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  • CLASSES

    Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) Combinations

    BOXED WARNING

    Hepatitis B and HIV coinfection, hepatitis B exacerbation

    Emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is not indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatitis B and HIV coinfection, although both drugs can be used together off-label for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.[34362] It should be noted that only the individual tablet formulations have been studied in HBV; the combination tablet has not been studied. Perform HBV screening in all patients prior to initiating therapy with emtricitabine; tenofovir DF to assure appropriate treatment. Patients who are coinfected with HIV and HBV should be started on a fully suppressive antiretroviral (ARV) regimen with activity against both viruses (regardless of CD4 counts and HBV DNA concentrations). HIV treatment guidelines recommend these patients receive an ARV regimen that contains a dual NRTI backbone of tenofovir alafenamide with emtricitabine or tenofovir DF with either emtricitabine or lamivudine. If tenofovir cannot be used, entecavir should be used in combination with a fully suppressive ARV regimen (note: entecavir should not be considered part of the ARV regimen). Avoid using single-drug therapy to treat HBV (i.e., lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, or entecavir as the only active agent) as this may result in HIV resistant strains. Further, HBV treatment regimens that include adefovir or telbivudine should also be avoided, as these regimens are associated with a higher incidence of toxicities and increased rates of HBV treatment failure. Most coinfected patients should continue treatment indefinitely with the goal of maximal HIV suppression and prevention of HBV relapse. HIV-uninfected individuals receiving emtricitabine; tenofovir DF for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV must also undergo HBV screening prior to initiation of the drug and every 6 to 12 months while on therapy.[57194] When considering discontinuation of emtricitabine; tenofovir DF, it is important to note that some patients with HBV infection have experienced severe acute hepatitis B exacerbation, including reports of liver decompensation and liver failure, after stopping treatment. All patients who discontinue emtricitabine; tenofovir DF should have transaminase concentrations monitored every 6 weeks for the first 3 months, and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. If appropriate, resumption of anti-hepatitis B treatment may be required. For patients who refuse a fully suppressive ARV regimen, but still require treatment for HBV, consider 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa; do not administer HIV-active medications in the absence of a fully suppressive ARV regimen. Instruct patients to avoid consuming alcohol, and offer vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B as appropriate.[29746] [34362] [46638]

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Combination product of a nucleotide and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    Used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection, and in combination with safe sex practices for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV in uninfected adults and adolescents weighing more than 35 kg
    Black Box warning for severe, acute exacerbations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HBV-infected patients who have discontinued emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Truvada

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Truvada Oral Tab: 100-150mg, 133-200mg, 167-250mg, 200-300mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.
    NOTE: Children must be able to swallow whole tablets in order to use emtricitabine; tenofovir DF fixed-dose combination tablets.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg) PO once daily.

    Children and Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg) PO once daily.

    Children and Adolescents weighing 28 to 34 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 167 mg; tenofovir DF 250 mg) PO once daily.

    Children weighing 22 to 27 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 133 mg; tenofovir DF 200 mg) PO once daily.

    Children weighing 17 to 21 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 100 mg; tenofovir DF 150 mg) PO once daily.

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prophylaxis.
    For HIV prophylaxis† after occupational exposure to HIV.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg PO once daily, in combination with a third antiretroviral agent, is a preferred regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). According to PEP guidelines, individuals potentially exposed to HIV should receive a 3-drug regimen for a total of 28 days; however, if tolerability is a concern, use of a 2-drug regimen may be considered and is preferred to prophylaxis discontinuation. The recommended third antiretroviral agent to be administered in combination with emtricitabine; tenofovir DF varies among published guidelines and includes one of the following: raltegravir, dolutegravir, lopinavir; ritonavir, or atazanavir boosted with ritonavir. Additionally, emtricitabine; tenofovir may be used as part of alternative regimens in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible, ideally within 2 hours of exposure. If initiation of prophylaxis is delayed (beyond 36 hours or 72 hours after exposure), efficacy of the antiretroviral regimen may be diminished and treatment should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Exposures for which PEP is indicated include: skin puncture by a sharp object that has been contaminated with blood, body fluid, or other infectious material; bite from a patient with visible bleeding in the mouth which causes bleeding by the exposed worker; splash of blood, body fluid, or other infectious material onto the workers mouth, nose, or eyes; exposure of blood, body fluid, or other infectious material on a workers non-intact skin (i.e., open wound, chapped skin, abrasion, dermatitis).

    For HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in uninfected, high-risk patients to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg PO once daily. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV when used as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program that includes safe sex practices, risk reduction counseling, counseling on medication adherence, and regular HIV testing. Prior to initiation of therapy and at least every 3 months during therapy, all recipients of pre-exposure prophylaxis must be confirmed HIV-negative and have no signs/symptoms of acute HIV infection. If symptoms of acute viral infection are present at the time of HIV testing and recent (less than 1 month) exposure is suspected, either delay initiation of therapy for at least 1 month and reconfirm HIV status or use an FDA-approved test to aid in HIV diagnosis. If a screening test indicates possible HIV infection or if a recipient develops symptoms consistent with acute HIV infection after a potential exposure, convert the pre-exposure prophylaxis regimen to an HIV treatment regimen until negative infection status is confirmed by an FDA-approved test to aid in HIV diagnosis. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is contraindicated in individuals with unknown or positive HIV status, as use in these populations may result in the development of drug-resistance. Individuals considered high risk for acquiring HIV include those engaging in sexual activity with a HIV-1 infected partner or those engaging in sexual activity within a high prevalence area and 1 or more of the following: inconsistent or no condom use; diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections; exchange of sex for commodities; use of illicit drugs or alcohol dependence; incarceration; partner of unknown HIV status with any of the preceding risk factors. Guidelines from the US Public Health Services (USPHS) recommend considering pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-uninfected adults who have engaged in sexual activity within the past 6 months, are not in a monogamous sexual relationship with a recently tested HIV-negative partner, and meet at least 1 of the following criteria: ongoing sexual relationship with HIV-positive partner; infrequent use of condoms with at-risk partners of unknown HIV status; sexually active bisexual male; male/male anal sex without condoms within the past 6 months; sexually transmitted infection within the past 6 months.

    Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    Emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg PO once daily. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV when used as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program that includes safe sex practices, risk reduction counseling, counseling on medication adherence, and regular HIV testing. Prior to initiation of therapy and at least every 3 months during therapy, all recipients of pre-exposure prophylaxis must be confirmed HIV-negative and have no signs/symptoms of acute HIV infection. If symptoms of acute viral infection are present at the time of HIV testing and recent (less than 1 month) exposure is suspected, either delay initiation of therapy for at least 1 month and reconfirm HIV status or use an FDA-approved test to aid in HIV diagnosis. If a screening test indicates possible HIV infection or if a recipient develops symptoms consistent with acute HIV infection after a potential exposure, convert the pre-exposure prophylaxis regimen to an HIV treatment regimen until negative infection status is confirmed by an FDA-approved test to aid in HIV diagnosis. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is contraindicated in individuals with unknown or positive HIV status, as use in these populations may result in the development of drug-resistance. Individuals considered high risk for acquiring HIV include those engaging in sexual activity with a HIV-1 infected partner or those engaging in sexual activity within a high prevalence area and 1 or more of the following: inconsistent or no condom use; diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections; exchange of sex for commodities; use of illicit drugs or alcohol dependence; incarceration; partner of unknown HIV status with any of the preceding risk factors.

    For HIV prophylaxis† after nonoccupational exposure to HIV, including sexual assault.
    NOTE: Higher risk exposures for which prophylaxis is recommended include exposure of vagina, rectum, eye, mouth, or other mucous membrane, nonintact skin, or percutaneous contact with blood, semen, vaginal secretions, rectal secretions, breast milk, or any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood when the source is known to be HIV-positive. Exposures to a source patient with unknown HIV status should be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
    Oral dosage

    NOTE: Children must be able to swallow whole tablets to use emtricitabine; tenofovir DF fixed-dose combination tablets.

