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  • CLASSES

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) combinations for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    BOXED WARNING

    New primary malignancy

    Metronidazole has been reported to be carcinogenic in toxicity studies in mice and rats. Similar studies in the hamster gave negative results. Also, metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in a number of in vitro assay systems, but studies in mammals (in vivo) failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage. Human data are not available to describe the risk of a new primary malignancy secondary to use. The manufacturer notes that bismuth subcitrate; metronidazole; tetracycline should only be used as indicated within the prescribing information; avoid unnecessary use.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Combination product, with all 3 drugs contained in 1 capsule, used for eradication of H. pylori; FDA-approved regimen includes coadministration with omeprazole.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Pylera

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Pylera Oral Cap: 140-125-125mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication.
    Oral dosage 
    Adults

    420 mg bismuth subcitrate potassium, 375 mg metronidazole, and 375 mg tetracycline PO 4 times daily for 10 days with omeprazole 20 mg PO twice daily. Guidelines recommend 10 to 14 days of treatment and this quadruple therapy as a first-line treatment option, particularly in patients with any previous macrolide exposure or a penicillin allergy.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    3 Pylera capsules (420 mg bismuth subcitrate potassium; 375 mg metronidazole; 375 mg tetracycline) PO four times per day.

    Elderly

    3 Pylera capsules (420 mg bismuth subcitrate potassium; 375 mg metronidazole; 375 mg tetracycline) PO four times per day.

    Adolescents

    Contraindicated.

    Children

    Contraindicated.

    Infants

    Contraindicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Monitor patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment for metronidazole-associated adverse events. Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).

    Renal Impairment

    Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Administer four times daily, after meals and at bedtime. Administer the capsules whole (do not crush or chew) with a full 8 ounce glass of water to reduce the risk of tetracycline-induced esophageal irritation and ulceration; this is especially important for the bedtime dose. The FDA-approved dosage regimen includes omeprazole, which is given with the Pylera dose after the morning and evening meals.
    Dairy products (e.g., milk) interfere with absorption of tetracycline; thus, it is typically recommended to administer at least one hour before or two hours after any dairy products. The amount that systemic versus local action contributes to the antimicrobial activity of tetracycline against H. pylori has not been established; therefore, the manufacturer states that the clinical significance of the reduced tetracycline absorption is unknown.
    Divalent and trivalent cations significantly affect tetracycline absorption; do not administer with or within 4 hours of drugs which impair tetracycline absorption (see Drug Interactions).

    STORAGE

    Pylera:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Tetracyclines hypersensitivity

    Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) therapy is contraindicated in patients with a prior history of bismuth subcitrate potassium hypersensitivity, metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivative hypersensitivity, or tetracyclines hypersensitivity.

    Renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) is contraindicated in patients with renal disease associated with severe renal impairment or renal failure. The antianabolic action of tetracycline may cause an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Higher tetracycline serum concentrations in patients with severe renal impairment may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.

    Children, infants, neonates

    The safety and effectiveness of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) therapy in pediatric patients including neonates, infants, children, and adolescents have not been established. Tetracycline has the potential for serious alterations of bone and tooth development, particularly in pediatric patients up to 8 years of age. Permanent discoloration of the teeth and enamel hypoplasia have been reported in this population.

    Fungal infection

    Administer bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) only to those patients with a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or in whom prophylaxis is indicated; in the absence of these situations, bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the developing drug-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic therapy may result in candidal overgrowth. A known or previously unrecognized candida fungal infection may present more prominent symptoms during antibiotic therapy and require treatment with an appropriate antifungal agent.

    Neurological disease, peripheral neuropathy, seizure disorder, seizures

    Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) therapy should be administered with caution to patients with neurological disease. Neurotoxicity has rarely been reported with administration of high doses of bismuth salts. Discontinuation of the bismuth salt has been found to reverse the neurotoxic effects. Metronidazole has been associated with seizures, encephalopathy, aseptic meningitis, and peripheral neuropathy (mainly of the sensory type), with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy is characterized by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity. The risk of neurotoxicity may be increased in patients with a history of neurological disease or a preexisting seizure disorder. Since persistent peripheral neuropathy has been reported in some patients receiving prolonged administration of metronidazole, patients should be warned about these reactions and should be told to stop the drug and to contact their prescriber if any neurologic symptoms (e.g., numbness or paresthesia of an extremity) occur. Encephalopathy has been reported in association with cerebellar toxicity characterized by ataxia, dizziness, and dysarthria. Cases of encephalopathy have noted CNS lesions on MRI. CNS symptoms and CNS lesions are generally reversible, with symptoms resolving within days to weeks after discontinuation of metronidazole therapy. Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported with metronidazole with symptoms occurring within hours of dose administration and generally resolving after the discontinuation of therapy. Additionally, increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri) can occur during therapy with tetracycline and is usually reversible following discontinuation of the drug but may produce permanent sequelae. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of intracranial hypertension are at greater risk. The appearance of abnormal neurologic symptoms demands a prompt evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio for continuing therapy..

    Alcoholism, ethanol intoxication

    Metronidazole-containing products, such as Pylera (bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline), should be used with caution in patients with alcoholism or ethanol intoxication. Metronidazole may interfere with the metabolism of ethanol, resulting in disulfiram-like side effects. In general, it is recommended to avoid the consumption of alcoholic beverages or medicines with metronidazole for at least 3 days following the discontinuation of the drug. The manufacturer of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline recommends avoiding alcoholic beverages for at least 3 days after completing therapy.

    Bone marrow suppression, hematological disease, leukopenia, neutropenia

    Metronidazole-containing products, such as Pylera (bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline), are contraindicated in patients with a history of drug-induced hematological dyscrasias due to metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives. Metronidazole should be used with care in patients with evidence of or history of hematological disease. A mild leukopenia (neutropenia) has been observed during metronidazole administration; however, no persistent hematologic abnormalities attributable to metronidazole have been observed in clinical studies. Monitor the CBC with differential before and after therapy. Use with caution in patients with bone marrow suppression.

    Anticoagulant therapy

    The hypoprothrombinemic effects of oral anticoagulant therapy with warfarin or other coumarin-type agents can be potentiated if metronidazole-containing products, such as Pylera (bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline), are added. Monitor INRs closely if metronidazole is added to warfarin therapy; an adjustment of the oral anticoagulant therapy dosage may be necessary.

    Crohn's disease

    Patients with Crohn's disease are known to have an increased incidence of gastrointestinal and certain extraintestinal cancers. There have been some reports in the medical literature of breast and colon cancer in Crohn's disease patients who have been treated with metronidazole (such as with bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline) at high doses for extended periods of time. A cause and effect relationship has not been established.

    Sunlight (UV) exposure

    Photosensitivity can occur with tetracycline treatment. Patients receiving bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera), patients should avoid or limit sunlight (UV) exposure, including sunlamps and tanning booths. It is generally agreed that sunscreens provide limited protection for this reaction. Tetracycline-containing products should be discontinued at the first sign of erythema. Photosensitivity reactions are believed to be due to accumulation of the drug in the skin and are mostly phototoxic in nature, but photoallergic reactions also can occur. Reactions can develop from within a few minutes to up to several hours after exposure and will last for 1 to 2 days after discontinuation of the drug.

    Surgery

    In patients undergoing surgery with methoxyflurane anesthesia, concurrent use of tetracycline-containing products, such as Pylera (bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline), can increase the risk of nephrotoxicity (sometimes fatal).

