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  • CLASSES

    Corticosteroids for Local Oral Treatment
    Plain Topical Corticosteroids
    Respiratory Corticosteroids
    Systemic Corticosteroids, Plain
    Topical Nasal Corticosteroids

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, OTC

    DESCRIPTION

    Synthetic glucocorticoid with little mineralocorticoid activity; slightly more potent than prednisone
    Used intranasally for allergic rhinitis; used parenterally for inflammation, particularly for articular uses; intravitreal injection used for ophthalmic inflammatory disorders
    Topical formulations are of medium or high potency

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Aristocort, Aristocort A, Aristocort HP, Aristospan, Arze-Ject-A, Cinalog, Cinolar, Flutex, Kenalog, Kenalog in Orabase, Nasacort, Nasacort AQ, Oralone, Pediaderm TA, Triacet, Triamonide, Trianex, Triderm, Triesence, Zilretta

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Aristocort/Aristocort A/Aristocort HP/Cinolar/Kenalog/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide/Trianex/Triderm Topical Ointment: 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%
    Aristocort/Aristocort A/Cinalog/Flutex/Kenalog/Pediaderm TA/Triacet/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide/Triderm Topical Cream: 0.025%, 0.1%, 0.5%
    Aristospan/Arze-Ject-A/Kenalog/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide/Triamonide/Triesence Intra-Articular Inj Susp: 1mL, 5mg, 10mg, 20mg, 40mg, 80mg
    Aristospan/Kenalog/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide Intralesional Inj Susp: 1mL, 5mg, 10mg
    Arze-Ject-A/Kenalog/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide/Triamonide/Triesence Intramuscular Inj Susp: 1mL, 40mg, 80mg
    Kenalog in Orabase/Oralone/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide Buccal Paste: 0.1%
    Kenalog in Orabase/Oralone/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide Periodontal Paste: 0.1%
    Kenalog/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide Topical Lotion: 0.025%, 0.1%
    Kenalog/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide Topical Spray: 0.147mg, 1g
    Nasacort/Nasacort AQ/Triamcinolone/Triamcinolone Acetonide Nasal Spray Met: 1actuation, 55mcg
    Triesence Intravitreal Inj Susp: 1mL, 40mg
    Zilretta Intra-Articular Inj Pwd F/Susp ER: 32mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of severe or incapacitating asthma maintenance treatment not amenable to oral treatment or not responding to adequate trials of conventional treatment.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension, e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM. These injections are generally long-acting preparations, and are not suitable for use in acute situations.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.These injections are generally long-acting preparations, and are not suitable for use in acute situations.

    For the management of symptoms of seasonal allergies and perennial allergies, including allergic rhinitis.
    For the treatment of allergic rhinitis not responding to pollen administration and other conventional therapy.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    Usual dose: 40 to 80 mg IM single dose. Titrate if needed based on response and relief duration. Max: 100 mg IM single dose. Symptom remission during the pollen season may be obtained after a single dose.

    Nasal dosage (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray 55 mcg/spray; e.g., Nasacort Allergy 24HR OTC)
    Adults

    Initially, 2 sprays into each nostril once daily (total dose of 220 mcg). Dosage should be reduced to the minimum effective dose. Maximum effects usually occur within 1 week of initiation of therapy. If adequate relief of symptoms is not achieved after 3 weeks of treatment, the drug should be discontinued.

    Children and Adolescents 12 years and older

    Initially, 2 sprays into each nostril once daily (total dose of 220 mcg). Dosage should be reduced to the minimum effective dose. Maximum effects usually occur within 1 week of initiation of therapy. If adequate relief of symptoms is not achieved after 3 weeks of treatment, the drug should be discontinued.

    Children 6 to 11 years

    Initially 1 spray into each nostril once daily (total dose of 110 mcg). The dosage may be increased to 2 sprays into each nostril once daily (total dose of 220 mcg) if needed. Once the patient's symptoms are controlled, the dosage should be reduced to the minimum effective dose. Periodically reassess need for continued therapy. Patients and caregivers should consult a health care provider if using non-prescription for more than 2 months.

    Children 2 to 5 years

    1 spray into each nostril once daily (total dose of 110 mcg). Higher doses are not recommended. Periodically reassess need for continued therapy. Patients and caregivers should consult a health care provider if using non-prescription for more than 2 months.

    For the treatment of ocular inflammation (i.e., sympathetic ophthalmia and ocular inflammatory conditions unresponsive to topical corticosteroids), temporal arteritis, and uveitis.
    Intravitreal/Intraocular injection dosage (Triesence injectable suspension ONLY)
    Adults

    The initial recommended dose is 4 mg (100 microL of 40 mg/mL suspension) followed by subsequent dosage as needed over the course of treatment.

    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM. Used when oral therapy is not feasible.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given in 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For visualization during ocular surgery / ophthalmic surgery (i.e., vitrectomy).
    Intravitreal injection dosage (Triesence injectable suspension ONLY)
    Adults

    1 to 4 mg (25 to 100 microL of 40 mg/mL suspension) administered intravitreally.

    For the treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    160 mg IM daily for 7 days, then 64 mg IM every other day for 1 month.

    For the treatment of an acute episode or exacerbation of ankylosing spondylitis.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis, localized vitiligo, eczema, phimosis, lichen planus, localized bullous pemphigoid, and contact dermatitis.
    Topical dosage (0.025% to 0.05% cream, ointment, or lotion)
    Adults

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 4 times daily.

    Children and Adolescents

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 4 times daily.

    Topical dosage (0.1% to 0.5% cream, ointment, or lotion)
    Adults

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 3 times daily.

    Children and Adolescents

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 3 times daily.

    Topical dosage (aerosol)
    Adults

    Apply topically to the affected skin area(s) 3 to 4 times daily.

    Children and Adolescents

    Apply topically to the affected skin area(s) 3 to 4 times daily.

    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose for the treatment of severe conditions when oral treatment is not appropriate or feasible. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses for the treatment of severe conditions when oral treatment is not appropriate or feasible.

    For temporary relief of symptoms due to oral inflammatory or ulcerative lesions (e.g., aphthous ulcer, mucosal lichen planus, trauma).
    Topical dosage (triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% dental paste)
    Adults

    Apply (dab) a small amount (approx. 1/4 inch) to coat the lesion once daily at bedtime. A larger quantity may be required for coverage of some lesions. Do not rub in. If more severe symptoms are present, may apply 2 or 3 times a day, preferably after meals. Reassess if significant repair or regeneration has not occurred in 7 days.

    Children and Adolescents

    Apply (dab) a small amount (approx. 1/4 inch) to coat the lesion once daily at bedtime. A larger quantity may be required for coverage of some lesions. Do not rub in. If more severe symptoms are present, may apply 2 or 3 times a day, preferably after meals. Use the lowest possible dose in pediatric patients. Reassess if significant repair or regeneration has not occurred in 7 days.

    For the treatment of bullous dermatitis herpetiformis, exfoliative erythroderma (exfoliative dermatitis), mycosis fungoides, severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), drug hypersensitivity reactions, transfusion reactions, or serum sickness when oral therapy is not feasible.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents


    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of dermatomyositis, polymyositis, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of proteinuria or to induce diuresis in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome or lupus nephritis.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of acute rheumatic carditis, berylliosis, symptomatic sarcoidosis, or idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate dose based on patient response and relief duration; usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. However, some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General range of dosing 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of a critical period of regional enteritis (Crohn's disease) or ulcerative colitis.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcionolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM. Because of the potential complications of steroid use, steroids should be used selectively and in the lowest dose possible for the shortest duration as possible.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses. Because of the potential complications of steroid use, steroids should be used selectively and in the lowest dose possible for the shortest duration as possible.

    For the treatment of adrenocortical function abnormalities, such as adrenocortical insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), chronic primary (Addison's disease) or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM. Hydrocortisone and cortisone are the preferred drugs; triamcinolone has little to no mineralocorticoid properties and should be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids. Dosing is highly variable.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses. Hydrocortisone and cortisone are the preferred drugs; triamcinolone has little to no mineralocorticoid properties and should be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids. Dosing is highly variable.

    For the treatment of nonsuppurative thyroiditis.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the adjunctive treatment of hypercalcemia associated with cancer.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM. Triamcinolone use is not common; hydrocortisone and prednisone are more commonly given.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses. Triamcinolone use is not common; hydrocortisone and prednisone are more commonly given.

    For the palliative management of leukemias and lymphomas including acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia, erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia or pure red cell aplasia), congenital hypoplastic anemia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia) and select cases of secondary thrombocytopenia.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g. Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of cerebral edema associated with primary or metastatic brain tumor or craniotomy.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement.
    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    For the treatment of complicated or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis infection (i.e., tuberculous meningitis and pericarditis) as adjunctive therapy in combination with antituberculous therapy.
    Intramuscular dosage
    Adults

    The suggested initial dose is 60 mg IM. Usual dose range: 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Dose range: 2.5 to 100 mg IM. The initial dose from TB studies was 0.11 mg/kg IM daily tapered over 10 weeks; many trials were performed prior to the use of rifampin, which may decrease corticosteroid concentrations.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM divided in 3 or 4 doses. The initial dose from TB studies was 0.11 mg/kg IM daily tapered over 10 weeks; many trials were performed prior to the use of rifampin, which may decrease corticosteroid concentrations.

    For the treatment of psoriasis.
    Topical dosage (0.025% to 0.05% cream, ointment, or lotion)
    Adults

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 4 times daily.

    Children and Adolescents

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 4 times daily.

    Topical dosage (0.1% to 0.5% cream, ointment, or lotion)
    Adults

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 3 times daily.

    Children and Adolescents

    Apply a thin layer topically to the affected skin area(s) 2 to 3 times daily.

    For the treatment of diabetic macular edema†.
    Intravitreal injection dosage (Triesence injection suspension ONLY)
    Adults

    Data from several clinical studies suggest 4 mg by intravitreal injection of triamcinolone (IVTA) into the affected eye(s) may result in improved visual acuity (VA), reduced retinal thickness (RT), and decreased macular edema. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), intravitreous steroid injections are considered second-line alternative treatment options for central-involved diabetic macular edema (CIDME). Steroid therapies are associated with inferior visual acuity outcomes and increased rate of cataracts and glaucoma when compared against intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. In a systematic review of 4 studies, 3 of the trials used triamcinolone 4 mg (repeat injection was allowed in some trials) and the other trial used a single dose of 20 mg. The mean difference in VA favored IVTA at 3, 6, 9 and 24 months. Additionally, RT decreased at 3, 6, 9, and 24 months and favored IVTA. A gain of one or more lines improvement in VA was significant in favor of IVTA at 3 and 24 months. In the trial using a single 20 mg dose, the improvement of one or more lines of vision was not significant at 6 months, indicating that a single dose may not be effective long-term. In one trial, resolution improved by at least 1 macular edema grade compared to placebo.