    Adults

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir or dolutegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in adults. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with darunavir/ritonavir is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir or dolutegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in adolescents. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with darunavir/ritonavir is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    Adolescents weighing 28 to 34 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 167 mg; tenofovir DF 250 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir or dolutegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in adolescents. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with darunavir/ritonavir is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    Children weighing 35 kg or more

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in children 2 years and older. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    Children weighing 28 to 34 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 167 mg; tenofovir DF 250 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in children 2 years and older. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    Children weighing 22 to 27 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 133 mg; tenofovir DF 200 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in children 2 years and older. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir (children 3 years and older) is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    Children weighing 17 to 21 kg

    1 tablet (emtricitabine 100 mg; tenofovir DF 150 mg) PO once daily plus raltegravir for 28 days is a preferred HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen in children 2 years and older. Emtricitabine; tenofovir DF in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir (children 3 years and older) is an alternative regimen. A 3-drug regimen is recommended for all cases when PEP is indicated; however, the use of a 2-drug regimen (2 NRTIs or a combination of a PI and a NNRTI) may be considered if tolerability or adherence is a concern. Begin prophylaxis as soon as possible after exposure; prophylaxis initiated more than 72 hours after exposure is unlikely to be effective.

    For HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in uninfected individuals at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through injection drug use†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Guidelines from the US Public Health Services (USPHS) suggest use of emtricitabine 200 mg; tenofovir DF 300 mg PO once daily for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV-uninfected adults who have used injectable drugs within the past 6 months, and who meet at least 1 of the following criteria: any sharing of injection or drug preparation equipment within the past 6 months; participation in a methadone, buprenorphine, or suboxone treatment program within the past 6 months; risk of sexual acquisition. Prior to initiation of therapy and at least every 3 months during therapy, all recipients of pre-exposure prophylaxis must be confirmed HIV-negative and have no signs/symptoms of acute HIV infection. If symptoms of acute viral infection are present at the time of HIV testing and recent (less than 1 month) exposure is suspected, either delay initiation of therapy for at least 1 month and reconfirm HIV status or use an FDA-approved test to aid in HIV diagnosis. Recipients who develop symptoms consistent with acute HIV infection after a potential exposure should discontinue therapy until negative HIV status is reconfirmed; pre-exposure prophylaxis is contraindicated in individuals with unknown or positive HIV status, as use in these populations may result in the development of drug-resistance.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    200 mg/day emtricitabine and 300 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.

    Geriatric

    200 mg/day emtricitabine and 300 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.

    Adolescents

    weight 35 kg or more: 200 mg/day emtricitabine and 300 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.
    weight 28 to 34 kg: 167 mg/day emtricitabine and 250 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.

    Children

    weight 35 kg or more: 200 mg/day emtricitabine and 300 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.
    weight 28 to 34 kg: 167 mg/day emtricitabine and 250 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.
    weight 22 to 27 kg: 133 mg/day emtricitabine and 200 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.
    weight 17 to 21 kg: 100 mg/day emtricitabine and 150 mg/day tenofovir DF PO.
    weight less than 17 kg: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    The safety and efficacy of emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate have not been established in patients with decompensated hepatic disease.

    Renal Impairment

    NOTE: Use of emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) for pre-exposure prophylaxis is not recommended in patients with CrCl < 60 mL/min. For the treatment of HIV in adults with renal impairment, the following dosage adjustment are recommended (no data are available to make dose recommendations for pediatric patients with renal impairment):
    CrCl >= 50 mL/min: No dosage adjustment needed.
    CrCl 30—49 mL/min: 1 tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir DF 300 mg) PO every 48 hours.
    CrCl < 30 mL/min: Not recommended.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    It is recommended that patients requiring hemodialysis not receive emtricitabine; tenofovir DF.

    ADMINISTRATION

    For storage information, see specific product information within the How Supplied section.

    Oral Administration

    May be administered with or without food.
    Tablets must be swallowed whole.

    STORAGE

    Truvada:
    - Store and dispense in original container
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Unplanned antiretroviral therapy interruption may be necessary in specific situations, such as serious drug toxicity, intercurrent illness or surgery precluding oral intake (e.g., gastroenteritis or pancreatitis), severe hyperemesis gravidarum unresponsive to antiemetics, or drug non-availability. If short-term treatment interruption (i.e., < 1—2 days) is necessary, in general it is recommended that all antiretroviral agents be discontinued simultaneously, especially if the interruption is because of serious toxicity. However, if a short-term treatment interruption is anticipated in the case of elective surgery, the pharmacokinetic properties and food requirements of specific drugs should be considered. When the antiretroviral regimen contains drugs with differing half-lives, stopping all drugs simultaneously may result in functional monotherapy of the drug with the longest half-life. For example, after discontinuation, the duration of detectable drug concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine range from < 1 week to > 3 weeks. Simultaneously stopping all drugs in a regimen containing these agents may result in functional monotherapy with the NNRTI and may increase the risk of NNRTI-resistant mutations. Planned long-term treatment interruptions are not recommended due to the potential for HIV disease progression (i.e., declining CD4 counts, viral rebound, acute viral syndrome), development of minor HIV-associated manifestations or serious non-AIDS complications, development of drug resistance, increased risk of HIV transmission, and increased risk for opportunistic infections. If therapy must be discontinued, counsel patient on the potential risks and closely monitor for any clinical or laboratory abnormalities.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection resistance

    Testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection resistance is recommended in all antiretroviral treatment-naive patients at the time of HIV diagnosis, regardless of whether treatment will be initiated. Additionally, perform resistance testing prior to initiating or changing any HIV treatment regimen. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV strains has been both well documented and associated with suboptimal virologic response to initial antiretroviral therapy. In high-income countries (e.g., US, some European countries, Australia, Japan), approximately 10% to 17% of treatment-naive individuals have resistance mutations to at least 1 antiretroviral drug; up to 8% (but generally less than 5%) of transmitted viruses will exhibit resistance to drugs from more than 1 class. Therefore, resistance testing at baseline can help optimize treatment and, thus, virologic response. In the absence of therapy, resistant viruses may decline over time to less than the detection limit of standard resistance tests, but may still increase the risk of treatment failure when therapy is eventually initiated. Thus, if therapy is deferred, resistance testing should still be performed during acute HIV infection with the genotypic resistance test result kept in the patient's medical record until it becomes clinically useful. Additionally, because of the possibility of acquisition of another drug-resistant virus before treatment initiation, repeat resistance testing at the time therapy is initiated would be prudent. Emtricitabine will not likely be effective in individuals who display antimicrobial resistance to lamivudine, due to the similarities between the two drugs. Clinicians should not expect patients with the M184 mutation associated with lamivudine to benefit from an emtricitabine containing regimen. The M184 mutation confers high-level resistance, and emtricitabine, like lamivudine, selects for the M184 mutation. It is important that persons with detectable viral load who plan to switch therapy from lamivudine to emtricitabine have genotypic testing performed to determine whether the M184V mutation is present. A patient's treatment history is also extremely important; if lamivudine has failed in the past, the 184 is archived, thus rendering emtricitabine ineffective in this patient population. In addition, as with all other antiretroviral agents, antimicrobial resistance could develop if emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is used either alone or in combination with other agents; monotherapy with emtricitabine; tenofovir DF is not recommended for treatment of HIV. Clinical studies have demonstrated that regimens that only contain three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are generally less effective than triple drug regimens containing two NRTIs in combination with either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a protease inhibitor. Early virological failure and high rates of resistance have been reported. Triple nucleoside regimens should therefore be used with caution. Patients on a therapy utilizing a triple nucleoside-only regimen should be carefully monitored and considered for treatment modification.