    Pregnancy

    The use of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) during pregnancy is contraindicated. Therapy can be delayed in pregnant women. Tetracycline has a detrimental effect on the skeletal development and bone growth of the fetus, particularly in the second half of pregnancy. While not an animal teratogen, systemically absorbed metronidazole readily crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Reports in humans are conflicting, and the effects of metronidazole on human fetal organogenesis are not known. In a large population-based cohort study (n = 139,938 live births) assessing antibiotic exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 15,469 exposures) and the risk of major birth defects, metronidazole use was not associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) or organ specific MCMs. However, in a nested, case-control study (n = 87,020 controls; 8,702 cases) within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, use of metronidazole or tetracycline during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.26; 53 exposed cases and aOR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.97 to 3.41; 67 exposed cases, respectively); residual confounding by severity of infection may be a potential limitation of this study.

    Breast-feeding

    The manufacturer of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) recommends that women avoid nursing during therapy and to pump and discard breastmilk for 2 days after the last dose of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline. Both metronidazole and tetracycline are excreted in breast milk and metronidazole breast milk concentrations have been demonstrated to be similar to plasma concentrations. Metronidazole is a mutagen in vitro and has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that nursing may be resumed within 24 to 48 hours after the last dose of metronidazole is completed. The AAP generally considered tetracycline compatible with breast-feeding. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally administered drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    New primary malignancy

    Metronidazole has been reported to be carcinogenic in toxicity studies in mice and rats. Similar studies in the hamster gave negative results. Also, metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in a number of in vitro assay systems, but studies in mammals (in vivo) failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage. Human data are not available to describe the risk of a new primary malignancy secondary to use. The manufacturer notes that bismuth subcitrate; metronidazole; tetracycline should only be used as indicated within the prescribing information; avoid unnecessary use.

    Hepatic disease

    Patients with hepatic disease metabolize metronidazole slowly, which results in accumulation of metronidazole in the plasma. Monitor patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment for metronidazole-associated adverse events. Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).

    Cockayne syndrome

    Bismuth subcitrate; metronidazole; tetracycline is contraindicated in patients with Cockayne syndrome. Cases of severe irreversible hepatotoxicity and acute hepatic failure, including fatal outcomes with very rapid onset after treatment initiation with systemic metronidazole, have been reported in these patients. The latency period from starting metronidazole to signs of liver failure was as short as 2 days.

    Laboratory test interference

    Administration of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline may result in laboratory test interference. Antimicrobials and bismuth are known to suppress H. pylori; thus, ingestion of these preparations within 4 weeks of performing diagnostic tests for H. pylori may lead to false negative results. At a minimum, instruct the patient to avoid the use of these agents in the 4 weeks prior to the test.[63135] [63136] Systemic metronidazole therapy may cause laboratory test interference with certain laboratory measurements, such as AST, ALT, LDH, triglycerides, and hexokinase glucose; values of zero may be noted. All of the assays in which interference has been observed involve enzymatic coupling of the assay to oxidation-reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Interference is due to the similarity in the absorbance peaks of NADH (340 nm) and metronidazole (322 nm) at a pH of 7. Metronidazole causes an increase in ultraviolet absorbance at 340 nm resulting in falsely decreased values.[28581] [33395] Bismuth has also been shown to absorb x-rays and may interfere with x-ray diagnostic procedures of the gastrointestinal tract. Bismuth may cause a temporary and harmless darkening of the stool, but this does not interfere with standard tests for occult blood.[33395]

    Apheresis, AV block, bradycardia, cardiomyopathy, celiac disease, females, fever, heart failure, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hyperparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, long QT syndrome, myocardial infarction, pheochromocytoma, QT prolongation, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease, sleep deprivation, stroke, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    QT prolongation has been reported with metronidazole use, particularly when administered with other drugs with the potential to prolong the QT interval. Use bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline with caution in patients with conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including congenital long QT syndrome, bradycardia, AV block, heart failure, stress-related cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Females, persons 65 years and older, patients with sleep deprivation, pheochromocytoma, sickle cell disease, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypothermia, systemic inflammation (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, fever, and some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and celiac disease) and patients undergoing apheresis procedures (e.g., plasmapheresis [plasma exchange], cytapheresis) may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation.