    For the relief of inflammation associated with acute gouty arthritis, acute and subacute bursitis, acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, epicondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)/juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), psoriatic arthritis, synovitis of osteoarthritis, and polychondritis†.
    For the treatment of osteoarthritis pain of the knee.
    Intra-articular dosage (extended-release triamcinolone acetonide suspension; Zilretta ONLY)
    Adults

    32 mg intra-articular as a single dose. The efficacy and safety of repeat administration have not been demonstrated; in a study evaluating a repeat intra-articular injection after week 12, there were higher rates of reported mild to moderate arthralgia after the second dose (16%) than after the first dose (6%). Zilretta is not interchangeable with other formulations of triamcinolone acetonide.

    Intramuscular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    60 mg IM is a suggested initial dose. Titrate to patient response and relief duration. Usual dose range is 40 to 80 mg IM per day. Some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less. General dose range: 2.5 mg to 100 mg IM.

    Children and Adolescents

    0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day (3.2 to 48 mg/m2/day) IM given as 3 or 4 divided doses.

    Intra-articular dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    2.5 mg to 5 mg for smaller joints and from 5 mg to 15 mg for larger joints, depending on the specific disease entity being treated. For adults, doses up to 10 mg for smaller areas and up to 40 mg for larger areas have usually been sufficient. Single injections into several joints, up to a total of 80 mg, have been given.

    56146

    Children and Adolescents

    2.5 mg to 5 mg for smaller joints and from 5 mg to 15 mg for larger joints, depending on the specific disease entity being treated. Other regimens have been described: 2 mg/kg for large joints (knees, hips, and shoulders) and 1 mg/kg for smaller joints (ankles, wrists, and elbows). For the hands and feet, 2 to 4 mg/joint (metacarpo- or metatarpo-phalangeal) or 1.2 to 2 mg/joint (proximal interphalangeal), may be used.

    Intra-articular dosage (triamcinolone hexacetonide injection suspension; e.g., Aristospan)
    Adults

    2 to 20 mg intra-articular at appropriate site. In general, large joints (such as knee, hip, shoulder) require 10 to 20 mg. For small joints (such as interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal), use 2 to 6 mg. Repeat at 3 to 4 week intervals as necessary.

    Children and Adolescents

    2 to 20 mg intra-articular at an appropriate site. In general, large joints (such as the knee, hip, shoulder) require 10 to 20 mg. For small joints (such as interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal), use 2 to 6 mg. Repeat at 3 to 4-week intervals as necessary. Other regimens have been described: 1 mg/kg for large joints (knees, hips, and shoulders) and 0.5 mg/kg for smaller joints (ankles, wrists, and elbows). For the hands and feet, 1 to 2 mg/joint (metacarpo- or metatarpo-phalangeal) or 0.6 to 1 mg/joint (proximal interphalangeal), may be used.

    Intrabursal, Intralesional, or Soft-tissue injection dosage (triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension; e.g., Kenalog)
    Adults

    2.5 mg to 5 mg for smaller areas and from 5 mg to 15 mg for larger areas, depending on the specific disease entity being treated. For adults, doses up to 10 mg for smaller areas and up to 40 mg for larger areas have usually been sufficient. Single injections, up to a total of 80 mg, have been given. In treating acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, ensure that the injection is made into the tendon sheath rather than the tendon substance. For epicondylitis, inflitrate the preparation into the area of greatest tenderness.

    56146

    Intrabursal, Intralesional, or Soft-tissue injection dosage (triamcinolone hexatonide injection suspension; e.g., Aristospan)
    Adults

    Dosage may vary depending on the condition and area being treated. Usual range: 2 to 48 mg per day.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Corticosteroid dosage must be individualized and is highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the disease, route of administration, and on patient response.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Systemic dosage may need adjustment depending on the degree of hepatic insufficiency, but quantitative recommendations are not available.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Other Oral Formulations

    Oral dental paste (e.g., Oralone)
    Apply at bedtime to permit steroid contact with the lesion throughout the night. In some cases application may be needed 2 or 3 times per day. Apply after meals.
    Press a small dab (about 0.5 cm) to the lesion until a thin film develops. A larger quantity may be required for coverage of some lesions.
    For optimal results use only enough to coat the lesion with a thin film. Do not rub in. Attempting to spread this preparation may result in granular, gritty sensation and cause it to crumble. After application, however, a smooth, slippery film develops.

    Injectable Administration

    Triamcinolone acetonide or hexatonide injection suspensions are for intramuscular, dermal lesional, or intra-articular injection only. Follow the specific product instructions, as some injections are only formulated for specific routes. Do NOT administer intravenously.
    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

    Intramuscular Administration

    Triamcinolone acetonide may be administered by IM injection.
    Inject deeply into a well-developed muscle. Rotate sites of injection.

    Other Injectable Administration

    Intra-articular, intrasynovial, intrabursal, soft-tissue, intralesional, or sublesional injection suspensions (e.g., Kenalog-10, Kenalog-40, Aristospan)
    Triamcinolone acetonide may be administered by intra-articular, intrasynovial, intralesional, or soft tissue injection. Indicated routes of administration vary by formulation. Ensure the correct product has been chosen for use.
    Triamcinolone hexacetonide may be administered by intra-articular, intralesional, or sublesional injection.
    Use strict aseptic technique.
    Shake vials well before use to ensure a uniform suspension. Prior to withdrawal, the suspension should be inspected for clumping or granular appearance (agglomeration). An agglomerated product results from exposure to freezing temperatures and should not be used.
    After withdrawal from the vial, inject without delay to prevent settling of the injection in the syringe.
    Administration of triamcinolone via these routes require specialized techniques. Only clinicians familiar with these methods of administration and with management of potential complications should administer triamcinolone by these routes.
     
    Intra-articular triamcinolone acetonide extended-release microsphere injection suspension (i.e., Zilretta only)
    Administer as a single intra-articular injection.
    Do not use in small joints, such as the hand. Intended for use in the knee.
    Administration of this injection requires specialized techniques. Only clinicians familiar with intra-articular administration and with management of potential complications should administer this injection.
    Use strict aseptic technique and the diluent supplied in the single-dose kit.
    Grip the top of the triamcinolone powder vial and tap firmly and repeatedly to dislodge all powder from the vial and stopper.
    Attach vial adapter to the triamcinolone powder vial.
    Withdraw 5 mL of diluent into a syringe. Attach the syringe onto the vial adapter and transfer the diluent.
    With the syringe still attached to the vial, mix by tapping the vial firmly and repeatedly in a circular motion and swirl gently for at least 1 minute.
    A properly mixed suspension will be milky white, contain no clumps, and move freely down the vial wall.
    Swirl gently for at least 10 seconds. Withdraw the full contents (32 mg) from the triamcinolone vial into the syringe, and remove the syringe from the vial adapter.
    To ensure the powder is suspended, gently invert the syringe several times prior to administration.
    Administer the entire contents of the syringe using usual technique for intra-articular injection. Promptly inject after preparation to avoid settling of the suspension. Discard any excess suspension in the vial immediately following injection.
    Storage: If needed, the suspension may be stored in the vial for up to 4 hours of ambient conditions. The syringe must remain on the vial adapter while the suspension remains in the vial.
     
    Intravitreal injectable suspension (Triesence or Trivaris)
    Triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension may be administered by intravitreal injection.
    Administration via this route requires specialized techniques. Only clinicians familiar with intravitreal administration and with management of potential complications should administer triamcinolone by this route.
    Administration should be done with strict adherence to aseptic technique.
    Administer adequate anesthesia and a broad-spectrum microbicide prior to the injection.
    For Triesence: Prior to administration, shake vial vigorously for 10 seconds to ensure uniform suspension. Inspect the suspension for agglomeration prior to withdrawal; do not use if agglomerated. Once withdrawn, use immediately to prevent the suspension from settling in the syringe.
    For Trivaris: Attach a 27-gauge half-inch needle to the syringe, and advance the plunger to the single line marked on the prefilled glass syringe shaft. Hold the syringe and the needle at an angle and express excess gel suspension over a sterile surface. The plunger is correctly positioned to provide the recommended dose of 4 mg/0.05 mL when white compound is no longer visible between the plunger and the fill line on the syringe. Always check the needle to ensure that it is firmly attached to the syringe before injecting the patient.
    Each vial or syringe is for the treatment of a single eye. If both eyes require treatment, use a new vial or syringe; before administration to the other eye, change the sterile field, syringe, gloves, drapes, eyelid speculum, filter, and injection needles.
    After the intravitreal injection, monitor patients for elevation in intraocular pressure and for endophthalmitis. Monitoring may consist of a check for reperfusion of the optic nerve head immediately after the injection, tonometry within 30 minutes after the injection, and biomicroscopy 2 to 7 days after the injection. Instruct patients to promptly report any symptoms suggestive of endophthalmitis.

    Topical Administration
    Cream/Ointment/Lotion Formulations

    Cream or ointment
    Wear gloves for application if required by universal precautions.
    Apply a thin film and rub gently into the cleansed, slightly moist affected area.
    The treated skin area should not be bandaged or otherwise covered or wrapped as to be occlusive unless directed by the prescriber. Occlusive dressings may be necessary for psoriasis or severe or recalcitrant conditions.
    Wash hands before and after use.

    Other Topical Formulations

    Topical aerosol spray
    Spray an affected area for about 2 seconds at a distance of approximately 7.5 to 15 cm. The 2-second spray will be sufficient to cover an area of skin about the size of the hand.
    May use the spray tube provided to help reach hard to treat areas like an area of the scalp. Wash the tube after each use.
    Keep away from the eyes and mucous membranes. If used near the face, care should be taken to see that the eyes are covered, and that inhalation of the spray is avoided.
    The spray is flammable; avoid heat, flame or smoking when using this product.

