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    Opioid Agonists

    BOXED WARNING

    Accidental exposure, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication, parenteral administration, potential for overdose or poisoning, requires an experienced clinician

    Like all opioid analgesics, oxycodone is associated with significant potential for overdose or poisoning; proper patient selection and counseling is recommended. The extended-release formulations are not intended for use in the management of pain following surgery, acute pain, or on an as-needed basis; extended-release tablets or capsules are intended only for patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time and requires an experienced clinician who is knowledgeable in the use of long-acting opioids for the management of chronic pain. In pediatric patients 11 years or older, the extended-release tablet formulation should only be used in those who are already receiving opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and are taking a minimum of 20 mg/day of oxycodone or its equivalent for the 2 days immediately preceding initiation. Further, the misuse of oxycodone by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product (parenteral administration) poses a significant risk to the abuser and may result in overdose and death. Parenteral abuse of RoxyBond tablets can be expected to result in local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, and increased risk of endocarditis and valvular heart injury. Advise patients and caregivers to strictly adhere to the recommended dosing. Oxycodone should be kept out of the reach of pediatric patients, others for whom the drug was not prescribed, and pets as accidental exposure or improper use may cause respiratory failure and a fatal overdose. Consumption with ethanol will result in additive CNS depressant effects. Advise patients to avoid ethanol ingestion and ethanol intoxication, including the ingestion of alcohol contained in prescription or non-prescription medications, during therapy. Care should be taken to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between oxycodone oral solution 20 mg/mL and other lower concentrations.

    Alcoholism, depression, substance abuse

    Oxycodone is an opioid agonist and therefore has abuse potential and risk of fatal overdose from respiratory failure. Addiction may occur in patients who obtain oxycodone illicitly or in those appropriately prescribed the drug. The risk of addiction in any individual is unknown. However, patients with mental illness (e.g., major depression) or a family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) have an increased risk of opioid abuse. Assess patients for risks of addiction, abuse, or misuse before drug initiation, and monitor patients who receive opioids routinely for development of these behaviors or conditions. A potential risk of abuse should not preclude appropriate pain management in any patient, but requires more intensive counseling and monitoring. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. The misuse of oxycodone by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product can result in overdose and death. To discourage abuse, the smallest appropriate quantity of oxycodone should be dispensed, and proper disposal instructions for unused drug should be given to patients.

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, coma, cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, obesity, pulmonary disease, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus

    Oxycodone use is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression and in patients with acute or severe asthma (e.g., status asthmaticus) in unmonitored care settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Oxycodone immediate-release tablets are specifically contraindicated in patients with hypercarbia; receipt of moderate oxycodone doses in these patients may significantly decrease pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible, as this significantly increases the risk for respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and death. As with other opioid agonists, oxycodone should be avoided in patients with severe pulmonary disease. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, respiratory insufficiency, upper airway obstruction, or preexisting respiratory depression, it is recommended that non-opioid analgesics be considered as alternatives to oxycodone, as even usual therapeutic doses may decrease respiratory drive and cause apnea in these patient populations. Extreme caution should also be used in patients with chronic asthma, kyphoscoliosis (a type of scoliosis), hypoxemia, or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Oxycodone should not be used during impaired consciousness or coma, as significant decreases in respiratory drive may lead to adverse intracranial effects from carbon dioxide retention; use of oxycodone extended-release tablets or capsules is not recommended in these patients. Respiratory depression, if left untreated, may cause respiratory arrest and death. Symptoms of respiratory depression include a reduced urge to breathe, a decreased respiratory rate, or deep breaths separated by long pauses (a "sighing" breathing pattern). Carbon dioxide retention from respiratory depression may also worsen opioid sedating effects. Careful monitoring is required, particularly when CYP450 3A4 inhibitors or inducers are used concomitantly; concurrent use of a CYP3A4 inhibitor or discontinuation of a concurrently used CYP3A4 inducer may increase plasma oxycodone concentrations and potentiate the risk of fatal respiratory depression. Patients with advanced age, debilitation, or sleep apnea are at an increased risk for the development of respiratory depression associated with oxycodone. Use with caution in patients with obesity as this is a risk factor for obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome and/or decreased respiratory reserve. In these patients, opioid agonists should be used only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose. Due to an unreasonable risk of fatal respiratory depression in patients who are not tolerant to opioids, 60 mg and 80 mg extended-release tablets are only for use in opioid tolerant patients; single extended-release tablet doses more than 40 mg and a total daily dose more than 80 mg are also only indicated in those who are opioid tolerant. Similarly, single extended-release capsule doses more than 36 mg and a total daily dose more than 72 mg are only indicated in patients who are opioid tolerant. In pediatric patients 11 years or older, the extended-release tablet should only be used in those who are already receiving opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and are taking a minimum of 20 mg/day of oxycodone or its equivalent for the 2 days immediately preceding initiation. Respiratory depression may persist for a significant period of time following the discontinuation of oxycodone controlled-release preparations, and patients require close monitoring until their respiratory rate has stabilized. Management of respiratory depression should include observation, necessary supportive measures, and opioid antagonist use when indicated.

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Pregnancy exposure data are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of birth defects or miscarriage with oxycodone. In animal studies with rats and rabbits, no embryo-fetal toxicity was detected when oxycodone was given during organogenesis at doses 0.5- to 15-times the adult human dose of 160 mg/day. In a pre- and post-natal study in rats, oxycodone given during gestation and lactation at a dose approximately 0.4 times an adult human dose of 160 mg/day was not associated with any long-term developmental or reproductive adverse effects in pups; however, pup weight was transiently decreased during lactation and the early post-weaning period. No drug-related effects on reproductive performance in female rats were observed. Published data with rats indicate that oxycodone may result in neurobehavioral effects, including altered stress response, increased anxiety-like behavior, and altered learning and memory, in offspring when given at clinically relevant doses and below. Oxycodone is not recommended for use in women during and immediately prior to labor and obstetric delivery because oral opioid agonists may cause respiratory depression in the newborn. Further, prolonged maternal use of opioids, such as oxycodone, during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). This syndrome can be life-threatening. Severe symptoms may require pharmacologic therapy managed by clinicians familiar with neonatal opioid withdrawal. Monitor the neonate for withdrawal symptoms including irritability, hyperactivity, abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched crying, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, schedule II

    DESCRIPTION

    Phenanthrene opioid agonist
    Used for moderate to severe pain
    Some products formulated to deter abuse by inhalation or injection

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Dazidox, Endocodone, ETH-Oxydose, Oxaydo, OxyContin, Oxydose, OxyFast, OxyIR, Percolone, Roxicodone, Roxybond, XTAMPZA

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Dazidox/Endocodone/Oxaydo/Oxycodone/Oxycodone Hydrochloride/Percolone/Roxicodone/Roxybond Oral Tab: 5mg, 7.5mg, 10mg, 15mg, 20mg, 30mg
    ETH-Oxydose/Oxycodone/Oxycodone Hydrochloride/Oxydose/OxyFast/Roxicodone Oral Sol: 1mL, 5mg, 5mL, 20mg
    Oxycodone/Oxycodone Hydrochloride/OxyContin Oral Tab ER: 10mg, 15mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 60mg, 80mg
    Oxycodone/Oxycodone Hydrochloride/OxyIR Oral Cap: 5mg
    XTAMPZA Oral Cap ER: 9mg, 13.5mg, 18mg, 27mg, 36mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of severe pain.
    For the treatment of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
    Oral dosage (immediate-release capsules, tablets, and oral solution)
    Adults

    5 to 15 mg PO every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain for opioid-naive patients. For control of chronic, severe pain, consider dosing on a regularly scheduled basis every 4 to 6 hours. For conversion from other opioid therapy, factor the potency of the prior opioid relative to oxycodone into the selection of the total daily dose of oxycodone. Use the same dose and dosing regimen to convert between RoxyBond immediate-release tablets and other oxycodone immediate-release formulations. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions.

    Children† and Adolescents† 5 years or older

    0.2 mg/kg PO given 30 minutes preprocedure reduced pain associated with wound care in children aged 5 to 14 years (16.6 to 56 kg); the oxycodone regimen was compared to an oral transmucosal fentanyl regimen. As rated by the children, pain scores were not significantly different between the 2 treatment groups before drug receipt, immediately before wound care, or at the end of wound care. Both drugs were well tolerated. 0.2 mg/kg PO then 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg PO every 3 to 4 hours has been used successfully for acute bone fracture pain management. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions.

    For the management of chronic severe pain in patients who require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment.
    NOTE: Extended-release oxycodone should be reserved for patients in whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would otherwise provide inadequate pain management. Discontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs upon initiation of oxycodone extended-release tablets or capsules.
    NOTE: Extended-release oxycodone 60 or 80 mg tablets, a single tablet dose more than 40 mg, or a total tablet daily dose more than 80 mg should be reserved for opioid-tolerant patients. A single extended-release oxycodone capsule dose of 36 mg (equivalent to 40 mg oxycodone hydrochloride) or more or a total capsule daily dose of 72 mg (equivalent to 80 mg oxycodone hydrochloride) or more should be reserved for opioid-tolerant patients. Adult patients who are opioid tolerant are those receiving, for a minimum of 1 week, 60 mg or more oral morphine daily, 30 mg or more oral oxycodone daily, 8 mg or more oral hydromorphone daily, 25 mg or more oral oxymorphone daily, 25 mcg or more transdermal fentanyl per hour, 60 mg or more oral hydrocodone per day, or an equivalent dose of another opioid. Extended-release oxycodone tablets should only be used in pediatric patients 11 years or older receiving opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and taking a minimum of 20 mg per day of oxycodone or its equivalent for 2 days immediately preceding dosing with extended-release oxycodone.
    Oral dosage (extended-release tablet, Oxycontin or generic equivalents) for use as the first opioid analgesic or in patients who are not opioid-tolerant
    Adults

    10 mg PO every 12 hours. Reduce the starting dose to one-third to one-half the usual dosage in debilitated, nonopioid-tolerant patients. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days.