    C. difficile-associated diarrhea, diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis

    Consider pseudomembranous colitis in patients presenting with diarrhea after antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary as pseudomembranous colitis has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents. Almost all antibacterial agents, including metronidazole and tetracycline, have been associated with pseudomembranous colitis or C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) which may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    hepatic failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pancreatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / 0-1.0
    increased intracranial pressure / Early / Incidence not known
    papilledema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    aseptic meningitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatotoxicity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    lupus-like symptoms / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pericarditis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serum sickness / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    anaphylactic shock / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    C. difficile-associated diarrhea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    azotemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    new primary malignancy / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    vaginitis / Delayed / 2.7-2.7
    constipation / Delayed / 1.4-1.4
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 1.4-1.4
    gastritis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 0-1.0
    esophagitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known
    pseudotumor cerebri / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysarthria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    encephalopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ataxia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ST-T wave changes / Rapid / Incidence not known
    QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    erythema / Early / Incidence not known
    pseudomembranous colitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    superinfection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    candidiasis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    glossitis / Early / Incidence not known
    stomatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    enamel hypoplasia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neutropenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    eosinophilia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dysuria / Early / Incidence not known
    proctitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dyspareunia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperphosphatemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urinary incontinence / Early / Incidence not known
    cystitis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    stool discoloration / Delayed / 15.6-15.6
    nausea / Early / 8.2-8.2
    diarrhea / Early / 6.8-6.8
    headache / Early / 5.4-5.4
    abdominal pain / Early / 4.8-4.8
    dysgeusia / Early / 4.1-4.1
    asthenia / Delayed / 3.4-3.4
    dyspepsia / Early / 2.7-2.7
    dizziness / Early / 2.7-2.7
    infection / Delayed / 2.7-2.7
    xerostomia / Early / 1.4-1.4
    maculopapular rash / Early / 1.4-1.4
    tongue discoloration / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-1.0
    eructation / Early / 0-1.0
    flatulence / Early / 0-1.0
    malaise / Early / 0-1.0
    weight gain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0-1.0
    drowsiness / Early / 0-1.0
    back pain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    myalgia / Early / 0-1.0
    rash / Early / 0.7-0.7
    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    metallic taste / Early / Incidence not known
    diplopia / Early / Incidence not known
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    weakness / Early / Incidence not known
    irritability / Delayed / Incidence not known
    insomnia / Early / Incidence not known
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    nail discoloration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    onycholysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tooth discoloration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    photosensitivity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urine discoloration / Early / Incidence not known
    libido decrease / Delayed / Incidence not known
    polyuria / Early / Incidence not known
    tinnitus / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acitretin: (Contraindicated) The concomitant use of acitretin and systemic tetracyclines is contraindicated, due to the potential for increased cranial pressure and an increased risk of pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension). Pseudotumor cerebri has been reported with systemic retinoid use alone and early signs and symptoms include papilledema, headache, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances.
    Alfuzosin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and alfuzosin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Amiodarone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and amiodarone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Amisulpride: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and amisulpride increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Minor) Since celecoxib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9, concurrent administration with metronidazole, which can inhibit this enzyme, may result in increased levels of celecoxib. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established.
    Amoxicillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. (Minor) Coadministration of bismuth subcitrate potassium and omeprazole resulted in a significant increase in the systemic absorption of bismuth. However, when administered in the FDA-approved dosage regimen, bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline capsules (Pylera) is administered with omeprazole for 10 days. The manufacturer does not feel that short-term exposure to bismuth concentrations > 50 mcg/L will increase the risk of neurotoxicity; health care practitioners should be aware of this potential adverse effect. (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Ampicillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Ampicillin; Sulbactam: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Anagrelide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and anagrelide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Antacids: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and apomorphine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and aripiprazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and arsenic trioxide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and artemether; lumefantrine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Asenapine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and asenapine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Early reports noted an increase in the excretion of tetracyclines during coadministration with sodium bicarbonate, and that the oral absorption of tetracyclines is reduced by sodium bicarbonate via increased gastric pH. However, conflicting data have been reported, and further study is needed. Two recent studies show no effect of oral sodium bicarbonate administration on tetracycline oral bioavailability. In one of these trials, coadministration with sodium bicarbonate was reported to have no effect on tetracycline urinary excretion, Cmax, or AUC. Until more information is available, avoid simultaneous administration of sodium bicarbonate and tetracyclines. When concurrent therapy is needed, stagger administration times by several hours to minimize the potential for interaction, and monitor for antimicrobial efficacy.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Minor) Coadministration of bismuth subcitrate potassium and omeprazole resulted in a significant increase in the systemic absorption of bismuth. However, when administered in the FDA-approved dosage regimen, bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline capsules (Pylera) is administered with omeprazole for 10 days. The manufacturer does not feel that short-term exposure to bismuth concentrations > 50 mcg/L will increase the risk of neurotoxicity; health care practitioners should be aware of this potential adverse effect.
    Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and atomoxetine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Atovaquone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of tetracycline can reduce the plasma concentrations of atovaquone by approximately 40%. Parasitemia should be closely monitored in patients receiving atovaquone and tetracycline.
    Atovaquone; Proguanil: (Moderate) Concomitant use of tetracycline can reduce the plasma concentrations of atovaquone by approximately 40%. Parasitemia should be closely monitored in patients receiving atovaquone and tetracycline.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with bismuth may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Azithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and azithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Barbiturates: (Minor) Barbiturates may decrease the half-life and plasma concentrations of metronidazole. The clinical significance of this effect is uncertain.
    Bedaquiline: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and bedaquiline increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Bexarotene: (Major) The concomitant use of systemic retinoid therapy, such as bexarotene, and systemic tetracyclines should be avoided due to the potential for increased cranial pressure and an increased risk of pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension). Pseudotumor cerebri has been reported with systemic retionoid use alone and early signs and symptoms include papilledema, headache, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Separate administration of oral tetracyclines and bismuth subsalicylate by at least 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of oral tetracyclines which may decrease their efficacy. Some data suggest that this interaction may only apply to administration with bismuth subsalicylate suspension.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Separate administration of oral tetracyclines and bismuth subsalicylate by at least 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of oral tetracyclines which may decrease their efficacy. Some data suggest that this interaction may only apply to administration with bismuth subsalicylate suspension.
    Bortezomib: (Minor) Monitor patients for the development of peripheral neuropathy when receiving bortezomib in combination with other drugs that can cause peripheral neuropathy like metronidazole; the risk of peripheral neuropathy may be additive.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and buprenorphine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and buprenorphine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Busulfan: (Major) Systemic metronidazole should not be administered with busulfan unless the benefit outweighs the risk. If no therapeutic alternatives to metronidazole exist, monitor busulfan concentrations and adjust the busulfan doses as necessary. Metronidazole may increase plasma concentrations of busulfan, which can result in an increased risk for serious busulfan toxicity such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, gastrointestinal mucositis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease.
    Cabotegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Calcium Acetate: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Carbonate; Famotidine; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Chloride: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium Gluconate: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Calcium; Vitamin D: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Carbamazepine: (Minor) Monitor serum concentrations of carbamazepine when coadministered with systemic metronidazole. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of carbamazepine; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects.
    Carbenicillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concurrent administration of oral zinc salts with oral tetracyclines can decrease the absorption of these antiinfectives and possibly interfere with their therapeutic response. This is a result of the formation of insoluble chelates between zinc and the antiinfective. Oral zinc supplements should be administered at least 6 hours before or 2 hours after administering tetracyclines.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concurrent administration of oral zinc salts with oral tetracyclines can decrease the absorption of these antiinfectives and possibly interfere with their therapeutic response. This is a result of the formation of insoluble chelates between zinc and the antiinfective. Oral zinc supplements should be administered at least 6 hours before or 2 hours after administering tetracyclines.
    Carbidopa: (Moderate) There was a 5% incidence of generalized polyneuropathy during clinical trial evaluation of carbidopa; levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa). The manufacturer recommends an initial evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, and periodic monitoring for peripheral neuropathy during treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications that are associated with neuropathy. Metronidazole has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has also been reported in patients treated with other nitroimidazole drugs.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Moderate) There was a 5% incidence of generalized polyneuropathy during clinical trial evaluation of carbidopa; levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa). The manufacturer recommends an initial evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, and periodic monitoring for peripheral neuropathy during treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications that are associated with neuropathy. Metronidazole has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has also been reported in patients treated with other nitroimidazole drugs.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) There was a 5% incidence of generalized polyneuropathy during clinical trial evaluation of carbidopa; levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa). The manufacturer recommends an initial evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, and periodic monitoring for peripheral neuropathy during treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications that are associated with neuropathy. Metronidazole has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has also been reported in patients treated with other nitroimidazole drugs.
    Celecoxib: (Minor) Since celecoxib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9, concurrent administration with metronidazole, which can inhibit this enzyme, may result in increased levels of celecoxib. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Minor) Since celecoxib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9, concurrent administration with metronidazole, which can inhibit this enzyme, may result in increased levels of celecoxib. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established.
    Ceritinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ceritinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and chloroquine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concurrent administration of oral zinc salts with oral tetracyclines can decrease the absorption of these antiinfectives and possibly interfere with their therapeutic response. This is a result of the formation of insoluble chelates between zinc and the antiinfective. Oral zinc supplements should be administered at least 6 hours before or 2 hours after administering tetracyclines.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and chlorpromazine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Cholera Vaccine: (Major) Avoid the live cholera vaccine in patients that have received tetracycline within 14 days prior to vaccination. Concurrent administration of the live cholera vaccine with antibiotics active against cholera, such as tetracycline, may diminish vaccine efficacy and result in suboptimal immune response. A duration of fewer than 14 days between stopping antibiotics and vaccination might also be acceptable in some clinical settings if travel cannot be avoided before 14 days have elapsed after stopping antibiotics.
    Cholestyramine: (Major) Colestipol has been shown to reduce tetracycline absorption by roughly 50%. It is likely this is enough to cause a clinically significant effect. Although no data are available for other tetracyclines, or for cholestyramine, it should be assumed that any tetracycline antibiotic may be affected similarly by either cholestyramine or colestipol. Staggering oral doses of each agent is recommended to minimize this pharmacokinetic interaction. To minimize drug interactions, administer tetracyclines at least 1 hour before or at least 4 to 6 hours after the administration of cholestyramine. Since doxycycline undergoes enterohepatic recirculation, it may be even more susceptible to this drug interaction than the other tetracyclines. (Moderate) Administer metronidazole at least 1 hour before or at least 4 to 6 hours after administration of cholestyramine. The oral bioavailability of metronidazole was reduced by 21% when given with cholestyramine.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Cimetidine is an enzyme inhibitor that can decrease the hepatic metabolism of metronidazole. As a result, elimination can be delayed and serum metronidazole concentrations can increase. The sequelae of this interaction are unclear, although prolonged administration of metronidazole has been associated with seizures. If possible, cimetidine should not be used during metronidazole therapy.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Cisapride: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and cisapride due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Citalopram: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and citalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Clofazimine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of clofazimine and metronidazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clozapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Colesevelam: (Moderate) Colesevelam may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines. To minimize potential for interactions, consider administering oral tetracyclines at least 4 hours before colesevelam. The manufacturer for colesevelam suggests monitoring serum drug concentrations and/or clinical effects for those drugs for which alterations in serum blood concentrations have a clinically significant effect on safety or efficacy.
    Colestipol: (Major) Colestipol has been shown to reduce tetracycline absorption by roughly 50%. It is likely this is enough to cause a clinically significant effect. Although no data are available for other tetracyclines, it should be assumed that any tetracycline antibiotic may be affected similarly by colestipol. Staggering oral doses of each agent is recommended to minimize this pharmacokinetic interaction; administer tetracyclines at least 1 hour before or at least 4 to 6 hours after the administration of colestipol. Since doxycycline undergoes enterohepatic recirculation, it may be even more susceptible to this drug interaction than the other tetracyclines.
    Crizotinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and crizotinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Cyclophosphamide: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in cyclophosphamide-related adverse reactions if coadministration with metronidazole is necessary. Acute encephalopathy has been reported in one patient receiving cyclophosphamide and metronidazole, although causal association is unclear. In an animal study, the combination of cyclophosphamide with metronidazole was associated with an increase in cyclophosphamide toxicity.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Monitor serum concentrations of cyclosporine when coadministered with systemic metronidazole. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of cyclosporine; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after metronidazole is discontinued. Cyclosporine parenteral and oral solutions contain ethanol; liquid-filled capsules contain ethanol in lower percentages. Administration of ethanol-containing formulations of cyclosporine to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Dasatinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and dasatinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Degarelix: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. degarelix) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Desflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and deutetrabenazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with deutetrabenazine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quinidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Dicloxacillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Didanosine, ddI: (Major) Tetracyclines should not be administered simultaneously with didanosine, ddI chewable tablets or powder for oral solution. The buffering agents contained in didanosine tablets and powder reduce tetracycline absorption. Administer oral doses of tetracycline antibiotics 1 hour before or 4 hours after didanosine tablet or powder administration. The delayed-release didanosine capsules do not contain a buffering agent and would not be expected to interact with tetracycline antibiotics.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Digoxin: (Major) Measure serum digoxin concentrations before initiating tetracyclines. Reduce digoxin concentrations by decreasing the digoxin dose by approximately 30 to 50% or by modifying the dosing frequency, and continue monitoring. In approximately 10% of patients, a small portion of a digoxin dose is metabolized in the gut by intestinal Eubacterium lentum, an anaerobic bacillus, to inactive digoxin reduction products (DRPs). DRPs have little cardiac activity due to poor cardiac receptor binding and rapid excretion. Certain antibiotics can reduce the activity of intestinal bacteria, which, in turn, may enhance digoxin bioavailability via decreased DRP formation and increased enterohepatic recycling of digoxin in some patients. The addition of tetracycline to digoxin therapy has been reported to increase the serum digoxin concentration by 100%. Digoxin toxicity has been reported in patients previously stabilized on digoxin who receive antibiotics that affect E. lentum, such as tetracyclines. Other antibiotics that have activity against E. lentum may produce similar effects on digoxin metabolism.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with bismuth may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Disopyramide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and disopyramide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Disulfiram: (Contraindicated) The combination of systemic metronidazole and disulfiram is contraindicated. Do not administer systemic metronidazole concomitantly or within 2 weeks after the administration of disulfiram because additive CNS toxic effects can occur. Case reports have described the development of CNS toxicity after metronidazole was coadministered with disulfiram, resulting in psychosis and confusion. This toxicity is believed to occur because of combined inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase. When metronidazole and disulfiram are combined, symptoms may become evident within 10 to 14 days, and symptoms may remain for 2 to 3 days after the drugs are discontinued.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and dofetilide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Dolasetron: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and dolasetron may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and donepezil may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and donepezil may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) Cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors, such as metronidazole, may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol, thereby decreasing the formation of the active metabolite and thus, decreasing efficacy.