    Inhalation Administration
    Intranasal Inhalation Administration

    Nasal Spray Solution (e.g., Nasacort Allergy 24 hour)
    Each metered actuation of the triamcinolone nasal inhaler delivers 55 mcg/spray.
    Instruct patient on proper inhalation technique for the product used.
    Before first use, the nasal inhaler must be primed as directed on the package. If not used for more than 2 weeks, the nasal inhaler requires re-priming.
    Have patient blow nose to clear nostrils before use.
    Remove cap, then shake well.
    Hold bottle with thumb under bottle and the spray nozzle between fingers as shown on package instructions.
    Close off one nostril with finger pressed lightly on outside of the nose.
    Gently insert spray nozzle into the other nostril. Aim the nozzle to the back of the nose, but do not insert deeply. Do not aim the spray toward the nasal septum.
    While sniffing gently, spray the prescribed or recommended number of sprays into the nostril.
    Repeat steps for the second nostril.
    After using, gently wipe the nozzle with a tissue and replace the cap.
    Do not blow the nose for 15 minutes after use.
    To avoid the spread of infection, do not use the inhaler for more than 1 person.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Aristocort:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Aristocort A:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Aristocort HP:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Aristospan:
    - Do not freeze
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Arze-Ject-A:
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    Azmacort:
    - Exposure to temperatures above 120 degrees F may cause bursting
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Cinalog:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Cinolar:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Flutex:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Kenalog:
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    Kenalog in Orabase:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Nasacort:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Nasacort AQ:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Oralone:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Pediaderm TA:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Tac-3 :
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Triacet :
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Triamonide :
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    Trianex :
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Triderm :
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Triesence:
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    Zilretta:
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Do not expose product to temperatures above 77 degrees F
    - Do not freeze
    - Refrigerate (between 36 and 46 degrees F)
    - Store in carton
    - Unopened product may be stored at room temperature (68 to 77 degrees) for up to 6 weeks if not stored under refrigeration

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Ensure correct formulation selection, epidural administration, intrathecal administration, intravenous administration

    When using triamcinolone injections, ensure correct formulation selection and the proper route of administration to be used, as there are many different dosage forms available. Triamcinolone acetonide or hexacetonide injections should never be given via intravenous administration. Triamcinolone acetonide injection is not recommended for epidural administration or intrathecal administration. Reports of serious medical events, including death, have been associated with intrathecal or epidural routes of corticosteroid administration. Epidural administration of corticosteroids should be used with great caution. Rare, but serious adverse reactions, including cortical blindness, stroke, spinal cord infarction, paralysis, seizures, nerve injury, brain edema, and death have been associated with epidural administration of injectable corticosteroids. These events have been reported with and without the use of fluoroscopy. Many cases were temporally associated with the corticosteroid injection; reactions occurred within minutes to 48 hours after injection. Some cases of neurologic events were confirmed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan. Many patients did not recover from the reported adverse effects. Discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with the patient before treatment. If a decision is made to proceed with corticosteroid epidural administration, counsel patients to seek emergency medical attention if they experience symptoms after an injection such as vision changes, tingling in the arms or legs, dizziness, severe headache, seizures, or sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm, or leg. The Triesence product is specifically indicated for intravitreal administration only; however, other formulations of triamcinolone acetonide injections are not indicated for intraocular use. Triamcinolone acetonide extended-release injectable suspension (Zilretta) is only indicated for intra-articular use in the knee.

    Corticosteroid hypersensitivity

    Although true corticosteroid hypersensitivity is rare, patients who have demonstrated a prior hypersensitivity reaction to triamcinolone should not receive any form of triamcinolone. While rare, serious anaphylactoid events have occurred following the administration of parenteral triamcinolone acetonide or hexacetonide injections. It is possible, though also rare, that such patients will display cross-hypersensitivity to other corticosteroids. It is advisable that patients who have a hypersensitivity reaction to any corticosteroid undergo skin testing, which, although not a conclusive predictor, may help to determine if hypersensitivity to another corticosteroid exists. Such patients should be carefully monitored during and following the administration of any corticosteroid.

    Abrupt discontinuation, adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) suppression, increased intracranial pressure, occlusive dressing, skin abrasion

    Prolonged administration of pharmacological doses of systemic, nasal, inhaled or topical corticosteroids (resulting in systemic absorption) may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) suppression and/or manifestations of Cushing's syndrome in some patients. Adrenal suppression and increased intracranial pressure have been reported with the use and/or withdrawal of various corticosteroid formulations in pediatric patients. Acute adrenal insufficiency and even death may occur following abrupt discontinuation of systemic therapy. In addition, a withdrawal syndrome unrelated to adrenocortical insufficiency may occur following sudden discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy. These effects are thought to be due to the sudden change in glucocorticoid concentration rather than to low corticosteroid concentrations. Withdraw prolonged systemic corticosteroid therapy (duration of treatment more than 2 weeks) gradually. HPA suppression can last for up to 12 months following cessation of systemic therapy. Recovery of HPA axis function is generally prompt and complete upon discontinuation of the topical corticosteroid. HPA-suppressed patients may need supplemental corticosteroid treatment during periods of physiologic stress, such as post-surgical stress, acute blood loss, or infectious conditions, even after the corticosteroid has been discontinued. Encourage patients currently receiving chronic corticosteroid therapy or who have had corticosteroids discontinued within the last 12 months to carry identification advising the need for administration of corticosteroids in situations of increased stress. Conditions that increase systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids include use over large surface areas, prolonged use, use in areas where the epidermal barrier is disrupted (i.e., skin abrasion), and the use of an occlusive dressing. Pediatric patients may absorb proportionally larger amounts of topical corticosteroids compared to adults due to a larger skin surface to body mass ratio and, therefore, may be at increased risk of systemic adverse reactions. Evaluate patients receiving large doses of triamcinolone applied to a large surface area periodically for evidence of HPA axis suppression and/or manifestations of Cushing's syndrome. If these effects are noted, attempt withdrawal of the drug, a reduction in the frequency of application, or substitution of a less potent corticosteroid. Nonprescription intranasal corticosteroids should not be used for greater than 2 months in pediatric patients without oversight of a healthcare provider. If signs of HPA suppression occur with the use of intranasal corticosteroids, the drug should be slowly discontinued.

    Growth inhibition, osteopenia, osteoporosis

    Potential adverse effects of chronic corticosteroid therapy should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the availability of other treatment alternatives. Prolonged systemic corticosteroid therapy can lead to osteopenia, osteoporosis, vertebral compression fractures, aseptic necrosis of femoral and humoral heads, and pathologic fractures of long bones secondary to decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, and protein catabolism in any patients. A high-protein diet may alleviate or prevent the adverse effects associated with protein catabolism. The elderly, post-menopausal, and pediatric patients may be more susceptible to the effects on bone. Chronic systemic triamcinolone therapy may cause growth inhibition in pediatric patients due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and inhibition of bone growth. Corticosteroids should be titrated to the lowest effective dose. Because bone development is critical in pediatric patients, monitoring is warranted in patients receiving high-dose or chronic corticosteroid treatment. Growth inhibition may also occur with intranasal or topical triamcinolone due to systemic absorption, particularly in susceptible patients or when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. Use of the lowest effective dose is recommended to minimize the occurrence of systemic adverse effects. Monitor growth routinely.

    Immunosuppression

    Patients receiving high-dose (e.g., equivalent to 1 mg/kg or more of prednisone daily) or systemic corticosteroid therapy, such as triamcinolone, for any period of time, particularly in conjunction with corticosteroid sparing drugs (e.g., troleandomycin) are at risk to develop immunosuppression; however, patients receiving moderate dosages of systemic corticosteroids for short periods or low dosages for prolonged periods also may be at risk. Treatment with topical or inhaled corticosteroids lessens the risk of immunosuppression; although localized effects may be seen in some patients. When given in combination with other immunosuppressive agents, there is a risk of over-immunosuppression. Intra-articularly injected corticosteroids are systemically absorbed and may cause immunosuppression. Advise patients to contact their health care provider if they develop fever or other signs or symptoms of infection. Joint infections may also occur with intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide extended-release suspension. Avoid injection of triamcinolone into an infected site. Local injection of a corticosteroid into a previously infected joint is not usually recommended. Examine any joint fluid to exclude a septic process. Injection into unstable joints is generally not recommended. 

    Surgery

    If surgery is required, patients should advise their physician that they received prolonged systemic or inhaled corticosteroid therapy, such as triamcinolone, within the last 12 months and state the disease for which they were being treated. For systemic therapy, identification cards that include disease state, type and dose of corticosteroid, and physician should always be carried with the patient. Most triamcinolone injection products are long-acting preparations, and are not suitable for use in acute stress situations. To avoid drug-induced adrenal insufficiency, a supportive corticosteroid dosage may be required in times of stress (such as trauma, surgery, or severe illness) both during treatment with with these injections and for a year afterwards.

    Fungal infection, helminth infection, infection, viral infection

    Corticosteroids may increase the risks related to infections with any pathogen, including viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, or helminth infection. The degree to which the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration correlate with the specific risks of infection is not well characterized, however, with increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases. Corticosteroids may also mask some signs of current infection. In general, do not use corticosteroids in patients with systemic fungal infections; corticosteroids can be administered to these patients when necessary as long as appropriate therapy is administered simultaneously. Avoid the use of triamcinolone in patients with a fungal infection or bacterial infection that is not adequately controlled with anti-infective agents. Activation of latent disease or exacerbation of intercurrent infection due to pathogens such as Amoeba, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Pneumocystis, or Toxoplasma can occur in patients receiving systemic corticosteroids. Rule out infection with latent or active amebiasis before initiating corticosteroid therapy in patients who have spent time in the tropics or who have unexplained diarrhea. Use corticosteroids with caution in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation as the immunosuppressive effects may lead to disseminated infection, severe enterocolitis, and sepsis. Corticosteroids should not be used in patients with cerebral malaria.

    Tuberculosis

    Reserve systemic corticosteroid therapy in active tuberculosis for patients with fulminating or disseminated disease and only in conjunction with appropriate antituberculosis therapy. Reactivation of tuberculosis may occur in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity; close observation for disease reactivation is needed if corticosteroids are indicated in such patients. Furthermore, chemoprophylaxis is advised if prolonged corticosteroid therapy is needed. The incidence or course of acute bacterial infection are probably minimally affected by inhaled or nasal triamcinolone. Application of topical corticosteroids to areas of infection, including tuberculosis of the skin, should be initiated or continued only if the appropriate antiinfective treatment is instituted. If the infection does not respond to the antimicrobial therapy, the concurrent use of the topical corticosteroid should be discontinued until the infection is controlled.

    Herpes infection, measles, varicella

    Advise patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of systemic corticosteroids to avoid exposure to persons with a viral infection (i.e., measles or varicella) because these diseases may be more serious or even fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Instruct patients to get immediate medical advice if exposure occurs. If exposed to chicken pox, prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin may be indicated. The incidence or course of acute viral or bacterial infection are probably minimally affected by inhaled or nasal triamcinolone. Application of topical corticosteroids to areas of infection, including dermatologic fungal infection, and cutaneous or systemic viral infection (e.g., herpes infection, measles, varicella), should be initiated or continued only if the appropriate antiinfective treatment is instituted. If the infection does not respond to the antimicrobial therapy, the concurrent use of the topical corticosteroid should be discontinued until the infection is controlled. Use ophthalmic triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension (Triesence) with caution in patients with ocular herpes infection because of possible corneal perforation. Avoid the use of corticosteroids in active ocular herpes infection due to the risk of corneal perforation.

    Head trauma

    Do not use high doses of systemic corticosteroids such as triamcinolone for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. An increase in early mortality (at 2 weeks) and late mortality (at 6 months) was noted in patients with head trauma who were determined not to have other clear indications for corticosteroid treatment; in the trial, patients received methylprednisolone hemisuccinate. Most triamcinolone injection products are long-acting preparations, and are not suitable for use in acute situations.

    Heart failure, hypertension, myocardial infarction, renal disease

    Corticosteroid therapy, including systemic triamcinolone therapy, has been associated with left ventricular free-wall rupture in patients with recent myocardial infarction, and should therefore be used cautiously in these patients. As sodium retention with resultant edema and potassium loss may occur in patients receiving systemic corticosteroids, these agents should be used with caution in patients with congestive heart failure, hypertension, or renal disease or insufficiency. 