    Oral dosage (extended-release tablet, Oxycontin or generic equivalents) for conversion from other oral oxycodone formulations
    Adults

    Convert to an equivalent total daily oxycodone dose and divide the 24-hour oxycodone requirements into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days.

    Children and Adolescents 11 years or older

    Use only in patients receiving opioids for 5 or more consecutive days and taking 20 mg/day or more of oxycodone or its equivalent for 2 days immediately preceding dosing. Convert to an equivalent total daily oxycodone dose and divide the 24-hour oxycodone requirements into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. If rounding is necessary, always round the dose down to the nearest available tablet strength. If the calculated dose is less than 20 mg/dose, there is no safe strength for conversion; do not initiate extended-release oxycodone. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% every 1 to 2 days as needed.

    Oral dosage (extended-release tablet, Oxycontin or generic equivalents) for conversion from fentanyl transdermal patch
    Adults

    10 mg PO every 12 hours for each 25 mcg/hour fentanyl transdermal patch beginning 18 hours after removal of the fentanyl transdermal patch. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days.

    Children and Adolescents 11 years or older

    Limited data in pediatric patients. Use only in patients receiving opioids for 5 or more consecutive days and taking 20 mg/day or more of oxycodone equivalent for 2 days immediately preceding dosing. 10 mg PO every 12 hours for each 25 mcg/hour fentanyl transdermal patch beginning at least 18 hours after removal of the fentanyl transdermal patch. If rounding is necessary, always round the dose down to the nearest available tablet strength. If the calculated dose is less than 20 mg/dose, there is no safe strength for conversion; do not initiate extended-release oxycodone. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% every 1 to 2 days.

    Oral dosage (extended-release tablet, Oxycontin or generic equivalents) for conversion from other opioid agonist analgesics
    Adults

    10 mg PO every 12 hours. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days. Use extreme caution when converting patients from methadone as the ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists can vary widely.

    Children and Adolescents 11 years or older

    Use only in patients receiving opioids for 5 or more consecutive days and taking 20 mg/day or more of oxycodone or its equivalent for 2 days immediately preceding dosing. To convert to extended-release oxycodone, calculate the 24-hour opioid requirement and multiply this amount by the conversion factor provided in the FDA-approved labeling. The conversion factors are as follows: 0.9 for oral hydrocodone, 4 for oral hydromorphone, 20 for parenteral hydromorphone, 0.5 for oral morphine, 3 for parenteral morphine, 0.17 for oral tramadol, and 0.2 for parenteral tramadol. For patients receiving high-dose parenteral opioids, a more conservative conversion is warranted; for example, use a conversion factor of 1.5 instead of 3 for patients receiving high-dose parenteral morphine. Divide the calculated total daily dose into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. If rounding is necessary, always round the dose down to the nearest available tablet strength. If the calculated dose is less than 20 mg/dose, there is no safe strength for conversion; do not initiate extended-release oxycodone. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% every 1 to 2 days.

    Oral dosage (extended-release capsule, Xtampza ER) for use as the first opioid analgesic or in patients who are not opioid-tolerant
    Adults

    9 mg PO every 12 hours. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days. Use an alternate analgesic for patients who require a dose less than 9 mg.

    Oral dosage (extended-release capsule, Xtampza ER) for conversion from other oral oxycodone formulations
    Adults

    Convert to an equivalent total daily oxycodone dose and divide the 24-hour oxycodone requirements into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days. Because extended-release capsules are not bioequivalent to other extended-release oxycodone products and the relative bioavailability of immediate-release oxycodone products to extended-release oxycodone is unknown, monitor patients for possible dosage adjustment. Use an alternate analgesic for patients who require a dose less than 9 mg.

    Oral dosage (extended-release capsule, Xtampza ER) for conversion from fentanyl transdermal patch
    Adults

    9 mg PO every 12 hours for each 25 mcg/hour fentanyl transdermal patch beginning 18 hours after removal of the fentanyl transdermal patch. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days. Use an alternate analgesic for patients who require a dose less than 9 mg.

    Oral dosage (extended-release capsule, Xtampza ER) for conversion from other opioid agonist analgesics
    Adults

    9 mg PO every 12 hours. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. Titrate the total daily oxycodone dose by 25% to 50% every 1 to 2 days. Use extreme caution when converting patients from methadone as the ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists can vary widely. Use an alternate analgesic for patients who require a dose less than 9 mg.

    For the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy†.
    Oral dosage (extended-release tablets, e.g., Oxycontin or generic equivalent)
    Adults

    10 mg PO every 12 hours initially. Titrate dosage every 2 to 7 days up to a maximum of 120 mg/day PO, given in divided doses. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided or dosage adjustments may be necessary; review drug interactions. The American Academy of Neurology guidelines consider extended-release oxycodone as probably effective in lessening the pain of diabetic neuropathy.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    Immediate-release dosage forms, extended-release tablets: There is no maximum dose of oxycodone; however, careful titration of oxycodone, especially in opiate-naive patients, is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.
    Extended-release capsules (Xtampza ER): 288 mg/day PO (equivalent to 320 mg/day oxycodone hydrochloride).

    Geriatric

    Immediate-release dosage forms, extended-release tablets: There is no maximum dose of oxycodone; however, careful titration of oxycodone, especially in opiate-naive patients, is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.
    Extended-release capsules (Xtampza ER): 288 mg/day PO (equivalent to 320 mg/day oxycodone hydrochloride).

    Adolescents

    Extended-release tablets: With appropriate dosage titration, there is no maximum dose of extended-release oxycodone in opioid-tolerant pediatric patients; however, careful titration is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.
    Immediate-release dosage forms and extended-release capsules (Xtampza ER): Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Extended-release tablets in Children 11 years or older: With appropriate dosage titration, there is no maximum dose of extended-release oxycodone in opioid-tolerant pediatric patients; however, careful titration is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.
    Extended-release tablets in Children younger than 11 years, immediate-release dosage forms, and extended-release capsules (Xtampza ER): Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Start initial therapy at one-third to one-half the normal dose and titrate dose carefully. Patients with hepatic impairment have higher plasma oxycodone and noroxycodone and lower oxymorphone concentrations than those with normal hepatic function.

    Renal Impairment

    Conservative initial dose and dose titration are required. Dosage should be modified depending on clinical response and degree of renal impairment. In patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute, the serum concentration of oxycodone is about 50% higher than in patients with normal renal function.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Oxycodone should be titrated from the initial recommended dosage to the dose required to relieve the patient's pain and minimize adverse reactions.
    There is no maximum dose of oxycodone; however, careful titration is required to avoid adverse reactions (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression).

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Immediate-release tablets:
    May be administered with food or milk to minimize GI irritation.
    Oxecta and Oxaydo brand tablets: Swallow whole; do not crush or dissolve. Do not pre-soak, lick, or otherwise wet tablet prior to dose administration. Administer 1 tablet at a time; allow patient to swallow each tablet separately with sufficient liquid to ensure prompt and complete transit through the esophagus. Do not use this brand for administration via nasogastric, gastric, or other feeding tubes as it may cause obstruction of feeding tubes.
     
    Extended-release tablets (e.g., OxyContin):
    Administer whole; do not crush, chew, cut, dissolve, or break in half. Taking chewed, broken, cut, dissolved, or crushed extended-release tablets could lead to the rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone.
    May be administered with or without food.
    Take with a full glass of water to ensure complete swallowing.
    In general, administer one-half of the patient's total daily dose every 12 hours. If asymmetric dosing is necessary, instruct patient to take the higher dose in the morning.
    Extended-release 60 mg and 80 mg tablets are for use ONLY in opioid-tolerant patients.
    Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, particularly within the first 24 to 72 hours after initiation or dose escalation.
    OxyContin: Do not pre-soak, lick, or otherwise wet tablet prior to dose administration. Administer 1 tablet at a time; allow patient to swallow each tablet separately with sufficient liquid to ensure prompt and complete transit through the esophagus.
    Roxybond: The biologically inert components of this tablet may remain intact and appear as a tablet in the stool.
     
    Extended-release capsules (Xtampza ER):
    Always take with food and with approximately the same amount of food in order to ensure consistent plasma concentrations.
    The capsule contents may be taken by sprinkling the contents onto soft foods (e.g., applesauce, pudding, yogurt, ice cream, or jam) or into a cup and then giving directly into the mouth. Swallow immediately and rinse mouth to ensure all capsule contents have been swallowed. Discard capsule shells following administration.
    The capsule contents may be given through a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube. Flush the tube with water. Open a capsule and pour the contents directly into the tube. Do not pre-mix capsule contents with the liquid that will be used to flush the tube. Draw up 15 mL of water into a syringe, insert the syringe into the tube, and flush the contents through the tube. Repeat flushing twice using 10 mL of water with each flush. Milk or liquid nutritional supplement may be used as an alternative to water when flushing capsule contents through the tube.
    Extended-release 36 mg capsules are for use ONLY in opioid-tolerant patients.
    Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, particularly within the first 24 to 72 hours after initiation or dose escalation.