    Dronabinol: (Major) The use of metronidazole within 14 days of beginning therapy with dronabinol oral solution is contraindicated, due to the risk of a disulfiram-like reaction. Do not administer metronidazole within 7 days of completing therapy with the oral solution. Dronabinol oral solution contains 50% (w/w) dehydrated alcohol and 5% (w/w) propylene glycol, which can produce disulfiram-like reactions (e.g., abdominal cramps, nausea/vomiting, headaches, and flushing) with drugs such as metronidazole. Ethanol competitively inhibits the metabolism of propylene glycol; however, the contribution of propylene glycol to these reactions is unknown. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations (e.g., dronabinol oral capsules).
    Dronedarone: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and dronedarone due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Droperidol: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and droperidol increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Drospirenone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and efavirenz may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and efavirenz may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and efavirenz may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Eliglustat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and eliglustat may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Encorafenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and encorafenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Enflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Entrectinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and entrectinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Eribulin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and eribulin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and erythromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and erythromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Estradiol: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethanol: (Major) Advise patients to discontinue alcohol-containing beverages and other forms of alcohol (including medicines with significant alcohol content and any products containing propylene glycol) before, during, and up to 3 days after therapy with systemic metronidazole. Disulfiram-like side effects including nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, headache, flushing, and abdominal cramps may occur if used together. (Moderate) Although the injection of alcohol used for therapeutic procedures is not expected to produce significant systemic effects of ethanol, use caution with concomitant use of metronidazole. Disulfiram-like side effects, including nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, headache, flushing, and abdominal cramps, may occur.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethynodiol Diacetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Etonogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ezogabine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ferric Maltol: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Fingolimod: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fingolimod may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Flecainide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and flecainide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Floxuridine: (Minor) Enhancement of toxicity of fluorouracil, 5-FU, has been reported in a limited number of patients during concurrent treatment with metronidazole. This toxicity occurred without an increase in efficacy of fluorouracil. Toxicity may manifest as granulocytopenia, oral ulceration, anemia, and nausea and vomiting. This interaction is believed to occur through reduced clearance of fluorouracil. Floxuridine is a deoxyribonucleoside derivative of fluorouracil and may interact with metronidazole in a similar manner.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluorouracil, 5-FU: (Minor) Caution is warranted with the coadministration of systemic metronidazole and systemic fluorouracil, 5-FU. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of fluorouracil; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects. Toxicity may manifest as granulocytopenia, oral ulceration, anemia, and nausea and vomiting.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluoxetine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of fluphenazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluvoxamine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Food: (Major) Calcium salts that are present in foods and dairy products can form chelates with tetracycline and impair absorption. Administer tetracycline at least one hour prior to or two hours after a meal and/or milk. (Major) Iron salts that are present in foods and dairy products can form chelates with tetracycline and impair absorption. Administer tetracycline at least one hour prior to or two hours after a meal and/or milk.
    Foscarnet: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and foscarnet increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Monitor phenytoin concentrations and for loss of metronidazole efficacy during concomitant therapy with fosphenytoin. Fosphenytoin may accelerate the elimination of metronidazole, resulting in reduced plasma concentrations; impaired clearance of phenytoin has also been reported.
    Fostemsavir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fostemsavir may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with fostemsavir is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at 4 times the recommended daily dose.
    Gemifloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and gemifloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and gemtuzumab may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Gilteritinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and gilteritinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Glasdegib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and glasdegib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Goserelin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. goserelin) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Granisetron: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and granisetron may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Halobetasol; Tazarotene: (Moderate) The manufacturer states that tazarotene should be administered with caution in patients who are also taking drugs known to be photosensitizers, such as tetracyclines, as concomitant use may augment phototoxicity. Patients should take care and use proper techniques to limit sunlight and UV exposure of treated areas.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and haloperidol may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The intravenous route may carry a higher risk for haloperidol-induced QT/QTc prolongation than other routes of administration.
    Halothane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Heparin: (Minor) Tetracyclines may partially counteract the anticoagulant actions of heparin, according to the product labels. However, this interaction is not likely of clinical significance in most patients since heparin therapy is adjusted to the partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and other clinical parameters of the patient.
    Histrelin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. histrelin) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and hydroxychloroquine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and hydroxyzine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ibutilide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ibutilide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Iloperidone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and iloperidone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and inotuzumab increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Insoluble Prussian Blue: (Moderate) The binding of Insoluble Prussian Blue to some orally administered therapeutic drugs and essential nutrients is possible. The blood concentrations and/or clinical response to critical coadministered products should be monitored during Insoluble Prussian Blue therapy.
    Iron Salts: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Iron Sucrose, Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of tetracyclines will be significantly reduced by orally administered compounds that contain iron salts. To minimize the potential for this interaction, administer tetracycline antibiotics at least 1 hour before oral iron sucrose, sucroferric oxyhydroxide.
    Iron: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Isotretinoin: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of isotretinoin and systemic tetracyclines due to the potential for increased cranial pressure and an increased risk of pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension). Pseudotumor cerebri has been reported with both systemic retinoid and tetracycline use alone. Early signs and symptoms include papilledema, headache, nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and itraconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ivosidenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ivosidenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ixabepilone: (Contraindicated) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be administered during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. The supplied diluent that must be used for reconstitution of ixabepilone has a high concentration of dehydrated alcohol (39.8% w/v). Administration of ixabepilone to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions.
    Ketoconazole: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of ketoconazole and metronidazole due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation. QT prolongation has been reported, particularly when metronidazole was administered with drugs with the potential for prolonging the QT interval, like ketoconazole.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Lanthanum Carbonate: (Major) Oral compounds known to interact with antacids, like tetracyclines, should not be taken within 2 hours of dosing with lanthanum carbonate. If these agents are used concomitantly, space the dosing intervals appropriately. Monitor serum concentrations and clinical condition.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lapatinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lefamulin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lefamulin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Lenvatinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lenvatinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Leuprolide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. leuprolide) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. leuprolide) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Levofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and levofloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Levoketoconazole: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of ketoconazole and metronidazole due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation. QT prolongation has been reported, particularly when metronidazole was administered with drugs with the potential for prolonging the QT interval, like ketoconazole.
    Levonorgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous Bisglycinate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Lithium: (Major) The interaction between lithium and tetracycline appears variable. Both lithium toxicity and reduction in lithium concentrations have been reported during concurrent administration of tetracycline. Use of an alternative antibiotic should be considered in patients receiving lithium; however, if concurrent use of tetracycline is necessary, close monitoring of lithium levels and clinical response is recommended. (Moderate) Concomitant use of lithium and metronidazole may increase serum lithium concentrations and increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Monitor serum lithium concentrations; reduce the lithium dose based on lithium serum concentrations and clinical response. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lofexidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lofexidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Lomitapide: (Moderate) Caution should be exercised when lomitapide is used with other medications known to have potential for hepatotoxicity, such as tetracyclines. The effect of concomitant administration of lomitapide with other hepatotoxic medications is unknown. More frequent monitoring of liver-related tests may be warranted.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and loperamide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and loperamide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lopinavir; ritonavir increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Macimorelin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and macimorelin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Magnesium Citrate: (Moderate) Administer magnesium citrate at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after orally administered tetracyclines. Tetracycline absorption may be reduced as tetracycline antibiotics can chelate with divalent or trivalent cations.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracycline and antacids by 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of tetracycline which may decrease its efficacy.
    Magnesium Salts: (Moderate) Administer oral magnesium-containing products at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after orally administered tetracyclines. Tetracycline absorption may be reduced as tetracycline antibiotics can chelate with divalent or trivalent cations.
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Major) Administer tetracyclines at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after administration of magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate. The absorption of tetracyclines may be reduced by chelation with magnesium sulfate.
    Magnesium: (Moderate) Administer oral magnesium-containing products at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after orally administered tetracyclines. Tetracycline absorption may be reduced as tetracycline antibiotics can chelate with divalent or trivalent cations.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and maprotiline may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mebendazole: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of mebendazole and metronidazole. Serious skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported with coadministration.
    Mefloquine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and mefloquine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Methadone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and methadone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Methotrexate: (Moderate) Monitor for methotrexate-related adverse reactions during concomitant tetracyclines use. Tetracyclines may decrease intestinal absorption of methotrexate or interfere with the enterohepatic circulation by inhibiting bowel flora and suppressing metabolism of methotrexate by bacteria.
    Methoxsalen: (Moderate) Use methoxsalen and tetracyclines together with caution; the risk of severe burns/photosensitivity may be additive. If concurrent use is necessary, closely monitor patients for signs or symptoms of skin toxicity.
    Metoclopramide: (Minor) Metoclopramide can increase the rate or extent of absorption of tetracycline because of accelerated gastric emptying, which increases the contact time with the small bowel where this drug is absorbed.
    Midostaurin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and midostaurin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Mifepristone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and mifepristone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Mipomersen: (Moderate) Caution should be exercised when mipomersen is used with other medications known to have potential for hepatotoxicity, such as tetracyclines. The effect of concomitant administration of mipomersen with other hepatotoxic medications is unknown. More frequent monitoring of liver-related tests may be warranted.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and mirtazapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mobocertinib: (Major) Concomitant use of mobocertinib and metronidazole increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Molindone: (Major) The tablet formulation of molindone contains calcium sulfate as an excipient and the calcium ions may interfere with the absorption of tetracyclines. It may be advisable to consider an alternative to tetracycline treatment during molindone administration.
    Moxifloxacin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and moxifloxacin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Mycophenolate: (Moderate) Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil, norfloxacin, and metronidazole is not recommended. Administration of all 3 drugs significantly reduced the systemic exposure of mycophenolic acid. Specifically, as compared with the value obtained with mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy, the mean mycophenolic acid AUC (0 to 48 h) was decreased by 33% when 1 gram of mycophenolate mofetil was administered to healthy patients who had received 4 days of both norfloxacin and metronidazole. The mycophenolic acid systemic exposure was slightly reduced when mycophenolate mofetil was coadministered with either norfloxacin or metronidazole. The mean (+/-SD) mycophenolic acid AUC (0 to 48 h) was 56.2 (+/-24) mcgh/ml after mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy, 48.3 (+/-24) mcgh/ml after coadministration with norfloxacin, and 42.7 (+/-23) mcgh/ml after coadministration with metronidazole. Addtionally, potential QT prolongation has been reported in limited case reports with metronidazole; therefore, it should be used cautiously when adminstered with norfloxacin, which has a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP.
    Nafcillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Sirolimus: (Moderate) Although an interaction between metronidazole and sirolimus has not been studied, metronidazole has been reported to interact with tacrolimus. Specifically, a renal transplant patient reportedly had an increase in tacrolimus and cyclosporine serum concentrations when metronidazole was added to the drug regimen. A similar interaction may potentially occur with sirolimus.
    Neuromuscular blockers: (Moderate) Concomitant use of neuromuscular blockers and tetracyclines may prolong neuromuscular blockade. The use of a peripheral nerve stimulator is strongly recommended to evaluate the level of neuromuscular blockade, to assess the need for additional doses of neuromuscular blocker, and to determine whether adjustments need to be made to the dose with subsequent administration.
    Nilotinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and nilotinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Norethindrone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Norethindrone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and octreotide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Octreotide has a limited effect on the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses but may cause bradycardia and other conduction disturbances which may increase the risk for TdP in patients with a prolonged QT/QTc interval.
    Ofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ofloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and olanzapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluoxetine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and olanzapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and olanzapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Omeprazole: (Minor) Coadministration of bismuth subcitrate potassium and omeprazole resulted in a significant increase in the systemic absorption of bismuth. However, when administered in the FDA-approved dosage regimen, bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline capsules (Pylera) is administered with omeprazole for 10 days. The manufacturer does not feel that short-term exposure to bismuth concentrations > 50 mcg/L will increase the risk of neurotoxicity; health care practitioners should be aware of this potential adverse effect.
    Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin: (Minor) Coadministration of bismuth subcitrate potassium and omeprazole resulted in a significant increase in the systemic absorption of bismuth. However, when administered in the FDA-approved dosage regimen, bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline capsules (Pylera) is administered with omeprazole for 10 days. The manufacturer does not feel that short-term exposure to bismuth concentrations > 50 mcg/L will increase the risk of neurotoxicity; health care practitioners should be aware of this potential adverse effect. (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Early reports noted an increase in the excretion of tetracyclines during coadministration with sodium bicarbonate, and that the oral absorption of tetracyclines is reduced by sodium bicarbonate via increased gastric pH. However, conflicting data have been reported, and further study is needed. Two recent studies show no effect of oral sodium bicarbonate administration on tetracycline oral bioavailability. In one of these trials, coadministration with sodium bicarbonate was reported to have no effect on tetracycline urinary excretion, Cmax, or AUC. Until more information is available, avoid simultaneous administration of sodium bicarbonate and tetracyclines. When concurrent therapy is needed, stagger administration times by several hours to minimize the potential for interaction, and monitor for antimicrobial efficacy. (Minor) Coadministration of bismuth subcitrate potassium and omeprazole resulted in a significant increase in the systemic absorption of bismuth. However, when administered in the FDA-approved dosage regimen, bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline capsules (Pylera) is administered with omeprazole for 10 days. The manufacturer does not feel that short-term exposure to bismuth concentrations > 50 mcg/L will increase the risk of neurotoxicity; health care practitioners should be aware of this potential adverse effect.
    Ondansetron: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ondansetron increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Opiate Agonists: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Oral Contraceptives: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Osilodrostat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and osilodrostat may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Osimertinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and osimertinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Oxacillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Oxaliplatin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and oxaliplatin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ozanimod: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ozanimod increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. Ozanimod has a limited effect on the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses but may cause bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction delays which may increase the risk for TdP in patients with a prolonged QT/QTc interval.
    Paclitaxel: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Some formulations of paclitaxel contain a high level of ethanol. Administration to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations.
    Pacritinib: (Major) Concomitant use of pacritinib and metronidazole increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and paliperidone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Panobinostat: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and panobinostat increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pasireotide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Pazopanib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pazopanib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Penicillin G Benzathine: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Penicillin G Benzathine; Penicillin G Procaine: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Penicillin G Procaine: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Penicillin G: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Penicillin V: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Penicillins: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Pentamidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and systemic pentamidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of perphenazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of perphenazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Phenytoin: (Moderate) Monitor phenytoin concentrations and for loss of metronidazole efficacy during concomitant therapy. Phenytoin may accelerate the elimination of metronidazole, resulting in reduced plasma concentrations; impaired clearance of phenytoin has also been reported.
    Photosensitizing agents (topical): (Moderate) Tetracyclines cause photosensitivity and may increase the photosensitizing effects photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Prevention of photosensitivity includes adequate protection from sources of UV radiation and the use of protective clothing and sunscreens on exposed skin.
    Pimavanserin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pimavanserin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Pimozide: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and pimozide due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Piperacillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Piperacillin; Tazobactam: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Pitolisant: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pitolisant increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Polycarbophil: (Major) Coadministration of calcium polycarbophil with orally administered tetracyclines can decrease the absorption of tetracyclines; oral doses of tetracyclines should be given 2 hours before or after the administration of calcium polycarbophil. Each 625 mg of calcium polycarbophil contains a substantial amount of calcium (approximately 125 mg). This effect is presumably due to the chelation of the antibiotic by the calcium.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes: (Major) Administer tetracyclines at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after administration of magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate. The absorption of tetracyclines may be reduced by chelation with magnesium sulfate.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes; Ascorbic Acid: (Major) Administer tetracyclines at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after administration of magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate. The absorption of tetracyclines may be reduced by chelation with magnesium sulfate.
    Polysaccharide-Iron Complex: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Ponesimod: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ponesimod increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. Ponesimod has a limited effect on the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses but may cause bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction delays which may increase the risk for TdP in patients with a prolonged QT/QTc interval.
    Porfimer: (Major) Avoid coadministration of porfimer with tetracyclines due to the risk of increased photosensitivity. Porfimer is a light-activated drug used in photodynamic therapy; all patients treated with porfimer will be photosensitive. Concomitant use of other photosensitizing agents like tetracyclines may increase the risk of a photosensitivity reaction.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and posaconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Primaquine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and primaquine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Procainamide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and procainamide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of prochlorperazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Propafenone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and propafenone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Pyridostigmine: (Moderate) Parenteral administration of high doses of certain antibiotics such as tetracyclines may intensify or produce neuromuscular block through their own pharmacologic actions. If unexpected prolongation of neuromuscular block or resistance to its reversal with pyridostigmine occurs, consider the possibility of an antibiotic effect.
    Pyridoxine, Vitamin B6: (Moderate) Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain calcium salts, particularly if the time of administration is within 60 minutes of each other. Calcium salts and tetracyclines should not be administered within 1 to 2 hours of each other, although doxycycline chelates less with calcium than other tetracyclines.
    Quetiapine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quetiapine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Quinapril: (Major) Tetracycline absorption is reduced by about 28 to 37% with coadministration with quinapril, presumably due to the magnesium in the quinapril tablet.This interaction should be taken into account when prescribing tetracyclines with quinapril.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Tetracycline absorption is reduced by about 28 to 37% with coadministration with quinapril, presumably due to the magnesium in the quinapril tablet.This interaction should be taken into account when prescribing tetracyclines with quinapril.
    Quinidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quinidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Quinine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quinine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. (Moderate) Concomitant administration of quinine and tetracycline may result in higher quinine plasma concentrations. It is recommended that patients be monitored closely for quinine-associated adverse reactions if tetracycline is given with quinine.
    Ramelteon: (Moderate) Coadministration of ramelteon with inhibitors of CYP2C9, such as metronidazole, may lead to increases in the serum concentrations of ramelteon.
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ranolazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Relugolix: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. relugolix) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. relugolix) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ribociclib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ribociclib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and risperidone may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Romidepsin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and romidepsin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Saquinavir: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and saquinavir increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Selpercatinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and selpercatinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sertraline may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Sevoflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Siponimod: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and siponimod increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sirolimus: (Moderate) Although an interaction between metronidazole and sirolimus has not been studied, metronidazole has been reported to interact with tacrolimus. Specifically, a renal transplant patient reportedly had an increase in tacrolimus and cyclosporine serum concentrations when metronidazole was added to the drug regimen. A similar interaction may potentially occur with sirolimus.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Early reports noted an increase in the excretion of tetracyclines during coadministration with sodium bicarbonate, and that the oral absorption of tetracyclines is reduced by sodium bicarbonate via increased gastric pH. However, conflicting data have been reported, and further study is needed. Two recent studies show no effect of oral sodium bicarbonate administration on tetracycline oral bioavailability. In one of these trials, coadministration with sodium bicarbonate was reported to have no effect on tetracycline urinary excretion, Cmax, or AUC. Until more information is available, avoid simultaneous administration of sodium bicarbonate and tetracyclines. When concurrent therapy is needed, stagger administration times by several hours to minimize the potential for interaction, and monitor for antimicrobial efficacy.
    Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex; ferric pyrophosphate citrate: (Moderate) Separate administration of tetracyclines and iron by 2 to 3 hours. Iron may decrease the oral bioavailability of tetracyclines.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Major) Prior or concomitant use of antibiotics with sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid may reduce efficacy of the bowel preparation as conversion of sodium picosulfate to its active metabolite bis-(p-hydroxy-phenyl)-pyridyl-2-methane (BHPM) is mediated by colonic bacteria. If possible, avoid coadministration. Certain antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines and quinolones) may chelate with the magnesium in sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid solution. Therefore, these antibiotics should be taken at least 2 hours before and not less than 6 hours after the administration of sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid solution.
    Sodium Stibogluconate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of sodium stibogluconate and metronidazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Sodium Sulfate; Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Administer oral magnesium-containing products at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after orally administered tetracyclines. Tetracycline absorption may be reduced as tetracycline antibiotics can chelate with divalent or trivalent cations.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and solifenacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Sorafenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sorafenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sotalol: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sotalol increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Moderate) St. John's Wort is known to cause photosensitivity. In theory it is possible that additive photosensitizing effects may result from the concomitant use of St. John's Wort with other photosensitizing drugs such as tetracyclines.
    Sucralfate: (Moderate) Sucralfate should be given 2 hours before or after the oral administration of tetracyclines. Divalent or trivalent cations readily chelate with tetracycline antibiotics, forming insoluble compounds. The oral absorption of these antibiotics will be significantly reduced by other orally administered compounds that contain aluminum salts, calcium salts, iron salts, magnesium salts, and/or zinc salts. Sucralfate, because it contains aluminum in its structure and due to its mechanism of action, can bind with tetracyclines in the GI tract, reducing the bioavailability of these agents.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Additive photosensitization may be seen with concurrent administration of sulfonylureas and other photosensitizing agents including tetracyclines. Prevention of photosensitivity includes adequate protection from sources of UV radiation (e.g., avoiding sun exposure and tanning booths) and the use of protective clothing and sunscreens on exposed skin.
    Sunitinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sunitinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tacrolimus may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tamoxifen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tamoxifen may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tazarotene: (Moderate) The manufacturer states that tazarotene should be administered with caution in patients who are also taking drugs known to be photosensitizers, such as tetracyclines, as concomitant use may augment phototoxicity. Patients should take care and use proper techniques to limit sunlight and UV exposure of treated areas.
    Telavancin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and telavancin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and telithromycin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tetrabenazine: (Major) Concomitant use of tetrabenazine and metronidazole increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Tetracyclines: (Moderate) Separate administration of oral tetracyclines and bismuth subsalicylate by at least 2 to 3 hours. Coadministration may impair absorption of oral tetracyclines which may decrease their efficacy. Some data suggest that this interaction may only apply to administration with bismuth subsalicylate suspension.
    Thalidomide: (Moderate) Thalidomide and other agents that cause peripheral neuropathy such as metronidazole should be used cautiously due to the potential for additive effects.
    Thioridazine: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and thioridazine due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Ticarcillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Ticarcillin; Clavulanic Acid: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Tipranavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. The Aptivus brand of tipranavir capsules contain alcohol. Administration of Aptivus capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tolterodine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for tolterodine-associated QT/QTc prolongation may be increased in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers.
    Toremifene: (Major) Concomitant use of toremifene and metronidazole increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Trazodone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and trazodone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Tretinoin, ATRA: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of tretinoin and systemic tetracyclines due to the potential for increased cranial pressure and an increased risk of pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension). Pseudotumor cerebri has been reported with both systemic retinoid and tetracycline use alone. Early signs and symptoms include papilledema, headache, nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances.
    Triclabendazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of triclabendazole and metronidazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of trifluoperazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Triptorelin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. triptorelin) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vandetanib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vandetanib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Vardenafil: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vardenafil may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vecuronium: (Minor) Caution is warranted with the coadministration of systemic metronidazole and vecuronium. Metronidazole may potentiate the effects of vecuronium.
    Vemurafenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vemurafenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and venlafaxine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Verteporfin: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of verteporfin with tetracyclines is necessary due to the risk of increased photosensitivity. Verteporfin is a light-activated drug used in photodynamic therapy; all patients treated with verteporfin will be photosensitive. Concomitant use of other photosensitizing agents like tetracyclines may increase the risk of a photosensitivity reaction.
    Voclosporin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and voclosporin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with voclosporin is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin: (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. (Minor) Consider additional monitoring or alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections in which clinical response is highly dependent upon the rapid, bactericidal activity of penicillins. Bacterostatic antibacterials like tetracyclines may antagonize the bactericidal effects of penicillins which may reduce their efficacy. The clinical relevance of this interaction is poorly defined and for many infections the benefits of combination therapy are likely to outweigh the potential risks.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and voriconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vorinostat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vorinostat may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Monitor prothrombin time and INR and watch for signs of bleeding with concomitant use of systemic metronidazole and warfarin. Warfarin dose adjustments may be necessary. Metronidazole can potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin, resulting in prolongation of prothrombin time and increased risk of bleeding. (Moderate) Tetracyclines may increase the action of warfarin and other oral anticoagulants by either impairing prothrombin utilization or, possibly, decreasing production of vitamin K because of its antiinfective action on gut bacteria. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Additionally, increased monitoring of the INR, especially during initiation and upon discontinuation of the antibiotic, may be necessary.
    Zalcitabine, ddC: (Moderate) It is recommended that zalcitabine, ddC not be used in combination with metronidazole due to additive peripheral neuropathy seen with concomitant use.
    Zinc Salts: (Major) Concurrent administration of oral zinc salts with oral tetracyclines can decrease the absorption of these antiinfectives and possibly interfere with their therapeutic response. This is a result of the formation of insoluble chelates between zinc and the antiinfective. Oral zinc supplements should be administered at least 6 hours before or 2 hours after administering tetracyclines.
    Zinc: (Major) Concurrent administration of oral zinc salts with oral tetracyclines can decrease the absorption of these antiinfectives and possibly interfere with their therapeutic response. This is a result of the formation of insoluble chelates between zinc and the antiinfective. Oral zinc supplements should be administered at least 6 hours before or 2 hours after administering tetracyclines.
    Ziprasidone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ziprasidone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    The use of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) during pregnancy is contraindicated. Therapy can be delayed in pregnant women. Tetracycline has a detrimental effect on the skeletal development and bone growth of the fetus, particularly in the second half of pregnancy. While not an animal teratogen, systemically absorbed metronidazole readily crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Reports in humans are conflicting, and the effects of metronidazole on human fetal organogenesis are not known. In a large population-based cohort study (n = 139,938 live births) assessing antibiotic exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 15,469 exposures) and the risk of major birth defects, metronidazole use was not associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) or organ specific MCMs. However, in a nested, case-control study (n = 87,020 controls; 8,702 cases) within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, use of metronidazole or tetracycline during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.26; 53 exposed cases and aOR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.97 to 3.41; 67 exposed cases, respectively); residual confounding by severity of infection may be a potential limitation of this study.