    Diabetes mellitus

    Systemic corticosteroids, such as triamcinolone, may decrease glucose tolerance, produce hyperglycemia, and aggravate or precipitate diabetes mellitus. This may especially occur in patients predisposed to diabetes mellitus. When corticosteroid therapy is necessary in patients with diabetes mellitus, changes in insulin, oral antidiabetic agent dosage, and/or diet may be required. Topical corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus, as increased blood glucose and exacerbation of diabetes has occurred. Use of topical corticosteroids may further delay healing of skin ulcers in diabetic patients.

    Myasthenia gravis, neuromuscular disease

    An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of systemic corticosteroids, most often occurring in patients with neuromuscular disease disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), or in patients receiving concomitant therapy with neuromuscular blocking drugs. This acute myopathy is generalized, may involve ocular and respiratory muscles, and may result in quadriparesis. Elevation of creatinine kinase may occur. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping corticosteroids may require weeks to years. 

    Psychosis, seizure disorder

    Existing emotional instability or psychosis may be aggravated by corticosteroids. Psychiatric derangements may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression, to frank psychosis. Use triamcinolone with caution in patients with a seizure disorder; systemic steroids can lower the seizure threshold.

    Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid disease

    Metabolic clearance of corticosteroids is decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Changes in thyroid disease status of a patient may necessitate an adjustment in systemic triamcinolone dosage.

    Diverticulitis, GI perforation, hepatic disease, peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis

    Systemic corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with active or latent peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, fresh intestinal anastomoses, and nonspecific ulcerative colitis, since steroids may increase the risk of a gastrointestinal (GI) perforation. Signs of peritoneal irritation following GI perforation in patients receiving corticosteroids may be minimal or absent. Corticosteroids should not be used in patients where there is a possibility of impending GI perforation, abscess, or pyogenic infection. There is an enhanced effect due to decreased metabolism of systemic corticosteroids in patients with severe hepatic disease with cirrhosis.

    Nasal septal perforation, nasal surgery, nasal trauma

    As with any long-term topical treatment of the nasal cavity, patients using nasal triamcinolone over several months or longer should be examined periodically for possible changes in the nasal mucosa. Further, because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal septal perforation or ulcer, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use a nasal corticosteroid until healing has occurred.

    Impaired wound healing, peripheral vascular disease, skin atrophy

    Topical corticosteroids should be used for brief periods, or under close medical supervision in patients with evidence of preexisting skin atrophy. Elderly patients may be more likely to have preexisting skin atrophy secondary to aging. Purpura and skin lacerations that may raise the skin and subcutaneous tissue from deep fascia may be more likely to occur with the use of topical corticosteroids in older adult patients. The use of lower potency topical corticosteroids also may be necessary for some patients. Topical corticosteroids may cause impaired wound healing of non-infected wounds, such as venous stasis ulcers. Use topical triamcinolone preparations with caution in patients with markedly impaired circulation or peripheral vascular disease; skin ulceration has been reported in these patients following topical corticosteroid use. Further, because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal septal perforation or ulcer, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use nasal triamcinolone until healing has occurred.

    Acne rosacea, acne vulgaris

    Topical corticosteroids, such as triamcinolone, should not be used to treat acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, or perioral dermatitis as they may exacerbate these conditions.

    Cataracts, glaucoma, intravitreal administration, ocular exposure, ocular infection

    Use systemic, nasal, and intravitreal corticosteroids with caution in patients with glaucoma; corticosteroids can cause increased intraocular pressure with possible damage to the optic nerves. If steroid therapy is continued for more than 6 weeks, intraocular pressure should be monitored. The use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infection due to bacteria, fungi, or viruses. The use of systemic corticosteroids is not recommended in the treatment of optic neuritis and may lead to an increase in the risk of new episodes. Corticosteroids should not be used in active ocular herpes simplex because of possible corneal perforation. The use of triamcinolone injections, with the exception of Triescense, by intravitreal administration is not recommended. Endophthalmitis, eye inflammation, increased intraocular pressure, and visual disturbances including vision loss have been reported with intravitreal administration. Several instances of blindness have been reported following injection of corticosteroid suspensions into the nasal turbinates and intralesional injection about the head. Care should be taken to avoid ocular exposure to topical and nasal triamcinolone preparations. Visual impairment, ocular hypertension, and worsened cataracts have been reported with ocular exposure to other high potency topical corticosteroids. Preexisting glaucoma may be aggravated if triamcinolone is applied in the periorbital area.

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

    Intramuscular triamcinolone injections are contraindicated in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). 

    Vaccination

    Indicated vaccination procedures may be undertaken in patients receiving nonimmunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids as replacement therapy (e.g., for Addison's disease). Administration of live or live, attenuated vaccines is contraindicated in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered. However, the response to such vaccines may be diminished and cannot be predicted. The immunosuppressive effects of steroid treatment differ, but many clinicians consider a systemic dose equivalent to either 2 mg/kg/day or 20 mg/day of prednisone as sufficiently immunosuppressive to raise concern about the safety of immunization with live-virus vaccines. In patients who have received high-dose, systemic corticosteroids for 2 weeks or longer, it is recommended to wait at least 3 months after discontinuation of therapy before administering a live-virus vaccine.

    Pregnancy

    Systemic triamcinolone use should be approached with caution during pregnancy and should be used during pregnancy only when the anticipated benefit outweighs the potential fetal risk. Human and animal studies suggest that use of systemic corticosteroids during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of orofacial clefts, intrauterine growth restriction and decreased birth weight. If systemic triamcinolone must be used chronically during pregnancy, the potential risks should be discussed with the patient. Infants born to women receiving large doses of systemic corticosteroids during pregnancy should be monitored for signs of adrenal insufficiency, and appropriate therapy should be initiated, if necessary. Caution is also recommended with the use of nasal triamcinolone. Topical use of triamcinolone during pregnancy should also be approached with caution. Topical corticosteroids, including triamcinolone, should not be used in large amounts, on large areas, or for prolonged periods of time in pregnant women. Guidelines recommend mild to moderate potency topical agents over potent corticosteroids, which should be used in short durations. Fetal growth restriction and a significantly increased risk of low birthweight has been reported with use of potent or very potent topical corticosteroids during the third trimester, particularly when using more than 300 grams. Corticosteroids are generally teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. The more potent corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application in laboratory animals.

    Breast-feeding

    There are no adequate data on the effect of triamcinolone on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production during breast-feeding. Corticosteroids are secreted in human milk. Reports suggest that steroid concentrations in human milk are 5 to 25% of maternal serum levels, and that total infant daily doses are small, less than 0.2% of the maternal daily dose. Reviewers and an expert panel consider inhaled, nasal, and oral corticosteroids acceptable to use during breast-feeding. It is not known whether topical administration of triamcinolone could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in breast milk. However, most dermatologists stress that topical corticosteroids can be safely used during lactation and breast-feeding. If applied topically, care should be used to ensure the infant will not come into direct contact with the area of application, such as the breast. Increased blood pressure has been reported in an infant whose mother applied a high potency topical corticosteroid ointment directly to the nipples. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    Neonates, premature neonates

    Triamcinolone injection formulas should not be used in neonates and premature neonates due to the benzyl alcohol content. Administration of benzyl alcohol to neonates can result in 'gasping syndrome,' which is a potentially fatal condition characterized by metabolic acidosis, and CNS, respiratory, circulatory, and renal dysfunction; it is also characterized by high concentrations of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites in the blood and urine. While the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known, 'gasping syndrome' has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages greater than 99 mg/kg/day in neonates and low-birth-weight neonates. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic failure, renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Rare cases of death, primarily in preterm neonates, have been reported. Further, an increased incidence of kernicterus, especially in small, preterm neonates has been reported. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources. Premature neonates, neonates with low birth weight, and patients who receive a high dose may be more likely to develop toxicity.