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Oral concentrate solution:
    Always use an enclosed oral syringe when administering the highly concentrated solution (20 mg/mL); care should be taken in dispensing and administering this medication.
    For ease of administration, Oxyfast concentrated 20 mg/mL solution may be added to 30 mL of a liquid or semi-solid food. If the medication is placed in liquid or food, the patient needs to immediately consume; do not store diluted oxycodone for future use.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Dazidox :
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Endocodone :
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    ETH-Oxydose:
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Oxaydo:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    OXECTA:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    OxyContin:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Oxydose :
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    OxyFast:
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    OxyIR:
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Percolone:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Roxicodone:
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Roxybond:
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    XTAMPZA :
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Accidental exposure, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication, parenteral administration, potential for overdose or poisoning, requires an experienced clinician

    Like all opioid analgesics, oxycodone is associated with significant potential for overdose or poisoning; proper patient selection and counseling is recommended. The extended-release formulations are not intended for use in the management of pain following surgery, acute pain, or on an as-needed basis; extended-release tablets or capsules are intended only for patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time and requires an experienced clinician who is knowledgeable in the use of long-acting opioids for the management of chronic pain. In pediatric patients 11 years or older, the extended-release tablet formulation should only be used in those who are already receiving opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and are taking a minimum of 20 mg/day of oxycodone or its equivalent for the 2 days immediately preceding initiation. Further, the misuse of oxycodone by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product (parenteral administration) poses a significant risk to the abuser and may result in overdose and death. Parenteral abuse of RoxyBond tablets can be expected to result in local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, and increased risk of endocarditis and valvular heart injury. Advise patients and caregivers to strictly adhere to the recommended dosing. Oxycodone should be kept out of the reach of pediatric patients, others for whom the drug was not prescribed, and pets as accidental exposure or improper use may cause respiratory failure and a fatal overdose. Consumption with ethanol will result in additive CNS depressant effects. Advise patients to avoid ethanol ingestion and ethanol intoxication, including the ingestion of alcohol contained in prescription or non-prescription medications, during therapy. Care should be taken to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between oxycodone oral solution 20 mg/mL and other lower concentrations.

    Acute abdomen, constipation, diarrhea, diverticulitis, dysphagia, esophageal stricture, gastric cancer, GI disease, GI obstruction, ileus, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis

    Oxycodone is contraindicated in patients who have or are suspected of having GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. Due to the effects of opioid agonists on the gastrointestinal tract, oxycodone should be used cautiously in patients with GI disease such as ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with UC or other inflammatory bowel disease may be more sensitive to constipation caused by opioid agonists. Rarely, intestinal obstruction and exacerbation of diverticulitis requiring surgical intervention to remove the tablet has been reported with OxyContin tablets. Patients at greatest risk of developing these complications include those with underlying GI disease such as gastric cancer (i.e., esophageal cancer or colon cancer with small gastrointestinal lumen); use of alternative analgesics should be considered in these patients. Use the extended-release tablets and Oxecta immediate-release tablets with caution in patients with pre-existing esophageal stricture or dysphagia, as the tablets may swell when exposed to liquids including saliva; choking, gagging, and related events have been reported with postmarket use. Choking, gagging, regurgitation, and tablets getting stuck in the throat have also occurred with OxyContin; do not pre-soak, lick, or wet the tablet prior to ingestion. Do not use Oxecta immediate-release tablets in nasogastric, gastric, or other feeding tubes as obstruction may occur; never crush, cut, chew, break, or dissolve extended-release tablets. Opioid agonists may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with an acute abdomen. Opioid agonists may exacerbate cases of diarrhea secondary to poisoning or infectious diarrhea, as a reduction in GI motility may occur with use. Antimotility agents have been used successfully in these patients. If possible, opioid agonists should not be given until the toxic substance has been eliminated.

    Alcoholism, depression, substance abuse

    Oxycodone is an opioid agonist and therefore has abuse potential and risk of fatal overdose from respiratory failure. Addiction may occur in patients who obtain oxycodone illicitly or in those appropriately prescribed the drug. The risk of addiction in any individual is unknown. However, patients with mental illness (e.g., major depression) or a family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) have an increased risk of opioid abuse. Assess patients for risks of addiction, abuse, or misuse before drug initiation, and monitor patients who receive opioids routinely for development of these behaviors or conditions. A potential risk of abuse should not preclude appropriate pain management in any patient, but requires more intensive counseling and monitoring. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. The misuse of oxycodone by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product can result in overdose and death. To discourage abuse, the smallest appropriate quantity of oxycodone should be dispensed, and proper disposal instructions for unused drug should be given to patients.

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, coma, cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, obesity, pulmonary disease, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus

    Oxycodone use is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression and in patients with acute or severe asthma (e.g., status asthmaticus) in unmonitored care settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Oxycodone immediate-release tablets are specifically contraindicated in patients with hypercarbia; receipt of moderate oxycodone doses in these patients may significantly decrease pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible, as this significantly increases the risk for respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and death. As with other opioid agonists, oxycodone should be avoided in patients with severe pulmonary disease. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, respiratory insufficiency, upper airway obstruction, or preexisting respiratory depression, it is recommended that non-opioid analgesics be considered as alternatives to oxycodone, as even usual therapeutic doses may decrease respiratory drive and cause apnea in these patient populations. Extreme caution should also be used in patients with chronic asthma, kyphoscoliosis (a type of scoliosis), hypoxemia, or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Oxycodone should not be used during impaired consciousness or coma, as significant decreases in respiratory drive may lead to adverse intracranial effects from carbon dioxide retention; use of oxycodone extended-release tablets or capsules is not recommended in these patients. Respiratory depression, if left untreated, may cause respiratory arrest and death. Symptoms of respiratory depression include a reduced urge to breathe, a decreased respiratory rate, or deep breaths separated by long pauses (a "sighing" breathing pattern). Carbon dioxide retention from respiratory depression may also worsen opioid sedating effects. Careful monitoring is required, particularly when CYP450 3A4 inhibitors or inducers are used concomitantly; concurrent use of a CYP3A4 inhibitor or discontinuation of a concurrently used CYP3A4 inducer may increase plasma oxycodone concentrations and potentiate the risk of fatal respiratory depression. Patients with advanced age, debilitation, or sleep apnea are at an increased risk for the development of respiratory depression associated with oxycodone. Use with caution in patients with obesity as this is a risk factor for obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome and/or decreased respiratory reserve. In these patients, opioid agonists should be used only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose. Due to an unreasonable risk of fatal respiratory depression in patients who are not tolerant to opioids, 60 mg and 80 mg extended-release tablets are only for use in opioid tolerant patients; single extended-release tablet doses more than 40 mg and a total daily dose more than 80 mg are also only indicated in those who are opioid tolerant. Similarly, single extended-release capsule doses more than 36 mg and a total daily dose more than 72 mg are only indicated in patients who are opioid tolerant. In pediatric patients 11 years or older, the extended-release tablet should only be used in those who are already receiving opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and are taking a minimum of 20 mg/day of oxycodone or its equivalent for the 2 days immediately preceding initiation. Respiratory depression may persist for a significant period of time following the discontinuation of oxycodone controlled-release preparations, and patients require close monitoring until their respiratory rate has stabilized. Management of respiratory depression should include observation, necessary supportive measures, and opioid antagonist use when indicated.

    Opioid-naive patients, surgery

    To reduce the risk of life-threatening adverse effects, do not use oxycodone extended-release 60 mg and 80 mg tablets in opioid-naive patients; these patients should also not receive a single dose of extended-release tablets more than 40 mg or a total daily dose more than 80 mg. Similarly, do not use a single dose of oxycodone extended-release capsules more than 36 mg or a total daily dose more than 72 mg in opioid-naive patients. Use great caution when prescribing all other formulations of oxycodone in non-tolerant patients. Adult patients who are opioid tolerant are those receiving at least 60 mg oral morphine/day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl/hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone/day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone/day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone/day, 60 mg oral hydrocodone/day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid for 1 week or longer. Further, oxycodone extended-release tablets are not indicated for pain in the immediate postoperative period (the first 12 to 24 hours after surgery) unless the patient is already receiving oxycodone extended-release therapy, or if the pain is expected to be moderate to severe and persist for an extended period of time. Extended-release tablets or capsules should also not be used for the treatment of mild pain or pain that is not expected to persist for an extended period of time, acute pain, or as an as-needed (prn) analgesic. Reserve use of the extended-release tablets or capsules for patients in whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain. Extended-release oxycodone tablets should only be used in opioid-tolerant pediatric patients 11 years or older who have received opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and are taking a minimum of 20 mg/day of oxycodone or its equivalent for 2 days immediately preceding dosing with extended-release oxycodone. The extended-release tablets must be swallowed whole and are not to be cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved. When the tablet is crushed or broken and/or if its contents are given by intravenous administration or snorted into the nostrils, the extended-release mechanism is defeated and a potentially lethal dose of oxycodone is immediately released.

    Biliary tract disease, pancreatitis

    As with other opioid agonists, oxycodone may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Biliary effects due to opioid agonists have resulted in increased serum amylase concentrations. Oxycodone should be used with caution in patients with biliary tract disease, including pancreatitis, or undergoing biliary tract surgery.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Abrupt discontinuation of prolonged oxycodone therapy can result in withdrawal symptoms. Gradually taper patients off prolonged oxycodone therapy to avoid a withdrawal reaction. Generally, oxycodone therapy can be decreased by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days with careful monitoring. Avoid use of partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine), mixed agonist/antagonists (e.g., nalbuphine), or pure antagonists (e.g., naloxone) in patients physically dependent on opioids, as an acute withdrawal syndrome may precipitate. The severity of the withdrawal syndrome produced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and on the administered dose of the concomitant drug. If treatment of respiratory depression in an individual physically dependent on opioids is necessary, administer the opioid antagonist with extreme care; titrate the antagonist dose by using smaller than usual doses. In addition, the use of partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists in patients who have received or are receiving oxycodone should be avoided as these medications may reduce the analgesic effect of oxycodone.