    The manufacturer of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline (Pylera) recommends that women avoid nursing during therapy and to pump and discard breastmilk for 2 days after the last dose of bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline. Both metronidazole and tetracycline are excreted in breast milk and metronidazole breast milk concentrations have been demonstrated to be similar to plasma concentrations. Metronidazole is a mutagen in vitro and has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that nursing may be resumed within 24 to 48 hours after the last dose of metronidazole is completed. The AAP generally considered tetracycline compatible with breast-feeding. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally administered drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Bismuth subcitrate potassium; metronidazole; tetracycline has demonstrated in vitro activity against most susceptible strains of Helicobacter pylori. The use of combination therapy is necessary for successful eradication of H. pylori and to avoid the development of metronidazole resistance. Adjunctive acid-suppressive therapy with omeprazole is also required concurrently for ulcer healing and improved eradication of H. pylori.[33395] [63136]
    Bismuth subcitrate potassium: The antibacterial action of bismuth salts is not well understood.[33395] The pharmacologic actions of bismuth salts against H. pylori can be attributed specifically to bismuth, with changes in H. pylori seen soon after drug administration. Deposits believed to be bismuth complexes appear on the external cell surface and beneath the cell wall of the organism. The loss of adherence property loosens the organism from the antral epithelium. Distortion and vacuolization of the bacterial cell and its contents completes the process. It has been shown in vitro that bismuth can lyse H. pylori within 30 to 90 minutes.[24060] The addition of certain antimicrobial agents produces a synergistic effect, and studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combination therapy in treating gastric and duodenal ulcers by suppressing H. pylori.[24011] [24061] Ulcer healing also may depend on the cytoprotective effect of bismuth compounds. Bismuth compounds might stimulate the production of prostaglandins, alter GI mucus, and/or modulate the immune response.[23763]
    Metronidazole: Un-ionized metronidazole is readily taken up by passive diffusion and activated in the cytoplasm of susceptible anaerobic organisms and cells. Its selectivity for anaerobic bacteria is a result of the ability of these organisms to reduce metronidazole to its active form intracellularly. This process includes intracellular electron transport proteins such as ferredoxin, transfer of an electron to the nitro group of the metronidazole, and formation of a short-lived nitroso free radical. The electron transport proteins necessary for this reaction are found only in anaerobic bacteria. Due to the alteration of the metronidazole molecule, a concentration gradient is created and maintained which promotes the drug's intracellular transport. Reduced metronidazole and free radicals can interact with DNA, which leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and DNA degradation. The effects on DNA eventually result in bacterial cell death. Metronidazole is equally effective against dividing and nondividing cells. The precise mechanism of action is unclear.[28581] [33395] [52483]
    Tetracycline: Unionized metronidazole is readily taken up by passive diffusion and activated in the cytoplasm of susceptible anaerobic organisms and cells. Its selectivity for anaerobic bacteria is a result of the ability of these organisms to reduce metronidazole to its active form intracellularly. This process includes intracellular electron transport proteins such as ferredoxin, transfer of an electron to the nitro group of the metronidazole, and formation of a short-lived nitroso free radical. The electron transport proteins necessary for this reaction are found only in anaerobic bacteria. Due to the alteration of the metronidazole molecule, a concentration gradient is created and maintained which promotes the drug's intracellular transport. Reduced metronidazole and free radicals can interact with DNA, which leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and DNA degradation. The effects on DNA eventually result in bacterial cell death. Metronidazole is equally effective against dividing and nondividing cells. The precise mechanism of action is unclear.[33395]