    Geriatric

    Use systemic corticosteroids such as triamcinolone with caution in the geriatric patient; the risks and benefits of therapy should be considered for any individual patient, particularly with chronic use. According to the Beers Criteria, systemic corticosteroids are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for use in geriatric patients with delirium or at high risk for delirium and should be avoided in these patient populations due to the possibility of new-onset delirium or exacerbation of the current condition. The Beers expert panel notes that oral and parenteral corticosteroids may be required for conditions such as exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but should be prescribed in the lowest effective dose and for the shortest possible duration. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs); the need for continued use of a glucocorticoid, with the exception of topical or inhaled formulations, should be documented, along with monitoring for and management of adverse consequences with intermediate or longer-term systemic use.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    ocular hypertension / Delayed / 20.0-60.0
    retinal detachment / Delayed / 0-2.0
    ocular hemorrhage / Delayed / 0-2.0
    endophthalmitis / Delayed / 0-2.0
    visual impairment / Early / 0-2.0
    nasal septum perforation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    papilledema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    increased intracranial pressure / Early / Incidence not known
    tendon rupture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bone fractures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    avascular necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI perforation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peptic ulcer / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    lupus-like symptoms / Delayed / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    skin atrophy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    arachnoiditis / Early / Incidence not known
    optic neuritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    retinopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vasculitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
    thromboembolism / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bradycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    pulmonary edema / Early / Incidence not known
    cardiomyopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    erythema / Early / 1.0-10.0
    exophthalmos / Delayed / 0-2.0
    ocular inflammation / Early / 0-2.0
    dysphonia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pseudotumor cerebri / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    withdrawal / Early / Incidence not known
    physiological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    adrenocortical insufficiency / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) suppression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vaginal bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    postmenopausal bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Cushing's syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    growth inhibition / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteoporosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myasthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    gastritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    constipation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    immunosuppression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    candidiasis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    impaired wound healing / Delayed / Incidence not known
    skin ulcer / Delayed / Incidence not known
    edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    hypocalcemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    metabolic alkalosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypokalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypernatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fluid retention / Delayed / Incidence not known
    sodium retention / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetes mellitus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    glycosuria / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    memory impairment / Delayed / Incidence not known
    amnesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neuritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    paresis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    euphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    mania / Early / Incidence not known
    delirium / Early / Incidence not known
    meningitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    psychosis / Early / Incidence not known
    impaired cognition / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    EEG changes / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hallucinations / Early / Incidence not known
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known
    ocular infection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cataracts / Delayed / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    phlebitis / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angina / Early / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatomegaly / Delayed / Incidence not known
    contact dermatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tolerance / Delayed / Incidence not known
    glossitis / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    arthralgia / Delayed / 6.0-16.0
    skin irritation / Early / 1.0-10.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 1.0-10.0
    xerosis / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    maculopapular rash / Early / 1.0-10.0
    influenza / Delayed / 2.0-8.4
    abdominal pain / Early / 4.7-4.7
    dyspepsia / Early / 3.4-3.4
    diarrhea / Early / 3.0-3.0
    rash / Early / 0-2.5
    sinusitis / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / 2.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 2.0
    cough / Delayed / 2.0
    nasal dryness / Early / Incidence not known
    dysgeusia / Early / Incidence not known
    xerostomia / Early / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    nasal irritation / Early / Incidence not known
    hoarseness / Early / Incidence not known
    lethargy / Early / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    menstrual irregularity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hirsutism / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    arthropathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    weight loss / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hiccups / Early / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    weight gain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    infection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    petechiae / Delayed / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ecchymosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    striae / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diaphoresis / Early / Incidence not known
    skin hypopigmentation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    telangiectasia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    perineal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    acne vulgaris / Delayed / Incidence not known
    skin hyperpigmentation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    alopecia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    miliaria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    injection site reaction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypertrichosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    acneiform rash / Delayed / Incidence not known
    folliculitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    restlessness / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    emotional lability / Early / Incidence not known
    dizziness / Early / Incidence not known
    insomnia / Early / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known
    irritability / Delayed / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abatacept: (Moderate) Concomitant use of immunosuppressives, as well as long-term corticosteroids, may potentially increase the risk of serious infection in abatacept treated patients. Advise patients taking abatacept to seek immediate medical advice if they develop signs and symptoms suggestive of infection.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Acetazolamide: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may increase the risk of hypokalemia if used concurrently with acetazolamide. Hypokalemia may be especially severe with prolonged use of corticotropin, ACTH. Monitor serum potassium levels to determine the need for potassium supplementation and/or alteration in drug therapy.
    Acetohexamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Adalimumab: (Moderate) Closely monitor for the development of signs and symptoms of infection if coadministration of a corticosteroid with adalimumab is necessary. Adalimumab treatment increases the risk for serious infections that may lead to hospitalization or death. Patients taking concomitant immunosuppressants including corticosteroids may be at greater risk of infection.
    Albiglutide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Alemtuzumab: (Moderate) Concomitant use of alemtuzumab with immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids may increase the risk of immunosuppression. Monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of infection.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Altretamine: (Minor) Concurrent use of altretamine with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as corticosteroids may result in additive effects.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Moderate) Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents, such as ambenonium chloride, and corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, anticholinesterase agents used to treat myasthenia should be withdrawn at least 24 hours before initiating corticosteroid therapy.
    Amifampridine: (Moderate) Carefully consider the need for concomitant treatment with systemic corticosteroids and amifampridine, as coadministration may increase the risk of seizures. If coadministration occurs, closely monitor patients for seizure activity. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures taking amifampridine at recommended doses. Systemic corticosteroids may increase the risk of seizures in some patients.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Aminolevulinic Acid: (Minor) Corticosteroids administered prior to or concomitantly with photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy may decrease the efficacy of the treatment.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Amiodarone: (Major) Use caution when coadministering amiodarone with drugs which may induce hypokalemia and, or hypomagnesemia, including corticosteroids. Since antiarrhythmic drugs may be ineffective or may be arrhythmogenic in patients with hypokalemia, any potassium or magnesium deficiency should be corrected before instituting and during amiodarone therapy.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Clarithromycin may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Moderate) The potassium-wasting effects of corticosteroid therapy can be exacerbated by concomitant administration of other potassium-depleting drugs including amphotericin B. Serum potassium levels should be monitored in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Moderate) The potassium-wasting effects of corticosteroid therapy can be exacerbated by concomitant administration of other potassium-depleting drugs including amphotericin B. Serum potassium levels should be monitored in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Moderate) The potassium-wasting effects of corticosteroid therapy can be exacerbated by concomitant administration of other potassium-depleting drugs including amphotericin B. Serum potassium levels should be monitored in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Amphotericin B: (Moderate) The potassium-wasting effects of corticosteroid therapy can be exacerbated by concomitant administration of other potassium-depleting drugs including amphotericin B. Serum potassium levels should be monitored in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Amprenavir: (Moderate) Amprenavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Antithymocyte Globulin: (Moderate) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Argatroban: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of arsenic trioxide and corticosteroids as electrolyte imbalance caused by corticosteroids may increase the risk of QT prolongation with arsenic trioxide.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may potentiate the hypokalemic effects of epinephrine.
    Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi: (Moderate) Concomitant use of L-asparaginase with corticosteroids can result in additive hyperglycemia. L-Asparaginase transiently inhibits insulin production contributing to hyperglycemia seen during concurrent corticosteroid therapy. Insulin therapy may be required in some cases. Administration of L-asparaginase after rather than before corticosteroids reportedly has produced fewer hypersensitivity reactions.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Butalbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use. (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Butalbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use. (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Atazanavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Atazanavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal. (Moderate) Cobicistat may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Atracurium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Azathioprine: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Basiliximab: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids have immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Phenobarbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Bepridil: (Moderate) Hypokalemia-producing agents, including corticosteroids, may increase the risk of bepridil-induced arrhythmias and should therefore be administered cautiously in patients receiving bepridil therapy.
    Bexarotene: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents, such as bexarotene.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Bivalirudin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Bortezomib: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Bosentan: (Minor) A dose adjustment of triamcinolone may be necessary if bosentan is initiated or withdrawn during therapy. Bosentan may increase the metabolism of triamcinolone resulting in decreased exposure. Bosentan is an inducer of CYP3A4; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Bupropion: (Moderate) Because bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures, extreme caution is recommended during concurrent use of other drugs that may lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids. Low initial dosing and slow dosage titration of bupropion is recommended if these combinations must be used; the patient should be closely monitored.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Because bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures, extreme caution is recommended during concurrent use of other drugs that may lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids. Low initial dosing and slow dosage titration of bupropion is recommended if these combinations must be used; the patient should be closely monitored.
    Butabarbital: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Butabarbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Butalbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Butalbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Butalbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may cause protein breakdown, which could lead to elevated blood ammonia concentrations, especially in patients with an impaired ability to form urea. Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients receiving treatment for hyperammonemia.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Moderate) Calcium absorption is reduced when calcium carbonate is taken concomitantly with systemic corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids induce a negative calcium balance by inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption as well as by increasing renal calcium losses. The mechanism by which these drugs inhibit calcium absorption in the intestine is likely to involve a direct inhibition of absorptive cell function.
    Calcium Carbonate; Famotidine; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Calcium absorption is reduced when calcium carbonate is taken concomitantly with systemic corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids induce a negative calcium balance by inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption as well as by increasing renal calcium losses. The mechanism by which these drugs inhibit calcium absorption in the intestine is likely to involve a direct inhibition of absorptive cell function.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Calcium absorption is reduced when calcium carbonate is taken concomitantly with systemic corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids induce a negative calcium balance by inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption as well as by increasing renal calcium losses. The mechanism by which these drugs inhibit calcium absorption in the intestine is likely to involve a direct inhibition of absorptive cell function.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Moderate) Calcium absorption is reduced when calcium carbonate is taken concomitantly with systemic corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids induce a negative calcium balance by inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption as well as by increasing renal calcium losses. The mechanism by which these drugs inhibit calcium absorption in the intestine is likely to involve a direct inhibition of absorptive cell function.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Moderate) Calcium absorption is reduced when calcium carbonate is taken concomitantly with systemic corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids induce a negative calcium balance by inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption as well as by increasing renal calcium losses. The mechanism by which these drugs inhibit calcium absorption in the intestine is likely to involve a direct inhibition of absorptive cell function.
    Canagliflozin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers, including carbamazepine, can increase the metabolism of triamcinolone. Dosage adjustments may be necessary, and closer monitoring of clinical and/or adverse effects is warranted when carbamazepine is used with triamcinolone.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Carmustine, BCNU: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Ceritinib: (Moderate) Ceritinib, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Chlorambucil: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) Chloramphenicol may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Chlorpropamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Cisatracurium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of citalopram and corticosteroids as electrolyte imbalance caused by corticosteroids may increase the risk of QT prolongation with citalopram.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) Clarithromycin may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Clindamycin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Clofarabine: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Cobicistat may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Dapagliflozin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Darunavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Cobicistat may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal. (Moderate) Darunavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Cobicistat may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal. (Moderate) Darunavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Ritonavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) along with corticosteroids resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Because gastric ulceration and GI bleeding have been reported in patients taking deferasirox, use caution when coadministering with other drugs known to increase the risk of peptic ulcers or gastric hemorrhage including corticosteroids.
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) Delaviridine may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Denileukin Diftitox: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Denosumab: (Moderate) The safety and efficacy of denosumab use in patients with immunosuppression have not been evaluated. Patients receiving immunosuppressives along with denosumab may be at a greater risk of developing an infection.
    Desmopressin: (Major) Desmopressin, when used in the treatment of nocturia is contraindicated with corticosteroids because of the risk of severe hyponatremia. Desmopressin can be started or resumed 3 days or 5 half-lives after the corticosteroid is discontinued, whichever is longer.
    Dextran: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, or hypercalcemia increase digoxin's effect. Corticosteroids can precipitate digoxin toxicity via their effect on electrolyte balance. It is recommended that serum potassium, magnesium, and calcium be monitored regularly in patients receiving digoxin.
    Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Corticosteroids can cause increases in blood pressure, sodium and water retention, and hypokalemia, predisposing patients to interactions with certain other medications. Corticosteroid-induced hypokalemia could also enhance the proarrhythmic effects of dofetilide.
    Doxacurium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Droperidol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when using droperidol in combination with corticosteroids which may lead to electrolyte abnormalities, especially hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, as such abnormalities may increase the risk for QT prolongation or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Dulaglutide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Echinacea: (Moderate) Echinacea possesses immunostimulatory activity and may theoretically reduce the response to immunosuppressant drugs like corticosteroids. For some patients who are using corticosteroids for serious illness, such as cancer or organ transplant, this potential interaction may result in the preferable avoidance of Echinacea. Although documentation is lacking, coadministration of echinacea with immunosuppressants is not recommended by some resources.
    Econazole: (Minor) In vitro studies indicate that corticosteroids inhibit the antifungal activity of econazole against C. albicans in a concentration-dependent manner. When the concentration of the corticosteroid was equal to or greater than that of econazole on a weight basis, the antifungal activity of econazole was substantially inhibited. When the corticosteroid concentration was one-tenth that of econazole, no inhibition of antifungal activity was observed.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Cobicistat may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Cobicistat may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Empagliflozin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Ephedrine may enhance the metabolic clearance of corticosteroids. Decreased blood concentrations and lessened physiologic activity may necessitate an increase in corticosteroid dosage.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Ephedrine may enhance the metabolic clearance of corticosteroids. Decreased blood concentrations and lessened physiologic activity may necessitate an increase in corticosteroid dosage.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may potentiate the hypokalemic effects of epinephrine.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Erlotinib: (Moderate) Monitor for symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation (e.g., severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting) if coadministration of erlotinib with systemic triamcinolone is necessary. Permanently discontinue erlotinib in patients who develop GI perforation. The pooled incidence of GI perforation clinical trials of erlotinib ranged from 0.1% to 0.4%, including fatal cases; patients receiving concomitant triamcinolone may be at increased risk.
    Ertugliflozin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Estramustine: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Estrogens: (Moderate) Estrogens have been associated with elevated serum concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids, although the free concentrations of these hormones may be lower; the clinical significance is not known. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and dexamethasone is a CYP3A4 inducer; concomitant use may decrease the clinical efficacy of estrogens. Patients should be monitored for signs of decreased clinical effects of estrogens (e.g., breakthrough bleeding), oral contraceptives, or non-oral combination contraceptives if these drugs are used together.
    Exenatide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Fluoxymesterone: (Moderate) Coadministration of corticosteroids and fluoxymesterone may increase the risk of edema, especially in patients with underlying cardiac or hepatic disease. Corticosteroids with greater mineralocorticoid activity, such as fludrocortisone, may be more likely to cause edema. Administer these drugs in combination with caution.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Fosamprenavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Gallium Ga 68 Dotatate: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may accentuate the electrolyte loss associated with diuretic therapy resulting in hypokalemia. Also, corticotropin may cause calcium loss and sodium and fluid retention. Mannitol itself can cause hypernatremia. Close monitoring of electrolytes should occur in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly. (Moderate) Repeated administration of high corticosteroid doses prior to gallium Ga 68 dotatate may result in false negative imaging. High-dose corticosteroid therapy is generally defined as at least 20 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent (or 2 mg/kg/day for patients weighing less than 10 kg) for at least 14 consecutive days. Corticosteroids can down-regulate somatostatin subtype 2 receptors: thereby, interfering with binding of gallium Ga 68 dotatate to malignant cells that overexpress these receptors.
    Gemcitabine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Glimepiride: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Glipizide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Glyburide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Glycerol Phenylbutyrate: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may induce elevated blood ammonia concentrations. Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients receiving glycerol phenylbutyrate. Monitor ammonia concentrations closely.
    Grapefruit juice: (Moderate) Grapefruit or grapefruit juice may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. It is possible that a patient could experience increased corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Advise patients to limit or avoid grapefruit juice during triamcinolone therapy. Monitor for excessive cortcosteroid effects, like Cushing's syndrome or adrenal suppression.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Halofantrine: (Major) Due to the risks of cardiac toxicity of halofantrine in patients with hypokalemia and/or hypomagnesemia, the use of halofantrine should be avoided in combination with agents that may lead to electrolyte losses, such as corticosteroids.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of haloperidol and corticosteroids as electrolyte imbalance caused by corticosteroids may increase the risk of QT prolongation with haloperidol.
    Hemin: (Moderate) Hemin works by inhibiting aminolevulinic acid synthetase. Corticosteroids increase the activity of this enzyme should not be used with hemin.
    Heparin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Hetastarch: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Hydantoins: (Moderate) Hydantoin anticonvulsants induce hepatic microsomal enzymes and may increase the metabolism of triamcinolone, leading to reduced efficacy. Depending on the individual clinical situation and the indication for the interacting medication, enzyme-induction interactions may not always produce reductions in treatment efficacy.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Hydroxyurea: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Hylan G-F 20: (Major) The safety and efficacy of hylan G-F 20 given concomitantly with other intra-articular injectables have not been established. Other intra-articular injections may include intra-articular steroids (betamethasone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone).
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided. (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together. (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia. (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Idelalisib: (Moderate) Idelalisib may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Incretin Mimetics: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when indapamide is coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia such as systemic corticosteroids. Coadminister with caution and careful monitoring.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Indinavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Inebilizumab: (Moderate) Concomitant usage of inebilizumab with immunosuppressant drugs, including systemic corticosteroids, may increase the risk of infection. Consider the risk of additive immune system effects when coadministering therapies that cause immunosuppression with inebilizumab.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Insulins: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving insulin closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Interferon Alfa-2a: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Interferon Alfa-2b: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Iohexol: (Major) Serious adverse events, including death, have been observed during intrathecal administration of both corticosteroids (i.e., triamcinolone) and radiopaque contrast agents (i.e., iohexol); therefore, concurrent use of these medications via the intrathecal route is contraindicated. Cases of cortical blindness, stroke, spinal cord infarction, paralysis, seizures, nerve injury, brain edema, and death have been temporally associated (i.e., within minutes to 48 hours after injection) with epidural administration of injectable corticosteroids. In addition, patients inadvertently administered iohexol formulations not indicated for intrathecal use have experienced seizures, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhages, brain edema, and death. Administering these medications together via the intrathecal route may increase the risk for serious adverse events.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) The risk of cardiac toxicity with isoproterenol in asthma patients appears to be increased with the coadministration of corticosteroids. Intravenous infusions of isoproterenol in refractory asthmatic children at rates of 0.05 to 2.7 mcg/kg/min have caused clinical deterioration, myocardial infarction (necrosis), congestive heart failure and death.
    Isotretinoin: (Minor) Both isotretinoin and corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis during chronic use. Patients receiving systemic corticosteroids should receive isotretinoin therapy with caution.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Itraconazole may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Ketoconazole can enhance the adrenal suppressive effects of corticosteroids and may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. Ketoconazole has been reported to decrease the metabolism of certain corticosteroids by up to 60%, leading to an increased risk of corticosteroid side effects. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) Clarithromycin may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    L-Asparaginase Escherichia coli: (Moderate) Concomitant use of L-asparaginase with corticosteroids can result in additive hyperglycemia. L-Asparaginase transiently inhibits insulin production contributing to hyperglycemia seen during concurrent corticosteroid therapy. Insulin therapy may be required in some cases. Administration of L-asparaginase after rather than before corticosteroids reportedly has produced fewer hypersensitivity reactions.
    Levetiracetam: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Levomethadyl: (Major) Caution is advised when using levomethadyl in combination with other agents, such as corticosteroids, that may lead to electrolyte abnormalities, especially hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Liraglutide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Live Vaccines: (Contraindicated) Live vaccines should generally not be administered to an immunosuppressed patient. Live vaccines may induce the illness they are intended to prevent and are generally contraindicated for use during immunosuppressive treatment. The immune response of the immunocompromised patient to vaccines may be decreased, even despite alternate vaccination schedules or more frequent booster doses. If immunization is necessary, choose an alternative to live vaccination, or, consider a delay or change in the immunization schedule. Practitioners should refer to the most recent CDC guidelines regarding vaccination of patients who are receiving drugs that adversely affect the immune system. The immunosuppressive effects of steroid treatment differ, but many clinicians consider a dose equivalent to either 2 mg/kg/day or 20 mg/day of prednisone as sufficiently immunosuppressive to raise concern about the safety of immunization with live vaccines. Patients on corticosteroid treatment for 2 weeks or more may be vaccinated after steroid therapy has been discontinued for at least 3 months in accordance with general recommendations for the use of live vaccines. The CDC has stated that discontinuation of steroids for 1 month prior to live vaccine administration may be sufficient. Live vaccines should not be given to individuals who are considered to be immunocompromised until more information is available.
    Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Lomustine, CCNU: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Lonafarnib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in triamcinolone-related adverse effects, such as fluid retention, electrolyte disturbances, and adrenal suppression, if concomitant use of lonafarnib is necessary. Concomitant use may increase triamcinolone exposure. Triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lonafarnib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors have decreased corticosteroid metabolism by up to 60%.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may accentuate the electrolyte loss associated with diuretic therapy resulting in hypokalemia and/or hypomagnesemia. While glucocorticoids with mineralocorticoid activity (e.g., cortisone, hydrocortisone) can cause sodium and fluid retention. Close monitoring of electrolytes should occur in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Ritonavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) along with corticosteroids resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid use of macimorelin with drugs that directly affect pituitary growth hormone secretion, such as corticosteroids. Healthcare providers are advised to discontinue corticosteroid therapy and observe a sufficient washout period before administering macimorelin. Use of these medications together may impact the accuracy of the macimorelin growth hormone test.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Mannitol: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may accentuate the electrolyte loss associated with diuretic therapy resulting in hypokalemia. Also, corticotropin may cause calcium loss and sodium and fluid retention. Mannitol itself can cause hypernatremia. Close monitoring of electrolytes should occur in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Mecasermin rinfabate: (Moderate) Additional monitoring may be required when coadministering systemic or inhaled corticosteroids and mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1. In animal studies, corticosteroids impair the growth-stimulating effects of growth hormone (GH) through interference with the physiological stimulation of epiphyseal chondrocyte proliferation exerted by GH and IGF-1. Dexamethasone administration on long bone tissue in vitro resulted in a decrease of local synthesis of IGF-1. Similar counteractive effects are expected in humans. If systemic or inhaled glucocorticoid therapy is required, the steroid dose should be carefully adjusted and growth rate monitored.
    Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1: (Moderate) Additional monitoring may be required when coadministering systemic or inhaled corticosteroids and mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1. In animal studies, corticosteroids impair the growth-stimulating effects of growth hormone (GH) through interference with the physiological stimulation of epiphyseal chondrocyte proliferation exerted by GH and IGF-1. Dexamethasone administration on long bone tissue in vitro resulted in a decrease of local synthesis of IGF-1. Similar counteractive effects are expected in humans. If systemic or inhaled glucocorticoid therapy is required, the steroid dose should be carefully adjusted and growth rate monitored.
    Meglitinides: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Mepenzolate: (Minor) Anticholinergics, such as mepenzolate, antagonize the effects of antiglaucoma agents. Mepenzolate is contraindicated in patients with glaucoma and therefore should not be coadministered with medications being prescribed for the treatment of glaucoma. In addition, anticholinergic drugs taken concurrently with corticosteroids in the presence of increased intraocular pressure may be hazardous.
    Mephobarbital: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Mephobarbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Methazolamide: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may increase the risk of hypokalemia if used concurrently with methazolamide. Hypokalemia may be especially severe with prolonged use of corticotropin, ACTH. Monitor serum potassium levels to determine the need for potassium supplementation and/or alteration in drug therapy. The chronic use of corticosteroids may augment calcium excretion with methazolamide leading to increased risk for hypocalcemia and/or osteoporosis.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Methoxsalen: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Metyrapone: (Contraindicated) Medications which affect pituitary or adrenocortical function, including all corticosteroid therapy, should be discontinued prior to and during testing with metyrapone. Patients taking inadvertent doses of corticosteroids on the test day may exhibit abnormally high basal plasma cortisol levels and a decreased response to the test. Although systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids is minimal, temporary discontinuation of these products should be considered if possible to reduce the potential for interference with the test results.
    Micafungin: (Moderate) Leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia have been associated with micafungin. Patients who are taking immunosuppressives such as the corticosteroids with micafungin concomitantly may have additive risks for infection or other side effects. In a pharmacokinetic trial, micafungin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone. Acute intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria was seen in a healthy volunteer during infusion of micafungin (200 mg) and oral prednisolone (20 mg). This reaction was transient, and the subject did not develop significant anemia.
    Midazolam: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Mifepristone: (Major) Mifepristone for termination of pregnancy is contraindicated in patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy and mifepristone for Cushing's disease or other chronic conditions is contraindicated in patients who require concomitant treatment with systemic corticosteroids for life-saving purposes, such as serious medical conditions or illnesses (e.g., immunosuppression after organ transplantation). For other situations where corticosteroids are used for treating non-life threatening conditions, mifepristone may lead to reduced corticosteroid efficacy and exacerbation or deterioration of such conditions. This is because mifepristone exhibits antiglucocorticoid activity that may antagonize corticosteroid therapy and the stabilization of the underlying corticosteroid-treated illness. Mifepristone may also cause adrenal insufficiency, so patients receiving corticosteroids for non life-threatening illness require close monitoring. Because serum cortisol levels remain elevated and may even increase during treatment with mifepristone, serum cortisol levels do not provide an accurate assessment of hypoadrenalism. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, If adrenal insufficiency occurs, stop mifepristone treatment and administer systemic glucocorticoids without delay; high doses may be needed to treat these events. Factors considered in deciding on the duration of glucocorticoid treatment should include the long half-life of mifepristone (85 hours).
    Mitoxantrone: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Mivacurium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Moxifloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Natalizumab: (Major) Ordinarily, patients receiving chronic immunosuppressant therapy should not be treated with natalizumab. Treatment recommendations for combined corticosteroid therapy are dependent on the underlying indication for natalizumab therapy. Corticosteroids should be tapered in those patients with Crohn's disease who are on chronic corticosteroids when they start natalizumab therapy, as soon as a therapeutic benefit has occurred. If the patient cannot discontinue systemic corticosteroids within 6 months, discontinue natalizumab. The concomitant use of natalizumab and corticosteroids may further increase the risk of serious infections, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, over the risk observed with use of natalizumab alone. In multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials, an increase in infections was seen in patients concurrently receiving short courses of corticosteroids. However, the increase in infections in natalizumab-treated patients who received steroids was similar to the increase in placebo-treated patients who received steroids. Short courses of steroid use during natalizumab, such as when they are needed for MS relapse treatment, appear to be acceptable for use concurrently.
    Nateglinide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) Nefazodone may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Nelarabine: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Nelfinavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Neostigmine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents, such as neostigmine, and systemic corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, anticholinesterase agents should be withdrawn at least 24 hours before initiating systemic corticosteroid therapy.
    Neuromuscular blockers: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged concomitant administration should be avoided. Concomitant use of corticosteroids appears to increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Corticosteroids can have profound effects on sodium-potassium balance; NSAIDs also can affect sodium and fluid balance. Monitor serum potassium concentrations; potassium supplementation may be necessary. In addition, NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection; use NSAIDs with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressant dosages of corticosteroids. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Ocrelizumab: (Moderate) Ocrelizumab has not been studied in combination with other immunosuppressive or immune modulating therapies used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, including immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids. Concomitant use of ocrelizumab with any of these therapies may increase the risk of immunosuppression. Monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of infection.
    Ofatumumab: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ofatumumab with corticosteroids may increase the risk of immunosuppression. Monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of infection. Ofatumumab has not been studied in combination with other immunosuppressive or immune modulating therapies used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, including immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Ritonavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) along with corticosteroids resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Ondansetron: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Oxymetholone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oxymetholone with corticosteroids or corticotropin, ACTH may cause increased edema. Manage edema with diuretic and/or digitalis therapy.
    Pancuronium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Pegaspargase: (Moderate) Concomitant use of pegaspargase with corticosteroids can result in additive hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy may be required in some cases.
    Penicillamine: (Major) Agents such as immunosuppressives have adverse reactions similar to those of penicillamine. Concomitant use of penicillamine with these agents is contraindicated because of the increased risk of developing severe hematologic and renal toxicity.
    Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Phenobarbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Phenobarbital is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Photosensitizing agents (topical): (Minor) Corticosteroids administered prior to or concomitantly with photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy may decrease the efficacy of the treatment.
    Physostigmine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents. such as physostigmine, and systemic corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, withdraw anticholinesterase inhibitors at least 24 hours before initiating corticosteroid therapy.
    Pimozide: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer of pimozide, the drug should not be coadministered with drugs known to cause electrolyte imbalances, such as high-dose, systemic corticosteroid therapy. Pimozide is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), and electrolyte imbalances (e.g., hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia) may increase the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias. Pimozide is contraindicated in patients with known hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia. Topical corticosteroids are less likely to interact.
    Pioglitazone; Glimepiride: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Pioglitazone; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Ponesimod: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection. Additive immune suppression may result from concomitant use of ponesimod and high-dose corticosteroid therapy which may extend the duration or severity of immune suppression. High-dose corticosteroid therapy is generally defined as a dose of at least 20 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent (or 2 mg/kg/day for patients weighing less than 10 kg) for at least 14 consecutive days.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Posaconazole may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Potassium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Potassium: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Potassium-sparing diuretics: (Minor) The manufacturer of spironolactone lists corticosteroids as a potential drug that interacts with spironolactone. Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia, may occur. However, potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone do not induce hypokalemia. In fact, hypokalemia is one of the indications for potassium-sparing diuretic therapy. Therefore, drugs that induce potassium loss, such as corticosteroids, could counter the hyperkalemic effects of potassium-sparing diuretics.
    Pramlintide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Corticosteroids blunt the adrenal secretion of endogenous DHEA and DHEAS, resulting in reduced DHEA and DHEAS serum concentrations.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved): (Moderate) Corticosteroids blunt the adrenal secretion of endogenous DHEA and DHEAS, resulting in reduced DHEA and DHEAS serum concentrations.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may potentiate the hypokalemic effects of epinephrine.
    Primidone: (Moderate) Coadministration may result in decreased exposure to triamcinolone. Primidone is a CYP3A4 inducer; triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for decreased response to triamcinolone during concurrent use.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic effect of phenylephrine may be increased in patient receiving corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone. Monitor patients for increased pressor effect if these agents are administered concomitantly.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Patients receiving corticosteroids during propranolol therapy may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to the loss of counter-regulatory cortisol response. This effect may be more pronounced in infants and young children. If concurrent use is necessary, carefully monitor vital signs and blood glucose concentrations as clinically indicated.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required. (Moderate) Patients receiving corticosteroids during propranolol therapy may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to the loss of counter-regulatory cortisol response. This effect may be more pronounced in infants and young children. If concurrent use is necessary, carefully monitor vital signs and blood glucose concentrations as clinically indicated.
    Purine analogs: (Minor) Concurrent use of purine analogs with other agents which cause bone marrow or immune suppression such as other antineoplastic agents or immunosuppressives may result in additive effects.
    Pyridostigmine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents. such as pyridostigmine, and corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, anticholinesterase agents should be withdrawn at least 24 hours before initiating corticosteroid therapy.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Use caution when administering quetiapine with corticosteroids. QT prolongation has occurred during concurrent use of quetiapine and medications known to cause electrolyte imbalance (i.e. corticosteroids).
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Quinolones have been associated with an increased risk of tendon rupture requiring surgical repair or resulting in prolonged disability; this risk is further increased in those receiving concomitant corticosteroids. Discontinue quinolone therapy at the first sign of tendon inflammation or tendon pain, as these are symptoms that may precede rupture of the tendon.
    Rapacuronium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Regular Insulin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Repaglinide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Ritodrine: (Major) Ritodrine has caused maternal pulmonary edema, which appears more often in patients treated concomitantly with corticosteroids. Patients so treated should be closely monitored in the hospital.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Ritonavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) along with corticosteroids resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Rituximab: (Moderate) Rituximab and corticosteroids are commonly used together; however, monitor the patient for immunosuppression and signs and symptoms of infection during combined chronic therapy.
    Rituximab; Hyaluronidase: (Moderate) Rituximab and corticosteroids are commonly used together; however, monitor the patient for immunosuppression and signs and symptoms of infection during combined chronic therapy.
    Rocuronium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Salicylates or NSAIDs should be used cautiously in patients receiving corticosteroids. While there is controversy regarding the ulcerogenic potential of corticosteroids alone, concomitant administration of corticosteroids with aspirin may increase the GI toxicity of aspirin and other non-acetylated salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids can result in increased plasma concentrations of salicylate and possible toxicity. Concomitant use of corticosteroids may increase the risk of adverse GI events due to NSAIDs. Although some patients may need to be given corticosteroids and NSAIDs concomitantly, which can be done successfully for short periods of time without sequelae, prolonged coadministration should be avoided.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) Saquinavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Sargramostim, GM-CSF: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of sargramostim and systemic corticosteroid agents due to the risk of additive myeloproliferative effects. If coadministration of these drugs is required, frequently monitor patients for clinical and laboratory signs of excess myeloproliferative effects (e.g., leukocytosis). Sargramostim is a recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor that works by promoting proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.
    SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccines: (Moderate) Patients receiving corticosteroids in greater than physiologic doses may have a diminished response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine. Counsel patients receiving corticosteroids about the possibility of a diminished vaccine response and to continue to follow precautions to avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus after receiving the vaccine.
    Semaglutide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    SGLT2 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Siponimod: (Moderate) Monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of infection during coadministration of siponimod and triamcinolone. Concomitant use may increase the risk of immunosuppression. Siponimod has not been studied in combination with other immunosuppressive therapies used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, including immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids.
    Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Phenylacetate: (Moderate) Corticosteroids may cause protein breakdown, which could lead to elevated blood ammonia concentrations, especially in patients with an impaired ability to form urea. Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients receiving treatment for hyperammonemia.
    Sodium Chloride: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Sodium Phenylbutyrate: (Moderate) The concurrent use of corticosteroids with sodium phenylbutyrate may increase plasma ammonia levels (hyperammonemia) by causing the breakdown of body protein. Patients with urea cycle disorders being treated with sodium phenylbutyrate usually should not receive regular treatment with corticosteroids.
    Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Corticosteroids can retard bone growth and therefore, can inhibit the growth-promoting effects of somatropin. If corticosteroid therapy is required, the corticosteroid dose should be carefully adjusted.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Succinylcholine: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Telbivudine: (Moderate) The risk of myopathy may be increased if corticosteroids are coadministered with telbivudine. Monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during periods of upward dosage titration.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Telithromycin may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Testosterone: (Moderate) Coadministration of corticosteroids and testosterone may increase the risk of edema, especially in patients with underlying cardiac or hepatic disease. Corticosteroids with greater mineralocorticoid activity, such as fludrocortisone, may be more likely to cause edema. Administer these drugs in combination with caution.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Thiazolidinediones: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Thyroid hormones: (Moderate) The metabolism of corticosteroids is increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Dosage adjustments may be necessary when initiating, changing or discontinuing thyroid hormones or antithyroid agents.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Tipranavir may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Tolazamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Tolbutamide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving antidiabetic agents closely for worsening glycemic control when corticosteroids are instituted and for signs of hypoglycemia when corticosteroids are discontinued. Systemic and inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase blood glucose and worsen glycemic control in patients taking antidiabetic agents. The main risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids are the dose of steroid and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Tositumomab: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Tranexamic Acid: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Tretinoin, ATRA: (Minor) Because systemically administered corticosteroids exhibit immunosuppressive effects when given in high doses and/or for extended periods, additive effects may be seen with other immunosuppressives or antineoplastic agents.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative, PPD: (Moderate) Immunosuppressives may decrease the immunological response to tuberculin purified protein derivative, PPD. This suppressed reactivity can persist for up to 6 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Consider deferring the skin test until completion of the immunosuppressive therapy.
    Tubocurarine: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Tucatinib: (Moderate) Tucatinib may inhibit the CYP3A4 metabolism of triamcinolone, resulting in increased plasma triamcinolone concentrations and reduced serum cortisol concentrations. There have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with triamcinolone, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including, but not limited to, Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Consider the benefit-risk of concomitant use and monitor for systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider using an alternative treatment to triamcinolone, such as a corticosteroid not metabolized by CYP3A4 (i.e., beclomethasone or prednisolone). In some patients, a corticosteroid dose adjustment may be needed. If corticosteroid therapy is to be discontinued, consider tapering the dose over a period of time to decrease the potential for withdrawal.
    Urea: (Moderate) The potassium-wasting effects of corticosteroid therapy can be exacerbated by concomitant administration of other potassium-depleting drugs such as diuretics. Serum potassium levels should be monitored in patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Additive hypokalemia may occur when non-potassium sparing diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, are coadministered with other drugs with a significant risk of hypokalemia, such as corticosteroids. Monitoring serum potassium levels and cardiac function is advised, and potassium supplementation may be required.
    Vancomycin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. Assess sodium chloride intake from all sources, including intake from sodium-containing intravenous fluids and antibiotic admixtures. Carefully monitor sodium concentrations and fluid status if sodium-containing drugs and corticosteroids must be used together.
    Vecuronium: (Moderate) Limit the period of use of neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids and only use when the specific advantages of the drugs outweigh the risks for acute myopathy. An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids in patients receiving concomitant long-term therapy with neuromuscular blockers. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping therapy may require weeks to years.
    Vigabatrin: (Major) Vigabatrin should not be used with corticosteroids, which are associated with serious ophthalmic effects (e.g., retinopathy or glaucoma) unless the benefit of treatment clearly outweighs the risks.
    Vincristine Liposomal: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Monitor for potential adrenal dysfunction with concomitant use of voriconazole and triamcinolone. In patients taking corticosteroids, voriconazole-associated CYP3A4 inhibition of their metabolism may lead to corticosteroid excess and adrenal suppression. Corticosteroid exposure is likely to be increased. Voriconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, and triamcinolone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Vorinostat: (Moderate) Use vorinostat and corticosteroids together with caution; the risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmias may be increased if electrolyte abnormalities occur. Corticosteroids may cause electrolyte imbalances; hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, or hypocalcemia and may increase the risk of QT prolongation with vorinostat. Frequently monitor serum electrolytes if concomitant use of these drugs is necessary.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Monitor the INR if warfarin is administered with corticosteroids. The effect of corticosteroids on warfarin is variable. There are reports of enhanced as well as diminished effects of anticoagulants when given concurrently with corticosteroids; however, limited published data exist, and the mechanism of the interaction is not well described. High-dose corticosteroids appear to pose a greater risk for increased anticoagulant effect. In addition, corticosteroids have been associated with a risk of peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) Zafirlukast inhibits the CYP3A4 isoenzymes and should be used cautiously in patients stabilized on drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, such as corticosteroids.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Systemic triamcinolone use should be approached with caution during pregnancy and should be used during pregnancy only when the anticipated benefit outweighs the potential fetal risk. Human and animal studies suggest that use of systemic corticosteroids during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of orofacial clefts, intrauterine growth restriction and decreased birth weight. If systemic triamcinolone must be used chronically during pregnancy, the potential risks should be discussed with the patient. Infants born to women receiving large doses of systemic corticosteroids during pregnancy should be monitored for signs of adrenal insufficiency, and appropriate therapy should be initiated, if necessary. Caution is also recommended with the use of nasal triamcinolone. Topical use of triamcinolone during pregnancy should also be approached with caution. Topical corticosteroids, including triamcinolone, should not be used in large amounts, on large areas, or for prolonged periods of time in pregnant women. Guidelines recommend mild to moderate potency topical agents over potent corticosteroids, which should be used in short durations. Fetal growth restriction and a significantly increased risk of low birthweight has been reported with use of potent or very potent topical corticosteroids during the third trimester, particularly when using more than 300 grams. Corticosteroids are generally teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. The more potent corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application in laboratory animals.