    CNS depression, head trauma, increased intracranial pressure, intracranial mass, psychosis

    Use oxycodone with caution in patients with CNS depression, toxic psychosis, head trauma, intracranial mass, or increased intracranial pressure. Monitor for signs of drowsiness and depressed respirations, particularly when initiating oxycodone. Opioids may aggravate such conditions and alter neurologic parameters (e.g., level of consciousness, pupillary responses). Oxycodone-induced hypoventilation can produce cerebral hypoxia, carbon dioxide retention, and raise CSF pressure. Avoid the use of oxycodone in patients with impaired consciousness.

    Angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, dehydration, heart failure, hypotension, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, shock

    Opioid agonists, such as oxycodone, produce cholinergic side effects (by stimulating medullary vagal nuclei) causing bradycardia and vasovagal syncope, and induce the release of histamine. In patients who are unable to maintain blood pressure due to hypovolemia or dehydration, or in those who concurrently receive other agents that compromise vasomotor tone (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics), opioid agonists may induce peripheral vasodilatation and severe hypotension. These effects can cause problems in patients with cardiac disease (e.g., angina, heart failure). Oxycodone should be used with caution in patients with cardiac arrhythmias or orthostatic hypotension. Oxycodone should not be used in patients with circulatory shock.

    Bladder obstruction, hepatic disease, oliguria, prostatic hypertrophy, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment, urethral stricture, urinary retention

    Oxycodone and other opioid agonists can cause urinary retention and oliguria, due to increasing the tension of the detrusor muscle. Patients more prone to these effects include those with prostatic hypertrophy, urethral stricture, bladder obstruction, pelvic tumors, or renal disease. Drug accumulation or prolonged duration of action may occur in patients with renal failure or hepatic disease. In acute situations, patients require close monitoring to avoid excessive toxicity. In patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 60 mL/minute), the concentrations of oxycodone are approximately 50% higher than patients with normal renal function. Dose initiation in these patients should be conservative and dosage adjustments based on individual patient response. In patients with hepatic impairment, oxycodone therapy should be initiated at doses one-third to one-half the usual dose and careful dose titration is warranted.

    Seizure disorder, seizures

    Seizures can be precipitated by opiate agonists in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder. The incidence of these effects during oxycodone therapy is not known, but appears to be rare at normal doses. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during therapy.

    Geriatric

    Use oxycodone with caution in geriatric or debilitated patients. Geriatric or debilitated patients are more susceptible to adverse reactions, especially sedation and respiratory depression, probably as a result of altered distribution of the drug and decreased elimination. Initial doses may need to be reduced, and dosages should be carefully titrated taking into account analgesic effects, adverse reactions, and concomitant drugs that may depress respiration. When using the extended-release tablets, reduce the starting dose to one-third to one-half the usual dosage in debilitated, non-opioid tolerant patients. According to the Beers Criteria, opioid agonists are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in geriatric patients with a history of falls or fractures and should be avoided in these patient populations, with the exception of pain management due to recent fractures or joint replacement, since opioids can produce ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and additional falls. If an opioid must be used, consider reducing use of other CNS-active medications that increase the risk of falls and fractures and implement other strategies to reduce fall risk. Individuals receiving palliative care or those in hospice settings are excluded from the Beers Criteria; the balance of benefits and harms of medication management for these patients may differ from those of the general population of older adults. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The Guidelines caution that opioids may cause constipation, nausea, vomiting, sedation, lethargy, weakness, confusion, dysphoria, physical and psychological dependency, hallucinations, and unintended respiratory depression, especially in individuals with compromised pulmonary function. These adverse effects can lead to other consequences such as falls. In addition, the initiation of longer-acting opioids (e.g., sustained-release oxycodone) is not recommended unless shorter-acting opioids have been unsuccessful, or titration of shorter-acting doses has established a clear daily dose of opioid analgesic that can be provided by using a long-acting form.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Opioid agonists may be used in children for moderate to severe pain; however, all formulations of oxycodone should be used with caution in children. Immediate-release formulations have not been FDA-approved in neonates, infants, children, or adolescents. Oxycodone extended-release tablets are approved for pediatric use; use may be considered in opioid tolerant patients 11 years or older who have received opioids for at least 5 consecutive days and are taking a minimum of 20 mg per day of oxycodone or its equivalent for 2 days immediately preceding extended-release oxycodone initiation. These tablets cannot be crushed or broken for administration. If the calculated oxycodone dose does not coincide with an available tablet size, the dose should always be rounded down to the nearest available tablet strength. If the calculated dose is less than 20 mg/dose, there is no safe strength for conversion, and the patient should not be initiated on extended-release oxycodone. Accidental ingestion or unintended exposure by children can be fatal. Instruct patients and caregivers to keep all oxycodone dosage forms out of the reach of children and to properly discard all unneeded product. Neonates and infants younger than 6 months of age have highly variable clearance of opioid agonists. Therefore, infants younger than 6 months of age given opioid agonists must be closely monitored for apnea until 24 hours after their last dose. Clinical practice guidelines suggest close monitoring of children up to 1 year of age.

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    Pregnancy exposure data are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of birth defects or miscarriage with oxycodone. In animal studies with rats and rabbits, no embryo-fetal toxicity was detected when oxycodone was given during organogenesis at doses 0.5- to 15-times the adult human dose of 160 mg/day. In a pre- and post-natal study in rats, oxycodone given during gestation and lactation at a dose approximately 0.4 times an adult human dose of 160 mg/day was not associated with any long-term developmental or reproductive adverse effects in pups; however, pup weight was transiently decreased during lactation and the early post-weaning period. No drug-related effects on reproductive performance in female rats were observed. Published data with rats indicate that oxycodone may result in neurobehavioral effects, including altered stress response, increased anxiety-like behavior, and altered learning and memory, in offspring when given at clinically relevant doses and below. Oxycodone is not recommended for use in women during and immediately prior to labor and obstetric delivery because oral opioid agonists may cause respiratory depression in the newborn. Further, prolonged maternal use of opioids, such as oxycodone, during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). This syndrome can be life-threatening. Severe symptoms may require pharmacologic therapy managed by clinicians familiar with neonatal opioid withdrawal. Monitor the neonate for withdrawal symptoms including irritability, hyperactivity, abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched crying, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn.

    Breast-feeding

    Oxycodone is distributed into breast milk at varying degrees depending upon the dose. There is no information available on the effects of oxycodone on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breast-fed infant, breast-feeding is not recommended during treatment with oxycodone. Monitor infants who are exposed to oxycodone through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-fed infants if oxycodone or breast-feeding is discontinued by the mother. A retrospective study compared central nervous system (CNS) depression in breast-feeding infants of mothers receiving oxycodone (n = 139), codeine (n = 210), or acetaminophen (n = 184). Symptoms of CNS depression were determined through questionnaires completed by the mothers. CNS depression was significantly higher in breast-fed infants exposed to oxycodone compared to acetaminophen (20.1% vs. 0.5%, p less than 0.0001) and was not significantly different compared to infants exposed to codeine (16.7%, p more than 0.05). The median doses of both oxycodone and codeine in the mothers with infants that experienced symptoms were significantly higher compared to those that did not (oxycodone 0.4 mg/kg/day vs. 0.15 mg/kg/day, p = 0.0005; codeine 1.4 mg/kg/day vs. 0.9 mg/kg/day, p less than 0.001).

    Infertility, reproductive risk

    Chronic opioid use may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to hormonal changes that may manifest as hypogonadism (gonadal suppression) and pose a reproductive risk. Although the exact causal role of opioids in the clinical manifestations of hypogonadism is unknown, patients could experience libido decrease, impotence, amenorrhea, or infertility. It is not known whether the effects on fertility are reversible. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Any patient receiving oxycodone should be warned about the possibility of sedation and to use caution when driving or operating machinery.

    Opiate agonist hypersensitivity

    Although true opiate agonist hypersensitivity is rare, use of oxycodone is contraindicated in patients with a history of oxycodone hypersensitivity. Use this medication with caution, if at all, in patients who have demonstrated a prior hypersensitivity reaction to other opioid agonists of the phenanthrene subclass including morphine, codeine, and hydromorphone. It may be possible to treat these patients with an opioid agonist from the phenylpiperidine subclass (meperidine or fentanyl) or the diphenylheptane subclass (methadone).

    Adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, myxedema

    Use oxycodone with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency (i.e., Addison's disease), hypothyroidism, or myxedema. Such patients may be at increased risk of adverse events. Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH); however, the thyroid stimulating hormone may be either stimulated or inhibited by opioids. Rarely, adrenal insufficiency has been reported in association with opioid use. Patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, or hypotension. If adrenocortical insufficiency is suspected, confirm with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If diagnosed, the patient should be treated with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids, and if appropriate, weaned off of opioid therapy. If the opioid can be discontinued, a follow-up assessment of adrenal function should be performed to determine if corticosteroid treatment can be discontinued. Other opioids may be tried; some cases reported use of a different opioid with no recurrence of adrenocortical insufficiency. It is unclear which, if any, opioids are more likely to cause adrenocortical insufficiency. In addition, chronic opioid use may lead to symptoms of hypogonadism, resulting from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy, particularly those receiving a daily dose equivalent to 100 mg or more of morphine. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    heart failure / Delayed / 0-3.0
    thrombosis / Delayed / 0-3.0
    apnea / Delayed / 0-3.0
    laryngospasm / Rapid / 0-3.0
    bone fractures / Delayed / 0-3.0
    seizures / Delayed / 0-1.0
    exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    ileus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    suicidal ideation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    biliary obstruction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    anaphylactic shock / Rapid / Incidence not known
    SIADH / Delayed / Incidence not known
    respiratory arrest / Rapid / Incidence not known
    bradycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
    GI obstruction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 3.0-23.0
    gastritis / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    withdrawal / Early / 0-5.0
    euphoria / Early / 1.0-5.0
    depression / Delayed / 0-5.0
    migraine / Early / 0-5.0
    dysphoria / Early / 1.0-5.0
    confusion / Early / 0-5.0
    hyponatremia / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    hypochloremia / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    edema / Delayed / 0-5.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-5.0
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    hypertension / Early / 1.0-5.0
    urinary retention / Early / 0-5.0
    blurred vision / Early / 0-5.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-5.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    neutropenia / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    dysuria / Early / 0-5.0
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / 0-5.0
    glossitis / Early / 0-3.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-3.0
    bleeding / Early / 0-3.0
    peripheral vasodilation / Rapid / 0-3.0
    peripheral edema / Delayed / 0-3.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 0-3.0
    hypertonia / Delayed / 0-3.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0-3.0
    gout / Delayed / 0-3.0
    bone pain / Delayed / 0-3.0
    anemia / Delayed / 0-3.0
    leukopenia / Delayed / 0-3.0
    amblyopia / Delayed / 0-3.0
    stomatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    ataxia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperesthesia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hypotonia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dysphonia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hallucinations / Early / 0-1.0
    amnesia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 0-1.0
    dehydration / Delayed / 0-1.0
    lymphadenopathy / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hematuria / Delayed / 0-1.0
    tolerance / Delayed / Incidence not known
    physiological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    psychological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    impaired cognition / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperalgesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    respiratory depression / Rapid / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cholestasis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    infertility / Delayed / Incidence not known
    adrenocortical insufficiency / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myoclonia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    nausea / Early / 0-23.0
    drowsiness / Early / 3.0-23.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-21.0
    diarrhea / Early / 0-6.0
    xerostomia / Early / 0-6.0
    asthenia / Delayed / 3.0-6.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-5.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 0-5.0
    gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 0-5.0
    hiccups / Early / 1.0-5.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0-5.0
    hypoesthesia / Delayed / 0-5.0
    agitation / Early / 0-5.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 0-5.0
    rash / Early / 0-5.0
    flushing / Rapid / 1.0-5.0
    tremor / Early / 0-5.0
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 0-5.0
    fever / Early / 0-5.0
    irritability / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 0-5.0
    fatigue / Early / 1.0-5.0
    chills / Rapid / 0-5.0
    cough / Delayed / 0-5.0
    back pain / Delayed / 0-5.0
    arthralgia / Delayed / 0-5.0
    myalgia / Early / 0-5.0
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 1.0-5.0
    gingivitis / Delayed / 0-3.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 0-3.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / 0-3.0
    rhinitis / Early / 0-3.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 0-3.0
    infection / Delayed / 0-3.0
    photosensitivity / Delayed / 0-3.0
    flatulence / Early / 0-1.0
    eructation / Early / 0-1.0
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    emotional lability / Early / 0-1.0
    restlessness / Early / 0-1.0
    lethargy / Early / 0-1.0
    hyperkinesis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vertigo / Early / 0-1.0
    dysgeusia / Early / 0-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-1.0
    malaise / Early / 0-1.0
    night sweats / Early / 0-1.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 0-1.0
    polyuria / Early / 0-1.0
    xerosis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dizziness / Early / 3.0
    headache / Early / 3.0
    insomnia / Early / 1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 2.6
    miosis / Early / 10.0
    dental caries / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    amenorrhea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    gonadal suppression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    libido decrease / Delayed / Incidence not known
    mydriasis / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pentazocine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Pentazocine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of oxycodone. Pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of pentazocine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Major) Propoxyphene is a weak mu-opiate receptor agonist. As other opiate agonists bind to mu-opiate receptors, concurrent use of an opiate agonist with propoxyphene is not desirable. Also, propoxyphene will only partially suppress the withdrawal syndrome in patients physically dependent on morphine or other narcotics. The choice of one mu-opiate receptor agonist needs to be made to avoid duplicate therapy and possible adverse effects. For example, concomitant use of propoxyphene with other CNS depressants (e.g., other opiate agonists) can potentiate the effects of respiratory depression and/or sedation. Propoxyphene in combination with other CNS depressants is a major cause of drug-related death. Fatalities within the first hour of overdosage are not uncommon. Extreme caution is needed during concomitant use of any CNS-depressant drug and propoxyphene. Assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Major) Concomitant use of tramadol increases the seizure risk in patients taking opiate agonists. Also, tramadol can cause additive CNS depression and respiratory depression when used with opiate agonists; avoid concurrent use whenever possible. If used together, extreme caution is needed, and a reduced tramadol dose is recommended.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may affect CNS function significantly. Therefore, psychotropic pharmacodynamic interactions could occur following concomitant administration of drugs with significant CNS or psychotropic activity such as opiate agonists. In addition, aldesleukin, IL-2, is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and may increase oxycodone plasma concentrations and related toxicities including potentially fatal respiratory depression. If therapy with both agents is necessary, monitor patients for an extended period and adjust oxycodone dosage as necessary.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Almotriptan: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor agonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Alosetron: (Major) Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from alosetron, like constipation, via a pharmacodynamic interaction. Constipation is the most frequently reported adverse effect with alosetron. Alosetron, if used with drugs such as opiate agonists, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstruction/impaction or paralytic ileus.
    Alprazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Alvimopan: (Moderate) Patients should not take alvimopan if they have received therapeutic doses of opiate agonists for more than seven consecutive days immediately before initiation of alvimopan therapy. Patients recently exposed to opioids are expected to be more sensitive to the effects of mu-opioid receptor antagonists and may experience adverse effects localized to the gastrointestinal tract such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
    Amide local anesthetics: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Amifampridine: (Moderate) Carefully consider the need for concomitant treatment with opioid agonists and amifampridine, as coadministration may increase the risk of seizures. If coadministration occurs, closely monitor patients for seizure activity. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures taking amifampridine at recommended doses. Opioid agonists may increase the risk of seizures.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amiodarone is necessary. If amiodarone is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like amiodarone can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amiodarone is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amoxapine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with amoxapine may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with amoxapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression and serotonin syndrome.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. If clarithromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like clarithromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If clarithromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. If clarithromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like clarithromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If clarithromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxycodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with apalutamide is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If apalutamide is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Apomorphine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with apomorphine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with apomorphine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents like apomorphine have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Theoretically, apraclonidine might potentiate the effects of CNS depressant drugs such as opiate agonists. Although no specific drug interactions were identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials, apraclonidine can cause dizziness and somnolence.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of aprepitant/fosaprepitant is necessary. If aprepitant/fosaprepitant is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like aprepitant/fosaprepitant can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If aprepitant/fosaprepitant is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. When administered as a single oral or single intravenous dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak and did not result in a clinically significant increase in the AUC of a sensitive substrate.
    Armodafinil: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with armodafinil is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If armodafinil is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and armodafinil is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with asenapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with asenapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of atazanavir is necessary. If atazanavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like atazanavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If atazanavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of atazanavir is necessary. If atazanavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like atazanavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If atazanavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Atomoxetine: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Atracurium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as neuromuscular blockers, can potentiate the effects of alfentanil on respiration, alertness, and blood pressure. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as methylene blue. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Major) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Atropine; Diphenoxylate: (Major) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Azelastine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with azelastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with azelastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with azelastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with azelastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Baclofen: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Barbiturates: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with a barbiturate may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of increased opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as methylene blue. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Benzonatate: (Moderate) Coadministration of oxycodone and benzonatate may result in additive CNS depression.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Bethanechol facilitates intestinal and bladder function via parasympathomimetic actions. Opiate agonists impair the peristaltic activity of the intestine. Thus, these drugs can antagonize the beneficial actions of bethanechol on GI motility.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with bexarotene is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If bexarotene is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and bexarotene is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Bicalutamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of bicalutamide is necessary. If bicalutamide is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like bicalutamide can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If bicalutamide is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering oxycodone with boceprevir due to an increased potential for oxycodone-related adverse events. If oxycodone dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of oxycodone. Oxycodone is partially metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; boceprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated oxycodone plasma concentrations.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with bosentan is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If bosentan is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and bosentan is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of brexpiprazole, caution is advisable when brexpiprazole is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications including opiate agonists.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If brigatinib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. At clinically relevant concentrations, brigatinib induced CYP3A via activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR); this may decrease concentrations of sensitive CYP3A substrates. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Brimonidine: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brimonidine; Brinzolamide: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Bupivacaine Liposomal: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine; Lidocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Buprenorphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist with strong affinity for the mu-receptor that may partially block the effects of full mu-receptor opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. In these cases, health care professionals must exercise caution in opiate agonist dose selection, as higher doses of an opiate agonist may be required to compete with buprenorphine at the mu-receptor. Management strategies may include adding a short-acting opiate agonist to achieve analgesia in the presence of buprenorphine, discontinuation of buprenorphine and use of an opiate agonist to avoid withdrawal and achieve analgesia, or conversion of buprenorphine to methadone while using additional opiate agonists if needed. Closely monitor patients for CNS or respiratory depression. When buprenorphine is used for analgesia, avoid co-use with opiate agonists. Buprenorphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists as well as possibly potentiate CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Buprenorphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist with strong affinity for the mu-receptor that may partially block the effects of full mu-receptor opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. In these cases, health care professionals must exercise caution in opiate agonist dose selection, as higher doses of an opiate agonist may be required to compete with buprenorphine at the mu-receptor. Management strategies may include adding a short-acting opiate agonist to achieve analgesia in the presence of buprenorphine, discontinuation of buprenorphine and use of an opiate agonist to avoid withdrawal and achieve analgesia, or conversion of buprenorphine to methadone while using additional opiate agonists if needed. Closely monitor patients for CNS or respiratory depression. When buprenorphine is used for analgesia, avoid co-use with opiate agonists. Buprenorphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists as well as possibly potentiate CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. (Major) Naloxone can antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of oxycodone in addition to precipitating withdrawal symptoms in patients who are physically dependent on opiate drugs including oxycodone.