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline (Pylera) capsules are administered orally. The pharmacokinetics of the individual drugs, as well as the combination capsule, have been studied. When administered in the FDA-approved dosage regimen, Pylera is administered with omeprazole (see Drug Interactions section for pharmacokinetic data).
    Bismuth subcitrate potassium: The major routes of bismuth elimination are urinary and biliary and the elimination half-life is 5 days. Secondary to urinary concentrations of 24—250 mcg/ml two weeks after discontinuation of bismuth, it is believed that it accumulates in the tissues. Insoluble bismuth salts are formed in the small intestine by reaction with bicarbonate and phosphate anions. The formation of bismuth sulfide can occur in the colon; this highly insoluble black salt produces dark stools.
    Metronidazole (MTZ): Metronidazole is widely distributed into most body tissues and fluids, including the gastrointestinal tract. Protein binding of the drug is about 10%. CSF concentrations of metronidazole are approximately 43% of plasma concentrations. Metronidazole crosses the placenta and enters breast milk. A significant amount of metronidazole (30—60%) is metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation, oxidation, and glucuronide conjugation. The major metabolite is 2-hydroxymethyl metronidazole, which has some antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity. The major route of elimination of metronidazole and its metabolites is via the urine (60—80% of the dose), with fecal excretion accounting for 6—15% of the dose. The mean elimination half-life of metronidazole is roughly 8 hours.
    Tetracycline (TCN): Tetracycline is widely distributed into body fluids, including CSF, and tends to concentrate in bone, liver, spleen, and teeth. Tetracycline calcium organophosphate complexes have been found at sites of tooth development and new bone formation. The drug crosses the placenta and is distributed into breast milk. TCN is about 65% bound to plasma proteins and does not appear to undergo hepatic metabolism; however, it does undergo some enterohepatic circulation with biliary/fecal excretion (minor route). Some fecal excretion is due to incomplete gastrointestinal absorption. The primary excretion route for TCN is renal (about 60%). The serum half-life is between 6—12 hours in adults with normal renal function

    Oral Route

    The specific pharmacokinetic information about the components of Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline (Pylera) are listed below:
    Bismuth subcitrate potassium: The maximum concentration of bismuth subcitrate potassium is 21.3 ng/ml compared to 16.7 ng/ml when administered as Pylera. Administration of Pylera with food was found to decrease the AUC of bismuth by 60%; however, this was not deemed to be clinically significant.
    Metronidazole (MTZ): Oral metronidazole is well-absorbed, with a bioavailability >= 90%; peak concentrations occur within 1—3 hours. Food decreases the rate, but not the extent, of absorption. Those with significant hepatic disease may require dosage alterations. There were no significant differences found between administration of metronidazole alone or as part of the Pylera capsules. Administration of Pylera with food was found to decrease the AUC of metronidazole by 6%; however, this was not deemed to be clinically significant.
    Tetracycline (TCN): The oral bioavailability of tetracycline is about 75—77% in the fasting state. The maximum concentration of tetracycline is 748 ng/ml compared to 773.8 ng/ml when administered as Pylera. Absorption takes place mainly in the stomach and in the upper intestine. As the dosage is increased, the percentage of drug absorbed decreases. Divalent and trivalent cations which are present in antacids and dairy products reduce the absorption of tetracycline via chelation (see Drug Interactions). Administration of Pylera with food was found to decrease the AUC of tetracycline by 34%; however, this was not deemed to be clinically significant.