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  • CLASSES

    Alkalinizing Agents
    Potassium Supplements

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Potassium-containing alkalinizing agent used primarily to treat some nephrolithiasis conditions by raising urinary pH and citrate concentrations; provides a source of potassium supplementation.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Urocit-K

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Potassium Citrate/Urocit-K Oral Tab ER: 5mEq, 10mEq, 15mEq

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the management of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with calcium nephrolithiasis (renal calculus), hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis of any etiology, uric acid nephrolithiasis (with or without calcium stones), and nephrolithiasis prevention for these conditions.
    To restore normal urinary citrate in adult patients with mild-moderate hypocitraturia (150 mg/day or more).
    Oral dosage (potassium citrate extended-release tablets; e.g., Urocit-K)
    Adults

    10 mEq PO 3 times daily with meals. Doses greater than 100 mEq/day PO have not been studied.

    To restore normal urinary citrate in adult patients with severe hypocitraturia (less than 150 mg/day).
    Oral dosage (potassium citrate extended-release tablets; e.g., Urocit-K)
    Adults

    20 mEq PO 3 times daily with meals. Alternatively, 15 mEq can be given PO 4 times daily with meals (or within 30 minutes after meals or bedtime snack). Doses greater than 100 mEq/day PO have not been studied.

    For the management of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in children†.
    Oral dosage (potassium citrate - dosage form not specified)
    Children† and Adolescents†

    Safe and effective use has not been established; the marketed extended-release dosage forms are not appropriate for all pediatric patients. One limited open-label trial suggests 4 mEq/kg/day PO of potassium citrate (dosage form not specified) can correct urinary abnormalities and the elevated urinary saturation for calcium oxalate but not for calcium phosphate in children with distal RTA. Optimal dosage regimens have not been established. The usual potassium supplement dosage range is 1 to 2 mEq/kg/day PO for children.

    For nephrolithiasis prevention - guideline recommendations for adults.
    Oral dosage (potassium citrate extended-release tablets; e.g., Urocit-K)
    Adults

    An average dose of 20 mEq PO three times daily has been beneficial in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones during clinical trial evaluation. Doses are titrated to clinical effect, as noted by the product label. The American Urological Association (AUA) Guidelines for the Medical Management of Kidney Stones recommend that clinicians offer potassium citrate therapy to patients with recurrent calcium stones and low or relatively low urinary citrate. Potassium citrate is preferred over sodium citrate because the sodium load in the latter may increase urine calcium excretion.  The treatment regimen includes hydration (urine volume 2 L/day or more) and dietary sodium restriction. Monitor 24-hour urinary citrate concentrations and/or urinary pH to evaluate initial dosage or dosage adjustments, and then at least every 4 months during maintenance therapy. The goal of therapy in adults is to restore normal urinary citrate (greater than 320 mg/day, and as close to the normal mean of 640 mg/day as possible), and to increase urinary pH to 6 to 7.

    For the treatment or prevention of hypokalemia†.
    For the prevention of hypokalemia†.
    Oral dosage (potassium citrate salt)
    Adults

    Potassium citrate is not commonly used for hypokalemia. 20 mEq/day PO, given in 1 to 2 divided doses and taken after a meal, is recommended for the prevention of hypokalemia. Maximum single oral dose is 20 mEq. Adjust dosage to clinical need and tolerance. Hypokalemia is generally defined as a serum potassium less than 3.5 mEq/L; however, serum potassium concentrations do not always correlate with cellular potassium levels. Serum potassium concentrations 4 mEq/L or more are recommended to be maintained in patients with hypertension, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may also be recommended for patients with potential for diuretic-induced potassium loss and patients with conditions of potassium loss or reduced GI intake (e.g., GI disturbances, laxative abuse).

    Children† and Adolescents†

    1 to 2 mEq/kg/day PO in 1 to 2 divided doses. Potassium citrate is not commonly used for hypokalemia. 

    For the treatment of hypokalemia†.
    Oral dosage (potassium citrate salt)
    Adults

    Potassium citrate is not commonly used for hypokalemia. 40 to 100 mEq/day PO, given in 2 to 4 divided doses and given after a meal, is used for the treatment of potassium depletion. Adjust dosage according to clinical need and tolerance. Maximum single oral dose is 20 mEq. Do not exceed 100 mEq/day.

    Children† and Adolescents†

    1 to 2 mEq/kg/day PO in 1to 2 divided doses. Potassium citrate is not commonly used for hypokalemia.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    100 mEq/day PO.

    Elderly

    100 mEq/day PO.

    Adolescents

    100 mEq/day PO.