    Bupropion: (Moderate) Bupropion is an inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Plasma concentrations of opiate agents metabolized by CYP2D6 such as oxycodone may be increased if bupropion is added. Dosage reductions in these agents may be needed. Conversely, if bupropion therapy is discontinued, dosages of these agents may need to be adjusted upward in some patients. Excessive use of opioid agonists (e.g., opiate addiction) is associated with an increased seizure risk; seizures may be more likely to occur during concurrent use of bupropion in these patients since bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving opiate agonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of opiate agonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7-10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone, and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur. (Moderate) Bupropion is an inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Plasma concentrations of opiate agents metabolized by CYP2D6 such as oxycodone may be increased if bupropion is added. Dosage reductions in these agents may be needed. Conversely, if bupropion therapy is discontinued, dosages of these agents may need to be adjusted upward in some patients. Excessive use of opioid agonists (e.g., opiate addiction) is associated with an increased seizure risk; seizures may be more likely to occur during concurrent use of bupropion in these patients since bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of CNS depressants, such as buspirone, can potentiate the effects of oxycodone, which may potentially lead to respiratory depression, CNS depression, sedation, or hypotensive responses. If concurrent use of codeine and buspirone is imperative, reduce the dose of one or both drugs.
    Butorphanol: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of butorphanol and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Butorphanol is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Butorphanol may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of butorphanol with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cannabidiol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with cannabidiol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with carbamazepine is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If carbamazepine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and carbamazepine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of cariprazine, caution is advisable when cariprazine is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications including opiate agonists.
    Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Ceritinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ceritinib is necessary. If ceritinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate; in vitro data suggest ceritinib inhibits CYP3A4. Coadministration may increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ceritinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Additive drowsiness may occur if cetirizine or levocetirizine is administered with other drugs that depress the CNS, including opiate agonists.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Additive drowsiness may occur if cetirizine or levocetirizine is administered with other drugs that depress the CNS, including opiate agonists.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of chloramphenicol is necessary. If chloramphenicol is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like chloramphenicol can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If chloramphenicol is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlordiazepoxide: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Chloroprocaine: (Minor) Due to the CNS depression potential of all local anesthetics, they should be used with caution with other agents that can cause respiratory depression, such as opiate agonists.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Clonidine has CNS depressive effects and can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants including opiate agonists. (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Chlorzoxazone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cimetidine is necessary. If cimetidine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like cimetidine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cimetidine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ciprofloxacin is necessary. If ciprofloxacin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like ciprofloxacin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ciprofloxacin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Cisatracurium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as neuromuscular blockers, can potentiate the effects of alfentanil on respiration, alertness, and blood pressure. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. If clarithromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like clarithromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If clarithromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Clobazam: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with clobazam may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with clobazam to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concurrent use of oxycodone with clobazam may decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of clobazam may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. clobazam induces CYP3A4; oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Clomipramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Clonazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Clonidine: (Moderate) Clonidine has CNS depressive effects and can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants including opiate agonists.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Coadministration of opioid agonists delay and reduce the absorption of clopidogrel resulting in reduced exposure to active metabolites and diminished inhibition of platelet aggregation. Consider the use of a parenteral antiplatelet agent in acute coronary syndrome patients requiring an opioid agonist. Coadministration of intravenous morphine decreased the Cmax and AUC of clopidogrel's active metabolites by 34%. Time required for maximal inhibition of platelet aggregation (median 3 hours vs. 1.25 hours) was significantly delayed; times up to 5 hours were reported. Inhibition of platelet plug formation was delayed and residual platelet aggregation was significantly greater 1 to 4 hours after morphine administration.
    Clorazepate: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as clozapine, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. In addition, this drug combination may result in additive effects on intestinal motility or bladder function. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking clozapine, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Oxycodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider using a lower clozapine dose. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    COMT inhibitors: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with COMT inhibitors may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with COMT inhibitors to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents like entacapone and tolcapone have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of conivaptan is necessary. If conivaptan is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like conivaptan can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If conivaptan is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Crizotinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of crizotinib is necessary. If crizotinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like crizotinib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If crizotinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Crofelemer: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Cyclizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cyclosporine is necessary. If cyclosporine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like cyclosporine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cyclosporine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Dabrafenib: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with dabrafenib is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If dabrafenib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and dabrafenib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Dalfopristin; Quinupristin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of dalfopristin; quinupristin is necessary. If dalfopristin; quinupristin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like dalfopristin; quinupristin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If dalfopristin; quinupristin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of danazol is necessary. If danazol is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like danazol can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If danazol is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Dantrolene: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Darifenacin: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when darifenacin, an anticholinergic drug for overactive bladder, is used with opiate agonists. The concomitant use of these drugs together may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Both agents may also cause drowsiness or blurred vision, and patients should use care in driving or performing other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of darunavir is necessary. If darunavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like darunavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If darunavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of darunavir is necessary. If darunavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like darunavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If darunavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. If cobicistat is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like cobicistat can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If cobicistat is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of darunavir is necessary. If darunavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like darunavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If darunavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ritonavir is necessary. If ritonavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like ritonavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ritonavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with deferasirox is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If deferasirox is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and deferasirox is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of delavirdine is necessary. If delavirdine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like delavirdine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If delavirdine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Desflurane: (Moderate) Concurrent use with opiate agonists can decrease the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane needed to produce anesthesia.
    Desipramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Desmopressin: (Major) Additive hyponatremic effects may be seen in patients treated with desmopressin and drugs associated with water intoxication, hyponatremia, or SIADH including opiate agonists. Use combination with caution, and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with deutetrabenazine may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with deutetrabenazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If extended-release oxycodone or oxycodone; naloxone is initiated in a patient taking a barbiturate, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage and titrate to clinical response; reduced initial doses of immediate-release oxycodone, oxycodone; naltrexone, aspirin, ASA; oxycodone, and ibuprofen; oxycodone are also recommended. If a decision is made to start treatment with acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tabIets, start with 1 tablet every 12 hours. If a barbitruate is prescribed for a patient taking an opioid agonist, use a lower initial dose of the barbitruate and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with dexamethasone is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If dexamethasone is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and dexamethasone is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Co-administration of dexmedetomidine with opiate agonists likely to lead to an enhancement of CNS depression.
    Dexpanthenol: (Moderate) Use caution when using dexpanthenol with drugs that decrease gastrointestinal motility, such as opiate agonists, as it may decrease the effectiveness of dexpanthenol.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Oxycodone is metabolized in part by cytochrome P450 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as quinidine, may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone; however, such blockade has not been shown to be of clinical significance during oxycodone treatment. Clinicians should be aware of this possible interaction.
    Diazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. If parental diazepam is used with an opiate agonist, reduce the opiate agonist dosage by at least 1/3. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diltiazem: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of diltiazem is necessary. If diltiazem is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like diltiazem can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If diltiazem is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Dolasetron: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor antagonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Doxacurium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as neuromuscular blockers, can potentiate the effects of alfentanil on respiration, alertness, and blood pressure. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Doxepin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opiate agonists and other CNS depressants such as dronabinol, THC may result in respiratory depression, CNS depression, and/or hypotension. Prior to concurrent use of opiate agonists in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. When concomitant treatment is necessary, reduce the dose of 1 or both drugs. When levorphanol is used with dronabinol, reduce the initial levorphanol dose by approximately 50% or more.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of dronedarone is necessary. If dronedarone is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like dronedarone can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If dronedarone is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Droperidol: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with droperidol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with droperidol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Duvelisib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of duvelisib is necessary. If duvelisib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like duvelisib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If duvelisib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with efavirenz is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If efavirenz is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and efavirenz is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with efavirenz is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If efavirenz is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and efavirenz is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with efavirenz is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If efavirenz is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and efavirenz is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Elagolix: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with elagolix is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If elagolix is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and elagolix is a weak to moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of grazoprevir is necessary. If grazoprevir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like grazoprevir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If grazoprevir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Eletriptan: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor agonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Eliglustat: (Minor) Coadministration of oxycodone and eliglustat may result in increased concentrations of oxycodone, although the interaction does not appear to be clinically significant unless a 3A4 inhibitor is used concomitantly. Eliglustat is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Although primarily metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6 also contributes to conversion of oxycodone to oxymorphone. If coadministration is necessary, use caution and monitor patients closely for opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. Consider reducing the dosage of oxycodone until stable drug effects are achieved, and titrating to clinical effect.
    Eltrombopag: (Moderate) Eltrombopag is a UDP-glucuronyltransferase inhibitor. Opiate agonists are a substrate of UDP-glucuronyltransferases. The significance or effect of this interaction is not known; however, elevated concentrations of the opiate agonist is possible. Monitor patients for adverse reactions if eltrombopage is administered with an opiate agonist.
    Eluxadoline: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of eluxadoline is necessary. If eluxadoline is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like eluxadoline can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If eluxadoline is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Enflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Enzalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with enzalutamide is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If enzalutamide is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Erythromycin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of erythromycin is necessary. If erythromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like erythromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If erythromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of erythromycin is necessary. If erythromycin is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like erythromycin can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If erythromycin is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Eslicarbazepine: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with eslicarbazepine is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If eslicarbazepine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and eslicarbazepine is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Estazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with eszopiclone may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. In addition, the risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased during co-administration of eszopiclone and other CNS depressants, which may decrease the ability to perform tasks requiring full mental alertness such as driving. Prior to concurrent use, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If eszopiclone is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or eszopiclone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Ethanol: (Major) Alcohol is associated with CNS depression. The combined use of alcohol and CNS depressants can lead to additive CNS depression, which could be dangerous in tasks requiring mental alertness and fatal in overdose. Alcohol taken with other CNS depressants can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs when prescribing CNS depressant medications. In many cases, the patient should receive a lower dose of the CNS depressant initially if the patient is not likely to be compliant with avoiding alcohol.