    There are no adequate data on the effect of triamcinolone on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production during breast-feeding. Corticosteroids are secreted in human milk. Reports suggest that steroid concentrations in human milk are 5 to 25% of maternal serum levels, and that total infant daily doses are small, less than 0.2% of the maternal daily dose. Reviewers and an expert panel consider inhaled, nasal, and oral corticosteroids acceptable to use during breast-feeding. It is not known whether topical administration of triamcinolone could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in breast milk. However, most dermatologists stress that topical corticosteroids can be safely used during lactation and breast-feeding. If applied topically, care should be used to ensure the infant will not come into direct contact with the area of application, such as the breast. Increased blood pressure has been reported in an infant whose mother applied a high potency topical corticosteroid ointment directly to the nipples. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Glucocorticoids prevent or suppress inflammation and immune responses when administered at pharmacological doses. At the molecular level, unbound glucocorticoids readily cross cell membranes and bind with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic receptors. This binding induces a response by modifying transcription and, ultimately, protein synthesis to achieve the steroid's intended action. Such actions can include: inhibition of leukocyte infiltration at the site of inflammation, interference in the function of mediators of inflammatory response, and suppression of humoral immune responses. Some of the net effects include reduction in edema or scar tissue and a general suppression in immune response. The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. Lipocortins, in turn, control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of the precursor molecule arachidonic acid. The degree of clinical effect and the numerous adverse effects related to corticosteroid use usually depend on the dose administered and the duration of therapy.
     