    Hepatitis B and HIV coinfection, hepatitis B exacerbation

    Emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is not indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatitis B and HIV coinfection, although both drugs can be used together off-label for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.[34362] It should be noted that only the individual tablet formulations have been studied in HBV; the combination tablet has not been studied. Perform HBV screening in all patients prior to initiating therapy with emtricitabine; tenofovir DF to assure appropriate treatment. Patients who are coinfected with HIV and HBV should be started on a fully suppressive antiretroviral (ARV) regimen with activity against both viruses (regardless of CD4 counts and HBV DNA concentrations). HIV treatment guidelines recommend these patients receive an ARV regimen that contains a dual NRTI backbone of tenofovir alafenamide with emtricitabine or tenofovir DF with either emtricitabine or lamivudine. If tenofovir cannot be used, entecavir should be used in combination with a fully suppressive ARV regimen (note: entecavir should not be considered part of the ARV regimen). Avoid using single-drug therapy to treat HBV (i.e., lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, or entecavir as the only active agent) as this may result in HIV resistant strains. Further, HBV treatment regimens that include adefovir or telbivudine should also be avoided, as these regimens are associated with a higher incidence of toxicities and increased rates of HBV treatment failure. Most coinfected patients should continue treatment indefinitely with the goal of maximal HIV suppression and prevention of HBV relapse. HIV-uninfected individuals receiving emtricitabine; tenofovir DF for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV must also undergo HBV screening prior to initiation of the drug and every 6 to 12 months while on therapy.[57194] When considering discontinuation of emtricitabine; tenofovir DF, it is important to note that some patients with HBV infection have experienced severe acute hepatitis B exacerbation, including reports of liver decompensation and liver failure, after stopping treatment. All patients who discontinue emtricitabine; tenofovir DF should have transaminase concentrations monitored every 6 weeks for the first 3 months, and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. If appropriate, resumption of anti-hepatitis B treatment may be required. For patients who refuse a fully suppressive ARV regimen, but still require treatment for HBV, consider 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa; do not administer HIV-active medications in the absence of a fully suppressive ARV regimen. Instruct patients to avoid consuming alcohol, and offer vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B as appropriate.[29746] [34362] [46638]

    Alcoholism, females, hepatic disease, hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis, obesity

    Lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported following use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF), both alone and in combination with other antiretroviral medications. Treatment with emtricitabine; tenofovir DF should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis, which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked elevated hepatic enzymes. Although these adverse events may occur in any drug recipient, some risk factors include hepatic disease (e.g., alcoholism), obesity, and prolonged nucleoside exposure. In addition, a majority of these cases have been in females; it is unknown if being pregnant augments the incidence of this syndrome in patients receiving nucleoside analogs. However, because being pregnant itself can mimic some of the early symptoms of the lactic acid and hepatic steatosis syndrome or be associated with other significant disorders of liver metabolism, clinicians need to be alert for early diagnosis of this syndrome. Pregnant women receiving nucleoside analogs should have LFTs and serum electrolytes assessed more frequently during the last trimester and any new symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly.
     

    Bone fractures, hypophosphatemia, renal failure, renal impairment

    Both emtricitabine and tenofovir are eliminated by the kidney. Use of emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) for treatment of HIV should be avoided in patients with creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min or requiring hemodialysis, and dosage adjustments are required for adults with creatinine clearance 30—49 ml/min. For pre-exposure prophylaxis, use of the drug should be avoided in persons with creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min. Renal impairment, including acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome (renal tubular injury with severe hypophosphatemia), has been associated with the administration of tenofovir DF. The majority of such cases occurred in patients with underlying systemic or renal disease, or in patients taking nephrotoxic agents; some cases, however, occurred in patients with no identified risk factors. The manufacturer recommends that an estimated creatinine clearance be assessed in all patients prior to treatment, and as indicated during treatment. An estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorous, urine glucose, and urine protein should be assessed prior to and periodically during treatment in patients at risk for or with a history of renal dysfunction, including patients who previously experienced renal events while receiving adefovir. In addition, closely evaluate the renal function of patients who experience persistent or worsening bone pain, pain in extremities, bone fractures, and/or muscle pain/weakness while receiving the drug as these may be manifestations of proximal renal tubulopathy. For individuals receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) recommends a serum creatinine be obtained and a creatinine clearance be calculated, using the Cockcroft-Gault formula, at baseline, 3 months, and at least every 6 months thereafter. Avoided use of the drug concurrently with or after recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, including high-dose or multiple non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), as cases of acute renal failure requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy have been reported.

    Osteomalacia, osteoporosis

    Bone mineral density (BMD) monitoring should be considered for patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or are at substantial risk for osteopenia, osteoporosis or osteomalacia; osteomalacia has been reported in association with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) administration (post-marketing reports). In a post-marketing study comparing tenofovir DF with stavudine (each given in combination with lamivudine and efavirenz), decreases from baseline BMD were seen at the lumbar spine and hip in both arms of the study. The clinical significance of the changes in BMD is unknown. Normally, BMD increases rapidly in pediatric patients; however, in studies of tenofovir DF-treated pediatric patients, bone effects were similar to those noted in adult patients. In a study involving adolescents aged 12—17 years, the mean rate of BMD gain was less in the tenofovir DF-treated patients compared to the placebo group. Six tenofovir DF treated adolescents and 1 placebo treated adolescent had significant (> 4%) lumbar spine BMD loss in 48 weeks. The skeletal growth height appeared to be unaffected. Although the effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D was not studied, such supplementation may be considered for HIV-associated osteopenia or osteoporosis. If bone abnormalities are suspected, appropriate consultation should be obtained.

    Autoimmune disease, Graves' disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, immune reconstitution syndrome

    Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy such as emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. During the initial phase of HIV treatment, patients whose immune system responds to antiretroviral therapy may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis (TB)), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment. In addition, autoimmune disease (including Graves' disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and polymyositis) may also develop; the time to onset is variable and may occur months after treatment initiation.

    Children

    Emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is not recommended for the treatment of HIV infection in children weighing less than 17 kg or for pre-exposure prophylaxis in adolescents weighing less than 35 kg. Because it is a fixed dose combination tablet, dosage of the individual components cannot be adjusted based on age or weight, if needed. Further, adverse effects of emtricitabine; tenofovir DF on bone mineral density and bone development may be of particular concern in pediatric patients.

    Pregnancy

    Antiretroviral therapy should be provided to all women during pregnancy, regardless of HIV RNA concentrations or CD4 cell count. Using highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) to maximally suppress viral replication is the most effective strategy to prevent the development of resistance and to minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. In treatment-naive women, begin HAART as soon as pregnancy is recognized or HIV is diagnosed, without waiting for the results of resistance testing; subsequent modifications to the treatment regimen should be made once the test results are available. Women who are currently receiving antiretroviral treatment when pregnancy is recognized should continue their treatment regimen if it is currently effective in suppressing viral replication; consider resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations are more than 500 copies/mL. For women not currently receiving HAART, but who have previously received treatment, obtain a complete and accurate history of all prior antiretroviral regimens used and results of prior resistance testing, and perform resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations more than 500 copies/mL; treatment should be initiated prior to receiving resistance test results. Available data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, which includes 1st-trimester exposures to tenofovir DF (more than 3,500 exposures) and emtricitabine (more than 2,750 exposures), have shown no difference in the risk of overall major birth defects when compared to the 2.7% background rate among pregnant women in the US. When exposure occurred in the 1st trimester, the prevalence of defects was 2.3% (82 out of 3,535 births; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9) for tenofovir DF and 2.4% (68 out of 2,785 births; 95% CI: 1.9, 3.1) for emtricitabine. In addition, an evaluate of pregnancies occurring during an HIV pre-exposure trial found no difference in risk of congenital anomalies between the emtricitabine; tenofovir DF and placebo arms. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. An association of mitochondrial dysfunction in infants and in utero antiretroviral exposure has been suggested, but not established. While the development of severe or fatal mitochondrial disease in exposed infants appears to be extremely rare, more intensive monitoring of hematologic and electrolyte parameters during the first few weeks of life is advised. Nucleoside analogs have been associated with the development of lactic acidosis, especially during pregnancy. It is unclear if pregnancy augments the incidence of lactic acidosis/hepatic steatosis in patients receiving nucleoside analogs. However, because pregnancy itself can mimic some of the early symptoms of the lactic acid/hepatic steatosis syndrome or be associated with other significant disorders of liver metabolism, clinicians need to be alert for early diagnosis of this syndrome. Pregnant women receiving nucleoside analogs should have LFTs and serum electrolytes assessed more frequently during the last trimester of pregnancy, and any new symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly. Regular laboratory monitoring is recommended to determine antiretroviral efficacy. Monitor CD4 counts at the initial visit and at least every 3 months during pregnancy; consideration may be given to monitoring every 6 months in patients on HAART with consistently suppressed viral loads and a CD4 count well above the opportunistic infection threshold. Monitor plasma HIV RNA at the initial visit, 2 to 4 weeks after initiating or changing therapy, monthly until undetectable, then at least every 3 months during pregnancy, and at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Perform antiretroviral resistance assay (genotypic testing) at baseline in all women with HIV RNA concentrations greater than 500 copies/mL, unless they have already been tested for resistance. First-trimester ultrasound is recommended to confirm gestational age and provide an accurate estimation of gestational age at delivery. A second-trimester ultrasound can be used for both anatomical survey and determination of gestational age in those patients not seen until later in gestation. Perform standard glucose screening in women receiving antiretroviral therapy at 24 to 28 weeks gestation, although it should be noted that some experts would perform earlier screening with ongoing chronic protease inhibitor-based therapy initiated prior to pregnancy, similar to recommendations for women with high-risk factors for glucose intolerance. All pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of adherence to their antiretroviral regimen to reduce the potential for development of resistance and perinatal transmission. It is strongly recommended that antiretroviral therapy, once initiated, not be discontinued. If a woman decides to discontinue therapy, a consultation with an HIV specialist is recommended. HIV-uninfected women of childbearing potential who are receiving emtricitabine; tenofovir DF for pre-exposure prophylaxis should undergo pregnancy testing every 3 months. If a positive pregnancy test is obtained, discuss potential risks and benefits of initiating and continuing use of the drug during pregnancy.[57194] It is strongly recommended that health care providers report cases of antenatal antiretroviral drug exposure to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry; telephone 800-258-4263; fax 800-800-1052; the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry is also accessible via the Internet.[27468] [23512]