    Children

    2 mEq/kg/day PO.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    No specific dosage guidelines are available; however, caution is advised for patients with severe hepatic impairment. Conversion of citrate salts to bicarbonate may be impaired in patients with hepatic failure. Dosage should be modified depending on clinical response. Monitor serum potassium levels.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl >= 50 ml/min: Dosage should be modified depending on clinical response and degree of renal impairment, but no quantitative recommendations are available. Monitor serum potassium levels and renal function carefully to avoid development of hyperkalemia.
    CrCl < 50 ml/min: Use is contraindicated according to the manufacturer for potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K).
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Use is contraindicated for patients with CrCl < 50 ml/min.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    In general, do not administer with tomato juice due to the very high sodium content, which may be counterproductive to the patient's medication regimen and/or health condition.

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K) with or immediately after food (within 30 minutes). Take with plenty of fluid. Swallow the tablets whole; do not crush or chew. Do not allow to dissolve in the mouth. To minimize esophageal effects, take the tablets while in an upright or sitting position. If possible, take bedtime doses at least 10 minutes before lying down.

    STORAGE

    Urocit-K:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Patients with hyperkalemic familial periodic paralysis should not receive potassium citrate because this form of the disease seems to be exacerbated by the exogenous administration of potassium.

    Adrenal insufficiency, burns, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, geriatric, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Potassium citrate is generally contraindicated for patients with renal failure or severe renal impairment. The manufacturer for potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K) provides a specific contraindication for patients with renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate of < 0.7 ml/kg/min, which corresponds to an estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 50 ml/min in a 70 kg patient) due to the risk of soft tissue calcification and increased risk of hyperkalemia. As with other alkalinizing agents, use potassium citrate with caution in patients which lack normal renal mechanisms to avoid the development of metabolic alkalosis, especially in the presence of hypocalcemia. Potassium supplements are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum potassium concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Due to the risk of developing hyperkalemia, potassium supplementation is contraindicated &nbsp;in patients with adrenal insufficiency (untreated Addison's disease); acute dehydration; uncontrolled diabetes mellitus; strenuous physical exercise (especially unconditioned persons); in patients receiving salt substitutes, potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene), ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II antagonists; or in patients with renal disease, renal failure, or renal impairment. Potassium supplements should also be used cautiously in patients with severe burns because these patients are prone to hyperkalemia secondary to extensive tissue breakdown and renal insufficiency. Potassium citrate should be used cautiously in patients with diarrhea. Because geriatric patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, potassium salts should be dosed cautiously based on an assessment of renal function and therapeutic goals. Serum potassium concentrations, serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and carbon dioxide), and serum creatinine should be monitored every four months during therapy with potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K). Treatment should be discontinued if there is hyperkalemia or a significant rise in serum creatinine.

    Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, cardiac arrhythmias, digitalis toxicity, heart failure, hypertension, ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia

    Potassium supplements, such as potassium citrate, should be monitored closely in patients with cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, digitalis toxicity (except due to documented hypokalemia), and ventricular arrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia), including patients receiving digoxin or other antiarrhythmic therapy. Based on a multidisciplinary review of literature and clinical practice trends, the National Council on Potassium in Clinical Practice recommends that serum potassium concentrations >= 4 mEq/L be achieved and maintained in patients with hypertension, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias to minimize complications of potassium depletion. In addition, the Council recommends potassium supplementation for patients at risk for developing hypokalemia and associated complications. Potassium supplementation is specifically recommended for patients with potential for diuretic-induced potassium loss (e.g., receiving thiazide or loop diuretics), patients with high sodium intake (unwilling to reduce salt intake), and patients with reduced GI intake (e.g., GI disturbances, laxative abuse).

    Esophageal stricture, gastroparesis, GI obstruction, ileus, peptic ulcer disease

    Potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K) are contraindicated in patients in whom there is a risk of delayed passage through the GI tract. Patients with gastroparesis, peptic ulcer disease, or GI obstruction, esophageal stricture, or ileus should not receive oral solid dosage forms of potassium supplements such as Urocit-K due to the potential for gastrointestinal irritation. Esophageal obstruction or compression associated with enlarged left atrium is also a contraindication for potassium citrate extended-release tablets due to potential for delayed tablet passage, causing esophageal stricture and ulceration. In addition, drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts (see Drug Interactions). To monitor the potential for GI bleeding, the manufacturer advises monitoring of complete blood count every four months during Urocit-K therapy. Treatment should be discontinued if there is a significant fall in blood hematocrit or hemoglobin.

    Urinary tract infection (UTI)

    Potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K) are contraindicated for use in patients with active urinary tract infection (UTI) (either caused by urea-splitting organisms or other organisms) in association with either struvite or calcium renal stones. The ability of potassium citrate to increase urinary citrate may be attenuated by bacterial enzymatic degradation of citrate. Moreover, the rise in urinary pH resulting from potassium citrate therapy might promote further bacterial growth.

    Muscle cramps

    Potassium supplements, such as potassium citrate, should be used cautiously in patients with heat cramps (myalgia thermica) or muscle cramps until the cause can be determined. In some cases, heat cramps can be a result of high potassium.