    Etomidate: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with etravirine is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If etravirine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and etravirine is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Everolimus: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of everoliumus is necessary. If everoliumus is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like everoliumus can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If everoliumus is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Fesoterodine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when fesoterodine, an anticholinergic drug for overactive bladder. is used with opiate agonists. The concomitant use of these drugs together may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Both agents may also cause drowsiness or blurred vision, and patients should use care in driving or performing other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Flibanserin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of flibanserin with CNS depressants, such as opiate agonists, may increase the risk of CNS depression (e.g., dizziness, somnolence) compared to the use of flibanserin alone. Patients should avoid activities requiring full alertness (e.g., operating machinery or driving) until at least 6 hours after each dose and until they know how flibanserin affects them.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fluconazole is necessary. If fluconazole is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like fluconazole can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If fluconazole is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Fluoxetine: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of fluoxetine is necessary. If fluoxetine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like fluoxetine has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like fluoxetine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If fluoxetine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of fluoxetine is necessary. If fluoxetine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like fluoxetine has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like fluoxetine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If fluoxetine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as olanzapine, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking olanzapine, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Oxycodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also, consider using a lower olanzapine dose. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Flurazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Fluvoxamine: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of fluvoxamine is necessary. If fluvoxamine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like fluvoxamine has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like fluvoxamine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If fluvoxamine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fosamprenavir is necessary. If fosamprenavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like fosamprenavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If fosamprenavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with fosphenytoin is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If fosphenytoin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and fosphenytoin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Fospropofol: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fostamatinib is necessary. If fostamatinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like fostamatinib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If fostamatinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Frovatriptan: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor agonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Gabapentin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with gabapentin may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with gabapentin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Gefitinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increased incidence of oxycodone-related adverse effects if gefitinib and oxycodone are used concomitantly. At high concentrations, gefitinib is an inhibitor of CYP2D6, which is partially responsible for the metabolism of oxycodone. As < 15% of the total administered dose is metabolized by CYP2D6 to oxymorphone, concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as ritonavir, may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. In patients with solid tumors, exposure to metoprolol, another CYP2D6 substrate, was increased by 30% when given on day 15 of gefitinib dosing (500 mg daily); the effect of gefitinib on CYP2D6-dependent drugs is only likely to be clinically relevant when given with CYP2D6 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index or that are individually dose titrated such as oxycodone.
    General anesthetics: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Granisetron: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor antagonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Grapefruit juice: (Moderate) Patients should not significantly alter their intake of grapefruit or grapefruit juice duing therapy with oxycodone. Grapefruit juice, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase plasma concentrations of oxycodone, a CYP3A4 substrate. This may increase or prolong oxycodone-related toxicities including respiratory depression. Advise patients accordingly; patient monitoring and dosage adjustments may be necessary if grapefruit is consumed regularly.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) Guanabenz is associated with sedative effects. Guanabenz can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants such as opiate agonists, when administered concomitantly.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) Central-acting adrenergic agonists like guanfacine have CNS depressive effects and can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants including opiate agonists.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Haloperidol can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants such as opiate agonists. Caution should be exercised with simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects.
    Halothane: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Methyldopa is associated with sedative effects. Methyldopa can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants, such as opiate agonists, when administered concomitantly. (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone: (Moderate) Opiate agonists like oxycodone may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when given concomitantly with spironolactone. (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Hydrocodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hydromorphone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydromorphone with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as other opiate agonists, can potentiate the effects of hydromorphone and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of hydromorphone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If hydromorphone is used concurrently with a CNS depressant, a reduced dosage of hydromorphone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; start with one-third to one-half of the estimated hydromorphone starting dose when using hydromorphone extended-release tablets. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension, CNS depression, and respiratory depression. Carbon dioxide retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as methylene blue. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Idelalisib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of idelalisib is necessary. If idelalisib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like idelalisib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If idelalisib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of iloperidone with other centrally-acting medications such as opiate agonists, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects including drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of imatinib is necessary. If imatinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like imatinib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If imatinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Imipramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of indinavir is necessary. If indinavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like indinavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If indinavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of isavuconazonium is necessary. If isavuconazonium is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like isavuconazonium can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If isavuconazonium is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Isoniazid, INH: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of isoniazid is necessary. If isoniazid is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like isoniazid has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isoniazid can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If isoniazid is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of isoniazid is necessary. If isoniazid is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like isoniazid has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isoniazid can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If isoniazid is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with rifampin is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If rifampin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of isoniazid is necessary. If isoniazid is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like isoniazid has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isoniazid can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If isoniazid is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with rifampin is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If rifampin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of itraconazole is necessary. If itraconazole is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like itraconazole can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If itraconazole is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ivacaftor is necessary. If ivacaftor is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like ivacaftor can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ivacaftor is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Ketamine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ketoconazole is necessary. If ketoconazole is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like ketoconazole can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ketoconazole is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Lactobacillus: (Moderate) Concurrent use of antidiarrheals and opiate agonists, can lead to severe constipation and possibly additive CNS depression. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of lapatinib is necessary. If lapatinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor like lapatinib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If lapatinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Larotrectinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of larotrectinib is necessary. If larotrectinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with weak CYP3A4 inhibitors like larotrectinib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If larotrectinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with lesinurad is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If lesinurad is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with lesinurad is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If lesinurad is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Letermovir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of letermovir is necessary. If letermovir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a CYP3A4 inhibitor like letermovir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If letermovir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Levobupivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Additive drowsiness may occur if cetirizine or levocetirizine is administered with other drugs that depress the CNS, including opiate agonists.
    Levorphanol: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Lidocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Lincosamides: (Moderate) Lincosamides, which have been shown to exhibit neuromuscular blocking action, can enhance the effects of opiate agonists if used concomitantly, enhancing respiratory depressant effects. They should be used together with caution and the patient carefully monitored.
    Linezolid: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as linezolid. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive hypotension and sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and oxycodone. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of selected antidiarrheals (e.g., loperamide, diphenoxylate) and opiate agonists can lead to additive CNS depression.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of selected antidiarrheals (e.g., loperamide, diphenoxylate) and opiate agonists can lead to additive CNS depression.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of lopinavir; ritonavir is necessary. If lopinavir; ritonavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like lopinavir; ritonavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If lopinavir; ritonavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ritonavir is necessary. If ritonavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like ritonavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ritonavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Lorazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Lorlatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with lorlatinib is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If lorlatinib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of lorlatinib and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Loxapine can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants such as opiate agonists. Caution should be exercised with simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ivacaftor is necessary. If ivacaftor is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like ivacaftor can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ivacaftor is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with lumacaftor; ivacaftor is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If lumacaftor; ivacaftor is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lumacaftor; ivacaftor is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of lurasidone, caution should be used when lurasidone is given in combination with other centrally acting medications such as opiate agonists.
    Magnesium Salts: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as opiate agonists. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as maprotiline, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking maprotiline, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Oxycodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider using a lower maprotiline dose. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Meclizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with sedating H1-blockers may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Melatonin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with melatonin may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with melatonin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Meperidine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Mepivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with meprobamate may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If meprobamate is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or meprobamate is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Mesoridazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Metaxalone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Methadone: (Major) Concomitant use of methadone with another CNS depressant, such as oxycodone, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of methadone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Methadone should be used with caution and in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; in opioid-naive adults, use an initial methadone dose of 2.5 mg every 12 hours. Also, consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as methylene blue. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Methocarbamol: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with skeletal muscle relaxants may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with skeletal muscle relaxants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone or oxycodone; naloxone is initiated in a patient taking a skeletal muscle relaxant, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage and titrate to clinical response; reduced initial doses of oxycodone; naltrexone, aspirin, ASA; oxycodone, and ibuprofen; oxycodone are also recommended. If a decision is made to start treatment with acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tabIets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours. If a skeletal muscle relaxant is prescribed for a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the skeletal muscle relaxant and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) Methyldopa is associated with sedative effects. Methyldopa can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants, such as opiate agonists, when administered concomitantly.
    Methylene Blue: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as methylene blue. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) The effects of metoclopramide on gastrointestinal motility are antagonized by narcotic analgesics. Concomitant use of opioid agonists with metoclopramide may also cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with metoclopramide to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may potentiate orthostatic hypotension when used concurrently with thiazide diuretics.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) Metyrapone may cause dizziness and/or drowsiness. Other drugs that may also cause drowsiness, such as opiate agonists, should be used with caution. Additive drowsiness and/or dizziness is possible.
    Metyrosine: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of metyrosine with opiate agonists can result in additive sedative effects.
    Midazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Mifepristone: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of mifepristone is necessary. If mifepristone is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like mifepristone can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If mifepristone is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone. The clinical significance of this interaction with the short-term use of mifepristone for termination of pregnancy is unknown.