    Early anti-inflammatory effects of topical corticosteroids include the inhibition of macrophage and leukocyte movement and activity in the inflamed area by reversing vascular dilation and permeability. Later inflammatory processes such as capillary production, collagen deposition, and keloid (scar) formation also are inhibited by corticosteroids. Clinically, these actions correspond to decreased edema, erythema, pruritus, plaque formation, and scaling of the affected skin.
     
    In the treatment of allergies, intranasal triamcinolone inhibits the activity of several cell types (e.g., mast cells and eosinophils) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and cytokines) involved in the allergic response. Clinically, symptoms such as rhinorrhea and postnasal drip, nasal congestion, sneezing, and pharyngeal itching are reduced.
     
    Although the exact mechanisms for the anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic actions of triamcinolone in the treatment of macular edema are unclear, a proposed mechanism of action is that intravitreal triamcinolone increases the levels of right-junction proteins, thereby diminishing vessel leakage and angiostatic actions through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition and down regulation.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Triamcinolone is administered topically, nasally, or by intramuscular, intra-articular, or intravitreal injection. It has also been administered by orally and by respiratory inhalation, although these dosage forms are no longer marketed. The onset and duration of action of triamcinolone injection suspensions depend on the route of administration and the extent of the local blood supply. The circulating drug binds weakly to plasma proteins, and only the unbound portion of the drug is active. Corticosteroids are metabolized primarily in the liver and are then excreted by the kidneys; some corticosteroids and their metabolites are also excreted into the bile. Systemic triamcinolone is quickly distributed into the kidneys, intestines, skin, liver, and muscle. Corticosteroids distribute into breast milk and cross the placenta. Any systemically absorbed triamcinolone is metabolized by the liver; 3 metabolites have been identified that have little to no activity compared to the parent compound. Approximately 40% of the administered dose is excreted in the urine, and 60% in the feces, primarily as the metabolites. The plasma half-life of triamcinolone is approximately 88 minutes following an intravenous dose. However, the plasma half-life of the corticosteroids does not correlate well with the biologic half-life of the drugs. Some triamcinolone formulas, like the injection suspension, have prolonged durations of action which may be sustained over a period of several weeks (e.g., 30 to 40 days). The extended-release suspension injection has an even longer duration of action when given into a joint.
     
    Affected Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: Not documented.

    Oral Route

    Oral mucosal application
    The extent of absorption through the oral mucosa is determined by multiple factors including the vehicle, the integrity of the mucosal barrier, the duration of therapy, and the presence of inflammation and/or other disease processes. Once absorbed through the mucous membranes, the disposition of corticosteroids is similar to that of systemically administered corticosteroids.

    Intramuscular Route

    Studies indicate that following a single IM dose of 60 mg to 100 mg of triamcinolone acetonide injection suspension, adrenal suppression occurs within 24 to 48 hours and then gradually returns to normal, usually in 30 to 40 days. The metabolism and excretion of any systemically absorbed drug occurs similar to that of intravenously administered drug.

    Topical Route

    Bioavailability following topical application of triamcinolone is dependent on the condition of the skin at the application site. The extent of absorption through the skin is determined by multiple factors including the vehicle, the integrity of the skin barrier, the duration of therapy, and the presence of inflammation and/or other disease processes. Absorption of topical preparations is increased in areas of skin damage, inflammation, or occlusion, or where the stratum corneum is thin such as the eyelids, genitalia, and face. Topical preparations are generally metabolized in the skin, but a small amount may be absorbed systemically.

    Inhalation Route

    Nasal Inhalation
    When administered intranasally as a 440 mcg/day dose, the peak plasma concentration was less than 1 ng/mL and occurred on average at 3.4 hours (range 0.5 to 8 hours) post-dosing. The apparent half-life was 4 hours (range 1 to 7 hours); however, this value probably reflects lingering absorption. Intranasal doses below 440 mcg/day did not allow for the calculation of meaningful pharmacokinetic parameters.

    Other Route(s)

    Intravitreal Route
    Following a single intravitreal administration (4 mg) of triamcinolone acetonide, aqueous humor samples were obtained from 1 eye in each of 5 patients via an anterior chamber paracentesis; samples were collected on days 1, 3, 10, 17, and 31 post injection. Peak aqueous humor concentrations ranged from 2,151 to 7,202 ng/mL, the half-life range was 76 to 635 hours, and the AUC from 231 to 1,911 ng x hour/mL. The mean elimination half-life was 18.7 +/- 5.7 days in 4 nonvitrectomized eyes (4 patients) and 3.2 days in a patient who had undergone vitrectomy (1 eye), suggesting the half-life is much faster in a vitrectomized eye vs. a nonvitrectomized eye.
     
    Intra-articular Route
    Intra-articularly injected corticosteroids may be systemically absorbed. Among 33 patients, the mean (SD) half-life of triamcinolone acetonide extended-release suspension was 633.9 (893) hours, compared to 146.9 (213.29) hours among 14 patients who received immediate-release triamcinolone acetonide.