    Breast-feeding

    To reduce the risk of postnatal transmission, HIV-infected mothers within the United States are advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to avoid breast-feeding. This recommendation applies to both untreated women and women who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, including emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF). Limited data suggest small amounts of emtricitabine and tenofovir DF are excreted into breast milk. One study estimated the exposure to emtricitabine in exclusively breast-fed infants at approximately 2% of the recommended infant dose. In this same study, tenofovir DF exposure in exclusively breast-fed infants was found to be equivalent to approximately 4.2 micrograms per day. Other antiretroviral medications whose passage into human breast milk have been evaluated include nevirapine, zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir.

    HIV serum status

    Due to the potential for the development of drug resistance, use of emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis is contraindicated in individuals with positive or unknown HIV serum status. Confirm a negative HIV test, immediately prior to initiating prophylaxis and at least every 3 months during therapy (prior to authorizing prescription refills). If symptoms consistent with acute HIV infection develop following a potential exposure, discontinue prophylactic therapy and reconfirm HIV status.

    Hepatitis C and HIV coinfection

    HIV treatment guidelines recommend all patients presenting with HIV infection undergo testing for hepatitis C, with continued annual screening advised for those persons considered high risk for acquiring hepatitis C. If hepatitis C and HIV coinfection is identified, consider treating both viral infections concurrently. For most patients, the benefits of concurrent therapy outweighs the potential risks (i.e., drug-induced hepatic injury, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities); therefore, it is recommended to initiate a fully suppressive antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and a hepatitis C regimen in all coinfected patients regardless of CD4 count. However, for antiretroviral naive patients with CD4 counts greater than 500 cells/mm3, consideration may be given to deferring ARV until the hepatitis C treatment regimen has been completed. Conversely, for patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3, consider delaying initiation of the hepatitis C treatment regimen until the patient is stable on fully suppressive ARV regimen. Instruct coinfected patients to avoid consuming alcohol, and offer vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B as appropriate.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    bone fractures / Delayed / 1.3-1.3
    lactic acidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetes insipidus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal tubular necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    interstitial nephritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Fanconi syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    proteinuria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic decompensation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis B exacerbation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / 22.0-22.0
    depression / Delayed / 9.0-9.0
    hyperamylasemia / Delayed / 8.0-8.0
    hypertriglyceridemia / Delayed / 4.0-4.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 1.0-3.0
    hyperbilirubinemia / Delayed / 0-3.0
    hematuria / Delayed / 3.0-3.0
    hypoglycemia / Early / 0-3.0
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / 2.0-3.0
    neutropenia / Delayed / 3.0-3.0
    glycosuria / Early / 0-1.0
    hepatomegaly / Delayed / Incidence not known
    steatosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypokalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bone pain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myasthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypophosphatemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteomalacia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteoporosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neuritis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    nausea / Early / 9.0-9.0
    diarrhea / Early / 9.0-9.0
    fatigue / Early / 9.0-9.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 8.0-8.0
    infection / Delayed / 5.0-8.0
    dizziness / Early / 8.0-8.0
    rash / Early / 7.0-7.0
    headache / Early / 6.0-6.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 5.0-5.0
    insomnia / Early / 5.0-5.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 4.0-4.0
    weight loss / Delayed / 3.0-3.0
    vomiting / Early / 2.0-2.0
    abnormal dreams / Early / 10.0
    pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    maculopapular rash / Early / Incidence not known
    skin discoloration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    skin hyperpigmentation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vesicular rash / Delayed / Incidence not known
    polyuria / Early / Incidence not known
    flatulence / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspepsia / Early / Incidence not known
    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    rhinitis / Early / Incidence not known
    cough / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    weakness / Early / Incidence not known
    back pain / Delayed / Incidence not known
    arthralgia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abacavir; Dolutegravir; Lamivudine: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Abacavir; Lamivudine, 3TC: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Abacavir; Lamivudine, 3TC; Zidovudine, ZDV: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Acalabrutinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of acalabrutinib and tenofovir disoproxil fumerate may increase may increase the absorption and plasma concentration of tenofovir disoproxil fumerate. Monitor patients for tenofovir-related adverse reactions and discontinue use in patients who experience an adverse reaction. Acalabrutinib is an inhibitor of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporter in vitro; it may inhibit intestinal BCRP. Tenofovir disoproxil fumerate is a BCRP substrate.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Acyclovir: (Moderate) Emtricitabine is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of emtricitabine and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of emtricitabine. Emtricitabine containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as acyclovir. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus. (Moderate) Since tenofovir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys, concurrent administration of tenofovir with acyclovir may increase the serum concentrations of tenofovir via competition for renal tubular secretion.
    Adefovir: (Major) Avoid coadministration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with adefovir. Both tenofovir and adefovir are primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Concurrent administration may increase concentrations of both drugs resulting in additive nephrotoxicity. Additionally, in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, tenofovir should not be administered in combination with adefovir to avoid multi-drug resistance. If coadministration is necessary, patients should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein. (Major) Patients who are concurrently taking adefovir with emtricitabine are at risk of developing lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs alone or in combination with antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women; obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may also be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient with known risk factors for hepatic disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Suspend adefovir in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Amikacin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aminoglycosides: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as amiodarone. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as clarithromycin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as clarithromycin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Minor) Additive nephrotoxicity can also occur if amphotericin B is given concomitantly with tenofovir. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Minor) Additive nephrotoxicity can also occur if amphotericin B is given concomitantly with tenofovir. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Minor) Additive nephrotoxicity can also occur if amphotericin B is given concomitantly with tenofovir. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Amphotericin B: (Minor) Additive nephrotoxicity can also occur if amphotericin B is given concomitantly with tenofovir. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Tenofovir decreases atazanavir AUC and Cmin. If atazanavir and tenofovir, PMPA are to be coadministered, it is recommended that atazanavir 300 mg be given with ritonavir 100 mg and tenofovir 300 mg once per day with food in patients >= 40 kg; atazanavir should not be coadministered with tenofovir without ritonavir. Data are insufficient to recommend atazanavir dosing in children < 40 kg who are also receiving concomitant tenofovir. In three post-marketing clinical trials, atazanavir AUC and Cmin were decreased by approximately 25% and 23 to 40%, respectively, when atazanavir was coadministered with tenofovir, PMPA as compared to atazanavir alone. Coadministration of atazanavir and tenofovir without ritonavir could lead to loss or lack of virologic response and possible resistance to atazanavir. In addition, atazanavir appears to increase tenofovir plasma concentrations, which could lead to adverse effects associated with tenofovir, including renal disorders. Increased tenofovir concentrations have been noted in the following combination regimens: tenofovir with ritonavir 'boosted' atazanavir; tenofovir, atazanavir, and lopinavir; ritonavir. Patients who receive tenofovir with atazanavir and any form/dose of ritonavir should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse events, with tenofovir being discontinued in patients who develop such adverse events. Although there are varying results in reports of an interaction between tenofovir and lopinavir; ritonavir, the clinical significance of an interaction is suspected to be insignificant. In treatment-experienced patients >= 40 kg receiving H2-antagonists and tenofovir, atazanavir should be dosed 400 mg with ritonavir 100 mg once daily with food.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Tenofovir decreases atazanavir AUC and Cmin. If atazanavir and tenofovir, PMPA are to be coadministered, it is recommended that atazanavir 300 mg be given with ritonavir 100 mg and tenofovir 300 mg once per day with food in patients >= 40 kg; atazanavir should not be coadministered with tenofovir without ritonavir. Data are insufficient to recommend atazanavir dosing in children < 40 kg who are also receiving concomitant tenofovir. In three post-marketing clinical trials, atazanavir AUC and Cmin were decreased by approximately 25% and 23 to 40%, respectively, when atazanavir was coadministered with tenofovir, PMPA as compared to atazanavir alone. Coadministration of atazanavir and tenofovir without ritonavir could lead to loss or lack of virologic response and possible resistance to atazanavir. In addition, atazanavir appears to increase tenofovir plasma concentrations, which could lead to adverse effects associated with tenofovir, including renal disorders. Increased tenofovir concentrations have been noted in the following combination regimens: tenofovir with ritonavir 'boosted' atazanavir; tenofovir, atazanavir, and lopinavir; ritonavir. Patients who receive tenofovir with atazanavir and any form/dose of ritonavir should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse events, with tenofovir being discontinued in patients who develop such adverse events. Although there are varying results in reports of an interaction between tenofovir and lopinavir; ritonavir, the clinical significance of an interaction is suspected to be insignificant. In treatment-experienced patients >= 40 kg receiving H2-antagonists and tenofovir, atazanavir should be dosed 400 mg with ritonavir 100 mg once daily with food.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Bacitracin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as bacitracin. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Bepridil: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as bepridil. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as boceprevir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and BCRP. Brigatinib inhibits both P-gp and BCRP in vitro and may have the potential to increase concentrations of substrates of these transporters.
    Cabozantinib: (Minor) Monitor for an increase in both cabozantinib- and tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration is necessary. Cabozantinib is a Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 (MRP2) substrate and tenofovir is an MRP2 inhibitor. MRP2 inhibitors have the potential to increase plasma concentrations of cabozantinib. Cabozantinib is also P-gp inhibitor and has the potential to increase plasma concentrations of P-gp substrates such as tenofovir. The clinical relevance of either of these interactions is unknown.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Carboplatin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as carboplatin. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased concentrations of tenofovir, pmpa may occur if it is coadministered with carvedilol; exercise caution. Carvedilol is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and tenofovir is a P-gp substrate.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Cidofovir: (Moderate) Emtricitabine is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of emtricitabine and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of emtricitabine. Emtricitabine -containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as cidofovir. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus. (Moderate) Since tenofovir, PMPA is primarily eliminated by the kidneys, concurrent administration of tenofovir disoproxil with cidofovir may increase serum concentrations of tenofovir via competition for renal tubular secretion.
    Cisplatin: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. When possible, tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, like cisplatin; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as clarithromycin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Colchicine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as colchicine. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Colistimethate, Colistin, Polymyxin E: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as colistimethate sodium. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) Use caution when administering conivaptan and tenofovir concurrently. Conivaptan is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Co-administration of conivaptan with P-gp substrates, such as tenofovir, PMPA, can increase tenofovir exposure leading to increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, such as cyclosporine, should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax, Cmin) of tenofovir, PMPA are elevated when administered in combination with darunavir and ritonavir. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established, and dosage adjustments are not recommended. Monitor the patients closely for tenofovir-related adverse events.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax, Cmin) of tenofovir, PMPA are elevated when administered in combination with darunavir and ritonavir. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established, and dosage adjustments are not recommended. Monitor the patients closely for tenofovir-related adverse events.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax, Cmin) of tenofovir, PMPA are elevated when administered in combination with darunavir and ritonavir. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established, and dosage adjustments are not recommended. Monitor the patients closely for tenofovir-related adverse events.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, such as ritonavir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of tenofovir, PMPA with dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Tenofovir is a substrate for the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Dasabuvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir are BCRP inhibitors, and ritonavir inhibits P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as quinidine. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Didanosine, ddI: (Major) HIV guidelines recommend against concurrent use of tenofovir, PMPA and didanosine; however, these medications can be used together, if necessary, in patients with a creatinine clearance 60 mL/min or more if the didanosine dose is reduced; decrease the didanosine dose to 250 mg in patients weighing 60 kg or more and to 200 mg in patients weighing 25 to 59 kg. Concurrent administration of tenofovir, PMPA and didanosine, ddI increases the concentration of both didanosine and its active metabolite (dideoxyadenosine 5-triphosphate) which may cause or worsen didanosine-related clinical toxicities, including pancreatitis, symptomatic hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis, and peripheral neuropathy. In addition, this combination has been associated with CD4 cell count decline despite viral suppression, high rates of early virologic failure, and rapid selection of resistance mutations. The mechanism of the interaction is not known, but the interaction occurs with both buffered and non-buffered didanosine formulations. When coadministered, tenofovir and didanosine EC may be taken under fasted conditions or with a light meal (under 400 kcal, containing 20% or less fat); coadministration of didanosine buffered tablet formulation with tenofovir should be under fasted conditions. Coadministration of tenofovir and didanosine should be undertaken with caution and patients receiving this combination should be monitored closely for didanosine-associated adverse events. Didanosine therapy should be suspended if signs or symptoms of pancreatitis, symptomatic hyperlactatemia, or lactic acidosis develop.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Dofetilide should be co-administered with emtricitabine with caution since both drugs are actively secreted via cationic secretion and could compete for common renal tubular transport systems. This results in a possible increase in plasma concentrations of either drug. Increased concentrations of dofetilide may increase the risk for side effects including proarrhythmia. Careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of dofetilide is recommended. (Major) Dofetilide should be co-administered with tenofovir, PMPA with caution since both drugs are actively secreted via cationic secretion and could compete for common renal tubular transport systems. This results in a possible increase in plasma concentrations of either drug. Increased concentrations of dofetilide may increase the risk for side effects including proarrhythmia. Careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of dofetilide is recommended.
    Doravirine; Lamivudine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as dronedarone. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Echinacea: (Moderate) Use Echinacea sp. with caution in patients taking medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Some experts have suggested that Echinacea's effects on the immune system might cause problems for patients with HIV infection, particularly with long-term use. There may be less risk with short-term use (less than 2 weeks). A few pharmacokinetic studies have shown reductions in blood levels of some antiretroviral medications when Echinacea was given, presumably due to CYP induction. However, more study is needed for various HIV treatment regimens. Of the agents studied, the interactions do not appear to be significant or to require dose adjustments at the time of use. Although no dose adjustments are required, monitoring drug concentrations may give reassurance during co-administration. Monitor viral load and other parameters carefully during therapy.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Eliglustat: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir, PMPA and eliglustat may result in increased concentrations of tenofovir. Monitor patients closely for tenofovir-related adverse effects including nausea, diarrhea, headache, asthenia, and nephrotoxicity. Tenofovir is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; eliglustat is a P-gp inhibitor. For coadministration with P-gp substrates, eliglustat's product labeling recommends monitoring therapeutic drug concentrations of the P-gp substrate, if possible, or consideration of a dosage reduction and titrating to clinical effect.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Erythromycin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as erythromycin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as erythromycin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as etravirine. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Food: (Moderate) The pharmacokinetic parameters of anti-retroviral medications (anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors) metabolized through the CYP isoenzyme system are slightly altered by smoked and oral marijuana. Despite this interaction, marijuana is not expected to adversely affect anti-retroviral efficacy. However, the incidence of marijuana associated adverse effects may change following coadministration with anti-retroviral drugs. Many anti-retrovirals are inhibitors of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of marijuana's most psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC). When given concurrently with anti-retrovirals, the amount of Delta-9-THC converted to the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) may be reduced. These changes in Delta-9-THC and 11-OH-THC plasma concentrations may result in an altered marijuana adverse event profile. (Moderate) The pharmacokinetic parameters of anti-retroviral medications (anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors) metabolized through the CYP isoenzyme system are slightly altered by smoked and oral marijuana. Despite this interaction, marijuana is not expected to adversely affect anti-retroviral efficacy.However, the incidence of marijuana associated adverse effects may change following coadministration with anti-retroviral drugs. Many anti-retrovirals are inhibitors of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of marijuana's most psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC). When given concurrently with anti-retrovirals, the amount of Delta-9-THC converted to the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) may be reduced. These changes in Delta-9-THC and 11-OH-THC plasma concentrations may result in an altered marijuana adverse event profile.
    Fosamprenavir: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA with fosamprenavir, as concurrent use may result in reduced tenofovir plasma concentrations. Tenofovir is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Amprenavir, the active metabolite of fosamprenavir, is a P-gp inducer.
    Foscarnet: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as foscarnet. Emtricitabine is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of emtricitabine and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may increase concentrations of emtricitabine. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus if tenofovir is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as foscarnet. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir; a majority of the cases occurred in patients who had underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for tenofovir toxicities that may require tenofovir disoproxil dose reduction if given concurrently with fostamatinib. Concomitant use of fostamatinib with a BCRP or P-gp substrate may increase the concentration of the BCRP or P-gp substrate. Fostamatinib is a P-gp inhibitor, and the active metabolite of fostamatinib, R406, is a BCRP inhibitor; tenofovir disoproxil is a substrate for BCRP and P-gp. Coadministration of fostamatinib with another BCRP substrate increased the substrate AUC by 95% and Cmax by 88%. Coadministration of fostamatinib with another P-gp substrate increased the substrate AUC by 37% and Cmax by 70%.
    Ganciclovir: (Moderate) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents with ganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity. Other nephrotoxic agents include tenofovir.
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Grapefruit juice: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as grapefruit juice. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin: (Major) The concomitant use of ribavirin and anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) should be done with caution. The co-treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has the potential to result in complex drug interactions. In a study of 14 patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV, patients receiving NRTIs and alpha interferons, with or without ribavirin, appeared to be at increased risk for the development of hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh >= 6) compared to patients not receiving HAART. Additionally, NRTIs have been associated with fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly with or without steatosis and should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease. Didanosine and stavudine are most frequently involved in liver-related mitochondrial toxicity. Additionally, the long-term use of didanosine is an independent factor for developing advanced liver fibrosis in HIV-positive patients in whom other causes of liver damage were excluded. Overall, the HCV-HIV International Panel recommends the management of hepatotoxicity should be based on the knowledge of the mechanisms involved for each drug. Furthermore, they state that there are lower rates of liver-related mortality in coinfected patients taking HAART, even in those with end-stage liver disease, compared with patients not receiving HAART. Closely monitor patients for treatment-associated toxicities, especially hepatic decompensation. While ribavirin inhibits the phosphorylation reactions required to activate lamivudine, stavudine, d4T, and zidovudine, no evidence of a pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction was seen.
    Interferons: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving NRTIs and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Iohexol: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Iopamidol: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Iopromide: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Ioversol: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Isosulfan Blue: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, such as itraconazole. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as ivacaftor. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Kanamycin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as ketoconazole. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Lamivudine, 3TC: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Lamivudine, 3TC; Zidovudine, ZDV: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as lapatinib. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions if ledipasvir is administered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. In addition, because safety has not been established, avoid use of ledipasvir in combination with HIV regimens that contain tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and HIV protease inhibitors boosted with ritonavir. Consider use of tenofovir alafenamide in place of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. If coadministration is deemed necessary, closely monitor for tenofovir adverse effects. Plasma concentrations of tenofovir may increase when administered with ledipasvir. Tenofovir is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); ledipasvir is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, such as ritonavir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. (Minor) There are varying results in reports of an interaction between tenofovir and lopinavir; ritonavir. In one report, the concurrent administration of tenofovir with lopinavir; ritonavir increased tenofovir Cmax 31%, AUC 34%, and Cmin 29%, with slight (15%) decreases in lopinavir Cmax and AUC; the alterations may be a food effect rather than a drug-drug interaction. In another report, lopinavir; ritonavir (400 mg; 100 mg PO twice daily for 14 days) increased the tenofovir (300 mg/day PO) Cmin 51% and AUC 32%, with no effect seen on lopinavir; ritonavir pharmacokinetics. While the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown, and is suspected to be insignificant, patients receiving lopinavir; ritonavir with tenofovir should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse events.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Although the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown, concurrent use of tenofovir, PMPA and lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter tenofovir exposure; caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together. Tenofovir is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor has the potential to both induce and inhibit P-gp. The net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on P-gp transport is not clear, but substrate exposure may be affected leading to decreased efficacy or increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and adverse events.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as ivacaftor. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Mefloquine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as mefloquine. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir, PMPA may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Mifepristone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as mifepristone. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as nelfinavir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Neratinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration with neratinib is necessary. Tenofovir is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Neratinib may inhibit the transport of P-gp substrates, increasing absorption of tenofovir.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, such as ritonavir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of tenofovir, PMPA with dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Tenofovir is a substrate for the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Dasabuvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir are BCRP inhibitors, and ritonavir inhibits P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are administered together.
    Orlistat: (Major) According to the manufacturer of orlistat, HIV RNA levels should be frequently monitored in patients receiving orlistat while being treated for HIV infection with anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Loss of virological control has been reported in HIV-infected patients taking orlistat with atazanavir, ritonavir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, lopinavir; ritonavir, and emtricitabine; efavirenz; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The exact mechanism for this interaction is not known, but may involve inhibition of systemic absorption of the anti-retroviral agent. If an increased HIV viral load is confirmed, orlistat should be discontinued. (Major) According to the manufacturer of orlistat, HIV RNA levels should be frequently monitored in patients receiving orlistat while being treated for HIV infection with tenofovir, PMPA. Loss of virological control has been reported in HIV-infected patients taking orlistat with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine; efavirenz; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The exact mechanism for this interaction is not known, but may involve inhibition of systemic absorption of the anti-retroviral agent. If an increased HIV viral load is confirmed, orlistat should be discontinued.
    Osimertinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration with osimertinib is necessary. Concomitant use may result in increased tenofovir absorption. Tenofovir disoproxil is a BCRP and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Osimertinib is a BCRP and P-gp inhibitor.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Pamidronate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as pamidronate. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Paromomycin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Plazomicin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Polymyxin B: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as polymyxin B. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Polymyxins: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as colistimethate sodium. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as posaconazole. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Probenecid: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as probenecid; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Propafenone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as propafenone. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Quinidine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as quinidine. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as ranolazine. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Regorafenib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of regorafenib with tenofovir, PMPA is necessary, and monitor for an increase in tenofovir-related adverse reactions. Tenofovir is a BCRP substrate and regorafenib is a BCRP inhibitor. Regorafenib-mediated BCRP inhibition may increase exposure to tenofovir.
    Ribavirin: (Major) The concomitant use of ribavirin and anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) should be done with caution. The co-treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has the potential to result in complex drug interactions. In a study of 14 patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV, patients receiving NRTIs and alpha interferons, with or without ribavirin, appeared to be at increased risk for the development of hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh >= 6) compared to patients not receiving HAART. Additionally, NRTIs have been associated with fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly with or without steatosis and should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease. Didanosine and stavudine are most frequently involved in liver-related mitochondrial toxicity. Additionally, the long-term use of didanosine is an independent factor for developing advanced liver fibrosis in HIV-positive patients in whom other causes of liver damage were excluded. Overall, the HCV-HIV International Panel recommends the management of hepatotoxicity should be based on the knowledge of the mechanisms involved for each drug. Furthermore, they state that there are lower rates of liver-related mortality in coinfected patients taking HAART, even in those with end-stage liver disease, compared with patients not receiving HAART. Closely monitor patients for treatment-associated toxicities, especially hepatic decompensation. While ribavirin inhibits the phosphorylation reactions required to activate lamivudine, stavudine, d4T, and zidovudine, no evidence of a pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction was seen.
    Rifaximin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as rifaximin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, such as ritonavir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Rolapitant: (Moderate) Use caution if tenofovir, PMPA and rolapitant are used concurrently, and monitor for tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir is a substrate of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), where an increase in exposure may significantly increase adverse effects; rolapitant is a BCRP and P-gp inhibitor. The Cmax and AUC of another BCRP substrate, sulfasalazine, were increased by 140% and 130%, respectively, on day 1 with rolapitant, and by 17% and 32%, respectively, on day 8 after rolapitant administration. When rolapitant was administered with digoxin, a P-gp substrate, the day 1 Cmax and AUC were increased by 70% and 30%, respectively; the Cmax and AUC on day 8 were not studied.
    Salicylates: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Salsalate: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents, like salicylates should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Sapropterin: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of sapropterin and tenofovir, PMPA as coadministration may result in increased systemic exposure of tenofovir. Tenofovir is a substrate for the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); in vitro data show that sapropterin may inhibit these transporters. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for increased side effects of tenofovir.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as saquinavir. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Closely monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions if simeprevir is administered with tenofovir, PMPA. Tenofovir is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); simeprevir is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir: (Moderate) Monitor patients for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions, such as renal toxicity, in patients receiving regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and velpatasvir due to potential increases in tenofovir serum concentrations. When administered concurrently with velpatasvir, the peak concentration (Cmax), systemic exposure (AUC), and the trough concentration (Cmin) of tenofovir increased by 44%, 40%, and 84%, respectively. Tenofovir is a substrate of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters, while velpatasvir inhibits both BCRP and P-gp. Consider use of tenofovir alafenamide in place of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of voxilaprevir with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Taking these medications together may increase tenofovir plasma concentrations, potentially increasing the risk for adverse events. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a substrate for the drug transporter Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP). Voxilaprevir is a BCRP inhibitor. (Moderate) Monitor patients for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions, such as renal toxicity, in patients receiving regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and velpatasvir due to potential increases in tenofovir serum concentrations. When administered concurrently with velpatasvir, the peak concentration (Cmax), systemic exposure (AUC), and the trough concentration (Cmin) of tenofovir increased by 44%, 40%, and 84%, respectively. Tenofovir is a substrate of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters, while velpatasvir inhibits both BCRP and P-gp. Consider use of tenofovir alafenamide in place of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
    Sorafenib: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as sorafenib. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Streptomycin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Tacrolimus: (Major) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, including tacrolimus. (Major) Tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended when administered concurrently with emtricitabine. Use of these medications together may result in elevated tacrolimus serum concentrations. Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as tacrolimus. Emtricitabine is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of emtricitabiner, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of emtricitabine. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Tedizolid: (Moderate) If possible, stop use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate temporarily during treatment with oral tedizolid. If coadministration cannot be avoided, closely monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse events. Tenofovir plasma concentrations may be increased when tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is administered concurrently with oral tedizolid.Tenofovir disoproxil fumarateis a substrate of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP); oral tedizolid inhibits BCRP in the intestine.
    Telaprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when coadministering tenofovir, PMPA with telaprevir due to an increased potential for tenofovir-related adverse events. When used in combination, the plasma concentrations of tenofovir were increased, resulting in an increased potential for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. If tenofovir dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of telaprevir treatment.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as telithromycin. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-related adverse reactions if coadministration with temsirolimus is necessary. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and temsirolimus is a P-gp inhibitor. Concomitant use may lead to increased concentrations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
    Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Severe) Avoid coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with medications that contain any of the same active components, such as tenofovir, PMPA as this would result in duplicate therapy.
    Testosterone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as testosterone. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as ivacaftor. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as ticagrelor. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of tipranavir and ritonavir with tenofovir, results in decreased tipranavir concentrations. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established, and no recommendations for tenofovir dosage adjustments are available.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Tolvaptan: (Major) In patients receiving tolvaptan for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), avoid coadministration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate due to the potential for increased tenofovir exposure. Tolvaptan is a BCRP inhibitor; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a BCRP substrate.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as verapamil. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Trospium: (Minor) Both trospium and tenofovir are eliminated by active renal tubular secretion; coadministration has the potential to increase serum concentrations of trospium or tenofovir due to competition for the drug elimination pathway. Careful patient monitoring and dosage adjustment of trospium and/or tenofovir, PMPA is recommended.
    Valacyclovir: (Moderate) Since tenofovir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys, concurrent administration of tenofovir disoproxil with valacyclovir may increase serum concentrations of tenofovir via competition for renal tubular secretion.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Valganciclovir: (Minor) Since tenofovir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys, concurrent administration of tenofovir disoproxil with valganciclovir may increase serum concentrations of tenofovir via competition for renal tubular secretion.
    Vancomycin: (Moderate) Tenofovir should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as vancomycin. Patients receiving these drugs together should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir; a majority of cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents.
    Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as vemurafenib. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Verapamil: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as verapamil. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.
    Zoledronic Acid: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as zoledronic acid. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir disoproxil fumarate concurrently with zonisamide, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as zonisamide, may increase absorption of tenofovir, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Antiretroviral therapy should be provided to all women during pregnancy, regardless of HIV RNA concentrations or CD4 cell count. Using highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) to maximally suppress viral replication is the most effective strategy to prevent the development of resistance and to minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. In treatment-naive women, begin HAART as soon as pregnancy is recognized or HIV is diagnosed, without waiting for the results of resistance testing; subsequent modifications to the treatment regimen should be made once the test results are available. Women who are currently receiving antiretroviral treatment when pregnancy is recognized should continue their treatment regimen if it is currently effective in suppressing viral replication; consider resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations are more than 500 copies/mL. For women not currently receiving HAART, but who have previously received treatment, obtain a complete and accurate history of all prior antiretroviral regimens used and results of prior resistance testing, and perform resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations more than 500 copies/mL; treatment should be initiated prior to receiving resistance test results. Available data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, which includes 1st-trimester exposures to tenofovir DF (more than 3,500 exposures) and emtricitabine (more than 2,750 exposures), have shown no difference in the risk of overall major birth defects when compared to the 2.7% background rate among pregnant women in the US. When exposure occurred in the 1st trimester, the prevalence of defects was 2.3% (82 out of 3,535 births; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9) for tenofovir DF and 2.4% (68 out of 2,785 births; 95% CI: 1.9, 3.1) for emtricitabine. In addition, an evaluate of pregnancies occurring during an HIV pre-exposure trial found no difference in risk of congenital anomalies between the emtricitabine; tenofovir DF and placebo arms. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. An association of mitochondrial dysfunction in infants and in utero antiretroviral exposure has been suggested, but not established. While the development of severe or fatal mitochondrial disease in exposed infants appears to be extremely rare, more intensive monitoring of hematologic and electrolyte parameters during the first few weeks of life is advised. Nucleoside analogs have been associated with the development of lactic acidosis, especially during pregnancy. It is unclear if pregnancy augments the incidence of lactic acidosis/hepatic steatosis in patients receiving nucleoside analogs. However, because pregnancy itself can mimic some of the early symptoms of the lactic acid/hepatic steatosis syndrome or be associated with other significant disorders of liver metabolism, clinicians need to be alert for early diagnosis of this syndrome. Pregnant women receiving nucleoside analogs should have LFTs and serum electrolytes assessed more frequently during the last trimester of pregnancy, and any new symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly. Regular laboratory monitoring is recommended to determine antiretroviral efficacy. Monitor CD4 counts at the initial visit and at least every 3 months during pregnancy; consideration may be given to monitoring every 6 months in patients on HAART with consistently suppressed viral loads and a CD4 count well above the opportunistic infection threshold. Monitor plasma HIV RNA at the initial visit, 2 to 4 weeks after initiating or changing therapy, monthly until undetectable, then at least every 3 months during pregnancy, and at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Perform antiretroviral resistance assay (genotypic testing) at baseline in all women with HIV RNA concentrations greater than 500 copies/mL, unless they have already been tested for resistance. First-trimester ultrasound is recommended to confirm gestational age and provide an accurate estimation of gestational age at delivery. A second-trimester ultrasound can be used for both anatomical survey and determination of gestational age in those patients not seen until later in gestation. Perform standard glucose screening in women receiving antiretroviral therapy at 24 to 28 weeks gestation, although it should be noted that some experts would perform earlier screening with ongoing chronic protease inhibitor-based therapy initiated prior to pregnancy, similar to recommendations for women with high-risk factors for glucose intolerance. All pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of adherence to their antiretroviral regimen to reduce the potential for development of resistance and perinatal transmission. It is strongly recommended that antiretroviral therapy, once initiated, not be discontinued. If a woman decides to discontinue therapy, a consultation with an HIV specialist is recommended. HIV-uninfected women of childbearing potential who are receiving emtricitabine; tenofovir DF for pre-exposure prophylaxis should undergo pregnancy testing every 3 months. If a positive pregnancy test is obtained, discuss potential risks and benefits of initiating and continuing use of the drug during pregnancy.[57194] It is strongly recommended that health care providers report cases of antenatal antiretroviral drug exposure to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry; telephone 800-258-4263; fax 800-800-1052; the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry is also accessible via the Internet.[27468] [23512]

    To reduce the risk of postnatal transmission, HIV-infected mothers within the United States are advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to avoid breast-feeding. This recommendation applies to both untreated women and women who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, including emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF). Limited data suggest small amounts of emtricitabine and tenofovir DF are excreted into breast milk. One study estimated the exposure to emtricitabine in exclusively breast-fed infants at approximately 2% of the recommended infant dose. In this same study, tenofovir DF exposure in exclusively breast-fed infants was found to be equivalent to approximately 4.2 micrograms per day. Other antiretroviral medications whose passage into human breast milk have been evaluated include nevirapine, zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    In combination studies evaluating the in vitro antiviral activity of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate together, synergistic antiviral effects were observed.
     
    •Emtricitabine: Emtricitabine inhibits viral reverse transcriptase and is active in vitro both on HIV-1 and HBV. Emtricitabine is similar in structure and activity to lamivudine, although its activity against HIV-1 is approximately 4—10 fold greater than that of lamivudine. Emtricitabine is a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytosine and is phosphorylated by cellular enzymes to emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate. Emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by competing with the deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate and by being incorporated into nascent viral DNA, resulting in chain termination. Emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate is a weak inhibitor of polymerase alpha, beta, epsilon and mitochondrial DNA polymerase-gamma. Combination therapy targets different points in the life cycle of HIV, reducing the ability of HIV to mutate to drug-resistant strains. In combination with another NRTI (e.g., zidovudine or stavudine) and efavirenz, emtricitabine has been shown to increase CD4 cell counts and reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels.
     
    The development of drug resistance is a problem in the treatment of HIV and HBV infection. Like lamivudine, emtricitabine selects for the M184 mutation of the HIV reverse transcriptase gene, producing resistance. People with the M184 mutation associated with lamivudine will not benefit from emtricitabine, given that the M184 mutation confers high-level resistance. It is important that persons with a detectable viral load who plan to switch therapy from lamivudine to emtricitabine have genotypic testing performed to determine whether the M184 mutation is present. Also, if lamivudine has failed in the past, the M184 mutation is archived, thus rendering emtricitabine ineffective in this patient population.
     
    •Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: Tenofovir inhibits viral reverse transcriptase and acts as a DNA chain terminator. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) diester analog of adenosine monophosphate. Tenofovir DF requires initial diester hydrolysis for conversion to tenofovir. Tenofovir is then taken up by cells and undergoes phosphorylation to form tenofovir diphosphate (PMPApp). Tenofovir diphosphate competitively inhibits RNA- and DNA-directed reverse transcriptase. Tenofovir diphosphate competes with the natural substrate deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP) and, since it lacks a 3' hydroxyl group, causes premature DNA termination. Tenofovir diphosphate is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase alpha, beta, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase-gamma.
     
    The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) of tenofovir against HIV-1 in vitro is 0.04—8.5 µM. Induction of antiretroviral resistance to acyclic phosphonomethylether nucleosides like tenofovir in vitro is difficult, possibly because of their similarity to the natural substrate (dATP). HIV isolates with reduced susceptibility to tenofovir have been selected in vitro. These viruses expressed the K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase and showed a 3—4 fold reduction in susceptibility to tenofovir. During clinical trials, 3% of tenofovir-treated patients developed the K65R mutation. Despite development of resistance to NRTIs, HIV isolates from patients after 24 or 48 weeks of tenofovir treatment showed no significant changes in tenofovir susceptibility unless the K65R mutation was present. Tenofovir shows minor to moderate synergy with didanosine and nelfinavir, and strong synergy with zidovudine, amprenavir and all non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) tested.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets are administered orally. The steady state pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are unaffected when administered together, compared to each agent being administered alone.
    Emtricitabine:  When given at a dose of 200 mg once daily, the plasma half-life is approximately 10 hours and the metabolite, emtricitabine-triphosphate, has an intracellular half-life of approximately 39 hours. Emtricitabine exhibits low plasma protein binding (< 4%), and protein-binding is independent of plasma concentration. At peak plasma concentrations, the mean plasma to blood drug concentration ratio is approximately 1 and the mean semen to plasma drug concentration ratio is approximately 4. Metabolism occurs via oxidation to 3'-sulfoxide diastereomer (approximately 9% of dose) and via conjugation with glucuronic acid to 2'-O-glucuronide (approximately 4% of dose). Emtricitabine is excreted renally. The renal clearance is greater than the estimated creatinine clearance; elimination is presumed to be by both glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion, suggesting there may be competition for elimination with other compounds that are also renally eliminated.
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: Due to the presence of a phosphonate group, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is negatively charged at neutral pH, which limits its bioavailability. Following absorption, tenofovir DF is rapidly converted to tenofovir. Protein binding is negligible. Intracellularly, tenofovir undergoes phosphorylation to its active metabolite, tenofovir diphosphate (PMPApp). Tenofovir and tenofovir diphosphate have a prolonged intracellular half-life (15—50 hours). In vitro studies indicate that neither tenofovir DF nor tenofovir are substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Tenofovir is eliminated by a combination of glomerular filtration and active renal tubular secretion; there may be competition for elimination with other compounds that are also renally eliminated.
     
    Affected transporters: P-gp, BRCP
    Tenofovir DF is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters. Administration with inhibitors of these transporters may result in increased absorption of tenofovir.

    Oral Route

    In fasting, healthy subjects, one emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) tablet was found to be bioequivalent to the coadministration of one emtricitabine (Emtriva) capsule (200 mg) plus one tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) tablet (300 mg). The administration of emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with food affects the pharmacokinetic parameters of tenofovir, but not emtricitabine. The AUC and Cmax of tenofovir increase approximately 35% and 15%, respectively, when emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is administered with food.
    Emtricitabine: Emtricitabine is rapidly and extensively absorbed, with a mean absolute bioavailability of 93% and peak plasma concentrations occurring at 1—2 hours post-dose. The AUC and Cmax increase in proportion to oral dosage over the range of 25—200 mg.
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate:  Oral bioavailability of tenofovir from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) 300 mg is 25% in the fasted state. After multiple oral doses of tenofovir DF (300 mg once daily), 32 +/- 10% of the administered dose is recovered in urine over 24 hours. Following a single, orally administered dose, the terminal elimination half-life of tenofovir is approximately 17 hours. Comparatively, during clinical trials, after IV administration of tenofovir, 70—80% of the dose is recovered in the urine as unchanged drug within 72 hours.