    Minocycline: (Minor) Injectable minocycline contains magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as opiate agonists. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mirabegron: (Moderate) Mirabegron is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Exposure of drugs partially metabolized by CYP2D6, such as oxycodone, may be increased when co-administered with mirabegron. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as mirtazapine, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking mirtazapine, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Oxycodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate oxycodone at one-third too one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider using a lower mirtazapine dose. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with mitotane is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If mitotane is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Mivacurium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as neuromuscular blockers, can potentiate the effects of alfentanil on respiration, alertness, and blood pressure. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Modafinil: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with modafinil is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If modafinil is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and modafinil is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Molindone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as molindone, can potentiate the effects of the opiate and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of an opiate in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If these agents are used together, a reduced dosage of the opiate and/or molindone is recommended. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension, CNS depression, and respiratory depression. Carbon dioxide retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as MAOIs, can lead to additive respiratory or CNS depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Initiate oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. Advise patients against driving or performing other tasks requiring alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Morphine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with morphine may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or morphine is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. For extended-release morphine products, start with the lowest possible dose of morphine (i.e., 15 mg PO every 12 hours, extended-release tablets; 30 mg or less PO every 24 hours; extended-release capsules). Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with morphine may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or morphine is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. For extended-release morphine products, start with the lowest possible dose of morphine (i.e., 15 mg PO every 12 hours, extended-release tablets; 30 mg or less PO every 24 hours; extended-release capsules). Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as nabilone, can potentiate the effects of the opiate and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of an opiate in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If these agents are used together, a reduced dosage of the opiate and/or the CNS depressant is recommended. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension, CNS depression, and respiratory depression. Carbon dioxide retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
    Nafcillin: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with nafcillin is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If nafcillin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and nafcillin is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Nalbuphine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; oxycodone. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Naloxone: (Major) Naloxone can antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of oxycodone in addition to precipitating withdrawal symptoms in patients who are physically dependent on opiate drugs including oxycodone.
    Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving opiate agonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of opiate agonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7-10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone, and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor agonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Naratriptan: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor agonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Nefazodone: (Major) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression, sedation, and serotonin syndrome if concurrent use of nefazodone is necessary. If nefazodone is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system like nefazodone has resulted in serotonin syndrome. In addition, oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like nefazodone can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If nefazodone is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of nelfinavir is necessary. If nelfinavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like nelfinavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If nelfinavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Nesiritide, BNP: (Major) The potential for hypotension may be increased when coadministering nesiritide with opiate agonists.
    Netupitant, Fosnetupitant; Palonosetron: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of netupitant is necessary. If netupitant is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like netupitant can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If netupitant is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Neuromuscular blockers: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as neuromuscular blockers, can potentiate the effects of alfentanil on respiration, alertness, and blood pressure. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Nevirapine: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with nevirapine is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If nevirapine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and nevirapine is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of nicardipine is necessary. If nicardipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like nicardipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If nicardipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Nilotinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of nilotinib is necessary. If nilotinib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a moderate inhibitor like nilotinib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If nilotinib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Nitroglycerin: (Minor) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as opiate agonists. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin is used concurrently with opiate agonists.
    Nortriptyline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
    Octreotide: (Major) Octreotide can cause additive constipation with opiate agonists such as oxycodone. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Monitor patients during concomitant use. Also, coadministration of octreotide, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, and oxycodone, a CYP3A4 substrate, may increase oxycodone plasma concentrations and increase or prolong related toxicities including potentially fatal respiratory depression. If therapy with both agents is necessary, monitor patient for an extended period of time and adjust dosage as necessary; oxycodone dosage adjustments may be needed if the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Concurrent administration of oxycodone and voriconazole, another CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased oxycodone AUC by 3.6-fold and the Cmax by 1.7-fold.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as olanzapine, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking olanzapine, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Oxycodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also, consider using a lower olanzapine dose. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ritonavir is necessary. If ritonavir is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like ritonavir can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If ritonavir is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Ondansetron: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor antagonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with oritavancin is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If oritavancin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and oritavancin is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Orphenadrine: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a skeletal muscle relaxant may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a skeletal muscle relaxant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Oxazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If oxycodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce dosages and titrate to clinical response. For acetaminophen; oxycodone extended-release tablets, start with 1 tablet PO every 12 hours, and for other oxycodone products, use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Oxcarbazepine: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with oxcarbazepine is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If oxcarbazepine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and oxcarbazepine is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Oxymorphone: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other opiate agonists may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. a reduced dosage of oxymorphone (1/3 to 1/2 of the usual dose) and/or the CNS depressant is recommended. If the extended-release oxymorphone tablets are used concurrently with a CNS depressant, it is recommended to use an initial dosage of 5 mg PO every 12 hours. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Palbociclib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of palbociclib is necessary. If palbociclib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like palbociclib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If palbociclib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression such as opiate agonists, if used concomitantly with paliperidone, can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Monitor for signs and symptoms of CNS depression during coadministration of paliperidone and oxycodone and advise patients to avoid driving or engaging in other activities requiring mental alertness until they know how this combination affects them.
    Palonosetron: (Major) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists with serotonergic drugs, such as serotonin-receptor antagonists. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage increases of either agent. Instruct patients to immediately report symptoms of agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, muscle twitching or stiffness, trouble with coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    Pancuronium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as neuromuscular blockers, can potentiate the effects of alfentanil on respiration, alertness, and blood pressure. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Papaverine: (Moderate) Papaverine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid of opium and may have synergistic effects with opiate agonists. Concurrent use of papaverine with potent CNS depressants could lead to enhanced sedation.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue the suspected drugs if serotonin syndrome is suspected and manage cliinically. There has been a case report of possible serotonin syndrome caused by the combination of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs).
    Pazopanib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of pazopanib is necessary. If pazopanib is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like pazopanib can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If pazopanib is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Peginterferon Alfa-2b: (Moderate) Oxycodone is metabolized in part by CYP2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. In theory, concurrent use of a CYP2D6 inhibitor, such as peginterferon alfa-2b, may inhibit the conversion of oxycodone to oxymorphone. In addition, concurrent use with a CYP2D6 inhibitor may increase the adverse effects of oxycodone. Close monitoring for pronounced opioid effects is advisable.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) In clinical trials, patients taking opiate agonists often required higher serum pegvisomant concentrations to achieve appropriate IGF-I suppression compared with patients not receiving opiate agonists. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown.
    Pentazocine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pentazocine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Pentazocine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of oxycodone. Pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of pentazocine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pentazocine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Pentazocine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of oxycodone. Pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of pentazocine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. (Major) Naloxone can antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of oxycodone in addition to precipitating withdrawal symptoms in patients who are physically dependent on opiate drugs including oxycodone.
    Perampanel: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with perampanel may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with perampanel to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. If amlodipine is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a weak inhibitor like amlodipine can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If amlodipine is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Orthostasis may occur in ambulatory patients. Constipation occurs with both oxycodone and TCA use. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a TCA, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a TCA is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression and for reduced GI motility. Caution should also be observed when administering TCAs with opiates having serotonergic properties such as oxycodone. Serotonin syndrome may rarely occur and is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma). If serotonin syndrome is suspected, both the TCA and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued. (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Phenothiazines: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with topiramate is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If topiramate is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and topiramate is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Phenytoin: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of oxycodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with phenytoin is necessary; consider increasing the dose of oxycodone as needed. If phenytoin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of oxycodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and phenytoin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease oxycodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Pimozide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with other CNS depressants, such as pimozide, can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking pimozide, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Oxycodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate oxycodone at one-third to one-half the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also, consider using a lower pimozide dose. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of oxycodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of posaconazole is necessary. If posaconazole is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone dose until stable drug effects are achieved and monitor for evidence of opioid withdrawal. Oxycodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor like posaconazole can increase oxycodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of oxycodone. If posaconazole is discontinued, oxycodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
    Pramipexole: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with pramipexole may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with pramipexole to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents like pramipexole have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Pramlintide: (Major) Pramlintide slows gastric emptying and the rate of nutrient delivery to the small intestine. Medications with the potential to slow GI motility, such as opiate agonists, should be used with caution, if at all, with pramlintide until more data are available from the manufacturer. Monitor blood glucose.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) Consider the use of a parenteral anti-platelet agent for patients with acute coronary syndrome who require concomitant opioid agonists. Coadministration of opioid agonists with prasugrel delays and reduces the absorption of prasugrel's active metabolite due to slowed gastric emptying.
    Pregabalin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with pregabalin may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with pregabalin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Prilocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Procaine: (Minor) Due to the CNS depression potential of all local anesthetics, they should be used with caution with other agents that can cause respiratory depression, such as opiate agonists.
    Procarbazine: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may cause additive sedation or other CNS effects when given in combination with procarbazine.
    Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxycodone with phenothiazines may lead to additive respiratory and/or CNS depression. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If a CNS depressant is used concurrently with oxycodone, a reduced dosage of oxycodone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Furthermore, oxycodone is metabolized in part by 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Concurrent use of some agents that inhibit CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine) has not been shown to result in clinically significant interactions. However, many phenothiazines are inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g., chlorpromazine, perphenazine, thioridazine) and may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone. Also, severe hypotension may be potentiated with concurrent phenothiazine usage or other drug that compromises vasomotor tone.
    Propafenone: (Moderate) Oxycodone is metabolized in part by cytochrome P450 2D6 to oxymorphone, which represents < 15% of the total administered dose. Potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as propafenone, may potentially increase the effects of oxycodone; however, such blockade has not been shown to be of clinical significance during oxycodone treatment. Clinicians should be aware of this possible interaction.
    Propofol: (Major) Concomitant use of oxycodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternati