release tablets. (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Although aspirin may be used in combination with dipyridamole, both drugs are associated with bleeding. Monitor for bleeding during concomitant therapy.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of atazanavir is necessary. If atazanavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like atazanavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If atazanavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of atazanavir is necessary. If atazanavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like atazanavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If atazanavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Atomoxetine: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Atropine; Diphenoxylate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Azelastine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with azelastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with azelastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with azelastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with azelastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Bacitracin: (Minor) Additive nephrotoxicity may occur with concurrent use of systemic bacitracin and other nephrotoxic agents, including salicylates. Topical administration of any preparation containing bacitracin, especially when applied to large surface areas, also should not be given with other drugs that have a nephrotoxic potential.
    Baclofen: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with baclofen may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with baclofen to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Reduce the initial oxycodone dosage by one-third to one-half when using the extended-release tablets.
    Barbiturates: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Due to high protein binding, salicylates could be displaced from binding sites, or could displace other highly protein-bound drugs such as barbiturates. An enhanced effect of the displaced drug may occur.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA may reduce the vasodilatory efficacy of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. This interaction has been documented primarily in heart failure patients. However, the established benefits of using aspirin in combination with an ACE inhibitor in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction generally outweigh this concern. Patients receiving concurrent salicylates and ACE inhibitor therapy should be monitored for antihypertensive or vasodilatory efficacy; the dose of the ACE inhibitor can be adjusted if indicated based on clinical evaluation.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA may reduce the vasodilatory efficacy of ACE inhibitors by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. This interaction has been documented primarily in heart failure patients. However, the established benefits of using aspirin in combination with an ACE inhibitor in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction generally outweigh this concern. Patients receiving concurrent salicylates and ACE inhibitor therapy should be monitored for antihypertensive or vasodilatory efficacy; the dose of the ACE inhibitor can be adjusted if indicated based on clinical evaluation. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with benzhydrocodone may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of benzhydrocodone with opioid agonists to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If benzhydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking oxycodone, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response. If oxycodone is prescribed in a patient taking benzhydrocodone, use a lower initial dose of oxycodone and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of benzhydrocodone and oxycodone because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue benzhydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (Moderate) Prolonged concurrent use of acetaminophen and salicylates is not recommended. High-dose, chronic administration of the combined analgesics significantly increases the risk of analgesic nephropathy, renal papillary necrosis, and end-stage renal disease. Do not exceed the recommended individual maximum doses when these agents are given concurrently for short-term therapy.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration.
    Benzonatate: (Moderate) Coadministration of oxycodone and benzonatate may result in additive CNS depression.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of oxycodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Concurrent use of beta-blockers with aspirin and other salicylates may result in loss of antihypertensive activity due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins and thus, salt and water retention and decreased renal blood flow.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Bethanechol facilitates intestinal and bladder function via parasympathomimetic actions. Opiate agonists impair the peristaltic activity of the intestine. Thus, these drugs can antagonize the beneficial actions of bethanechol on GI motility.
    Betrixaban: (Major) Monitor patients closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of bleeding if betrixaban and aspirin are used concomitantly. Coadministration of betrixaban and aspirin may increase the risk of bleeding.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with bexarotene is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If bexarotene is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and bexarotene is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Bicalutamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of bicalutamide is necessary. If bicalutamide is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like bicalutamide can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If bicalutamide is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Major) Concomitant use of aspirin with repeated or maximum doses of bismuth subsalicylate-containing preparations may contribute to elevated serum salicylate levels and should be avoided. Consider replacing aspirin therapy with an alternative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is not salicylate based where appropriate. (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Major) Concomitant use of aspirin with repeated or maximum doses of bismuth subsalicylate-containing preparations may contribute to elevated serum salicylate levels and should be avoided. Consider replacing aspirin therapy with an alternative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is not salicylate based where appropriate. (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Bisphosphonates: (Moderate) Aspirin, ASA use is associated with esophageal and/or gastric irritation, and GI ulceration. Bisphosphonates may cause GI adverse events and occasionally, renal dysfunction. In clinical trials, aspirin use along with bisphosphonates increased the risk of GI events in some patients; however, some clinical trials of bisphosphonates have not reported increased rates of GI adverse events with aspirin co-use. Exercise caution when administering aspirin with a bisphosphonate. Though patients receiving intravenously administered bisphosphonates have a decreased incidence of GI adverse effects as compared to those taking orally administered bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity is possible, and GI events are rarely reported. Monitor for the presence of GI complaints, including potential GI ulceration and bleeding, and monitor renal function during combined use.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering oxycodone with boceprevir due to an increased potential for oxycodone-related adverse events. If oxycodone dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of oxycodone. Oxycodone is partially metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; boceprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated oxycodone plasma concentrations.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with bosentan is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If bosentan is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and bosentan is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Brexpiprazole: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brexpiprazole may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with brexpiprazole to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If brigatinib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. At clinically relevant concentrations, brigatinib induced CYP3A via activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR); this may decrease concentrations of sensitive CYP3A substrates. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Brimonidine: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brimonidine; Brinzolamide: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Bromocriptine: (Minor) Bromocriptine is highly bound (more than 90%) to serum proteins. Therefore, it may increase the unbound fraction of other highly protein-bound medications (e.g., aspirin and other salicylates), which may alter their effectiveness and risk for side effects.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when loop diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates may decrease the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive actions of diuretics, possibly through inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. Patients receiving loop diuretics and salicylates should be monitored for changes in the effectiveness of their diuretic therapy.
    Bupivacaine Liposomal: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine; Lidocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Buprenorphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist with strong affinity for the mu-receptor that may partially block the effects of full mu-receptor opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. In these cases, health care professionals must exercise caution in opiate agonist dose selection, as higher doses of an opiate agonist may be required to compete with buprenorphine at the mu-receptor. Management strategies may include adding a short-acting opiate agonist to achieve analgesia in the presence of buprenorphine, discontinuation of buprenorphine and use of an opiate agonist to avoid withdrawal and achieve analgesia, or conversion of buprenorphine to methadone while using additional opiate agonists if needed. Closely monitor patients for CNS or respiratory depression. When buprenorphine is used for analgesia, avoid co-use with opiate agonists. Buprenorphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists as well as possibly potentiate CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Buprenorphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist with strong affinity for the mu-receptor that may partially block the effects of full mu-receptor opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. In these cases, health care professionals must exercise caution in opiate agonist dose selection, as higher doses of an opiate agonist may be required to compete with buprenorphine at the mu-receptor. Management strategies may include adding a short-acting opiate agonist to achieve analgesia in the presence of buprenorphine, discontinuation of buprenorphine and use of an opiate agonist to avoid withdrawal and achieve analgesia, or conversion of buprenorphine to methadone while using additional opiate agonists if needed. Closely monitor patients for CNS or respiratory depression. When buprenorphine is used for analgesia, avoid co-use with opiate agonists. Buprenorphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists as well as possibly potentiate CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Bupropion: (Moderate) Bupropion is an inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Plasma concentrations of opiate agents metabolized by CYP2D6 such as oxycodone may be increased if bupropion is added. Dosage reductions in these agents may be needed. Conversely, if bupropion therapy is discontinued, dosages of these agents may need to be adjusted upward in some patients. Excessive use of opioid agonists (e.g., opiate addiction) is associated with an increased seizure risk; seizures may be more likely to occur during concurrent use of bupropion in these patients since bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving opiate agonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of opiate agonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7-10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone, and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur. (Moderate) Bupropion is an inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Plasma concentrations of opiate agents metabolized by CYP2D6 such as oxycodone may be increased if bupropion is added. Dosage reductions in these agents may be needed. Conversely, if bupropion therapy is discontinued, dosages of these agents may need to be adjusted upward in some patients. Excessive use of opioid agonists (e.g., opiate addiction) is associated with an increased seizure risk; seizures may be more likely to occur during concurrent use of bupropion in these patients since bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of CNS depressants, such as buspirone, can potentiate the effects of oxycodone, which may potentially lead to respiratory depression, CNS depression, sedation, or hypotensive responses. If concurrent use of codeine and buspirone is imperative, reduce the dose of one or both drugs. (Minor) In vitro studies showed that therapeutic levels of aspirin, ASA increased the plasma concentrations of free buspirone by 23% through plasma protein binding displacement. In vivo interaction studies with these drugs have not been performed.
    Butorphanol: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of butorphanol and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Butorphanol is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Butorphanol may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of butorphanol with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Minor) By increasing urinary pH, calcium carbonate can increase the urinary excretion of salicylates.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Minor) By increasing urinary pH, calcium carbonate can increase the urinary excretion of salicylates.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Minor) By increasing urinary pH, calcium carbonate can increase the urinary excretion of salicylates.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Minor) By increasing urinary pH, calcium carbonate can increase the urinary excretion of salicylates.
    Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium Oxybates: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with sodium oxybate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with sodium oxybate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Canagliflozin: (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Large doses of salicylates may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. If these agents are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. (Moderate) Salicylates, by inhibiting prostaglandin E2 synthesis, can indirectly increase insulin secretion. Thus, salicylates can decrease blood glucose concentrations. In large doses, salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, deplete hepatic and muscle glycogen, and cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria. After acute overdose, aspirin can cause either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Large doses of aspirin should be used cautiously in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with oxycodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Salicylates can increase the risk of renal toxicity in patients receiving diuretics. Salicylates inhibit renal prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to fluid retention and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Salicylates may decrease the hyperuricemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cannabidiol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with cannabidiol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Capreomycin: (Major) Since capreomycin is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including salicylates, may increase serum concentrations of either drug. Theoretically, the chronic coadministration of these drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coad