    Hepatic disease

    Conversion of citrate salts (e.g., potassium citrate) to bicarbonate may be impaired in patients with severe hepatic disease or hepatic failure.

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Serious metabolic alkalosis rarely occurs during treatment with potassium citrate. Metabolic alkalosis is more likely to occur in patients receiving excessive doses or in patients with impaired renal function. If untreated, metabolic alkalosis could result in compensatory hypoventilation, which can aggravate hypoxemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Pregnancy

    Potassium citrate is classified in FDA pregnancy category C. According to the manufacturer, potassium citrate should only be administered to a pregnant woman if clearly needed. Potassium and citric acid are both naturally occurring substances (i.e., in human tissue and in foods) and are not expected to cause harm at concentrations that are within normal limits. Elevated potassium concentrations can affect cardiac function of both the mother and the fetus. If treatment with potassium citrate is required in a pregnant woman, it would be prudent to carefully monitor potassium concentrations, acid-base balance, and overall electrolyte status.

    Breast-feeding

    Breast milk is naturally high in potassium (13 mEq/L). According to the manufacturer, it is not known if potassium citrate has an effect on human breast milk or the potassium concentration. Caution should be exercised when potassium citrate is administered to a breast-feeding woman. Potassium is freely excreted into breast milk. The use of potassium citrate in a nursing mother with normal potassium levels would not be expected to adversely affect a nursing infant; however, higher milk potassium concentrations may occur in women with hyperkalemia. In such patients, nursing infants should be monitored for adverse effects such as gastrointestinal discomfort. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Children

    Safety and effectiveness of potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K) in children has not been established.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    AV block / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperkalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
    esophageal stricture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    odynophagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI perforation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI bleeding / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    GI obstruction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peptic ulcer / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    dysphagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophagitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    metabolic alkalosis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    weakness / Early / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    abdominal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    diarrhea / Early / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Aliskiren: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage. (Major) Avoid coadministration of aluminum hydroxide with citrate salts due to the potential for increased absorption of aluminum. Patients at increased risk of aluminum accumulation include patients with renal impairment or renal failure.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage. (Major) Avoid coadministration of aluminum hydroxide with citrate salts due to the potential for increased absorption of aluminum. Patients at increased risk of aluminum accumulation include patients with renal impairment or renal failure.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage. (Major) Avoid coadministration of aluminum hydroxide with citrate salts due to the potential for increased absorption of aluminum. Patients at increased risk of aluminum accumulation include patients with renal impairment or renal failure.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage. (Major) Avoid coadministration of aluminum hydroxide with citrate salts due to the potential for increased absorption of aluminum. Patients at increased risk of aluminum accumulation include patients with renal impairment or renal failure.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage. (Major) Avoid coadministration of aluminum hydroxide with citrate salts due to the potential for increased absorption of aluminum. Patients at increased risk of aluminum accumulation include patients with renal impairment or renal failure.
    Amiloride: (Major) The use of potassium supplements in patients treated with amiloride is generally contraindicated. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If potassium supplementation is used, monitor serum potassium concentrations closely.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) The use of potassium supplements in patients treated with amiloride is generally contraindicated. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If potassium supplementation is used, monitor serum potassium concentrations closely.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ammonium Chloride: (Major) It would be illogical to administer potassium salts, a systemic alkalinizer, concurrently with ammonium chloride, an acidifying agent.
    Amphetamines: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Antacids: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage.
    Anticholinergics: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of high doses of alkalinizing agents may increase urine pH and decrease serum salicylate levels by decreasing renal tubular reabsorption of salicylic acid. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Atropine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form. (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form. (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Benzphetamine: (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate diminish the urinary excretion of benzphetamine. These medications increase the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of these compounds. The half-life and therapeutic actions of benzphetamine will be prolonged in the presence of potassium citrate. This combination should be avoided.
    Benztropine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Bupivacaine; Meloxicam: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Chlorpropamide: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of chlorpropamide by increasing renal clearance. Monitor for decreased efficacy of chlorpropamide (i.e., increased blood glucose) during coadministration. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, may increase the excretion of chlorpropamide by increasing renal clearance. Monitor for decreased efficacy of chlorpropamide (i.e., increased blood glucose) during coadministration.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Colchicine: (Moderate) Colchicine is an alkaloid and its action is potentiated by alkalinizing agents like potassium citrate. The colchicine dose may need adjustment. (Moderate) The action of colchicine is potentiated by alkalinizing agents. The colchicine dose may need adjustment.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and cyclosporine are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Alkalinizing agents such as potassium citrate can increase renal tubular reabsorption of quinidine by alkalinizing the urine; higher quinidine serum concentrations and quinidine toxicity are possible. (Major) Urinary alkalinization increases the renal tubular reabsorption of quinidine, resulting in higher quinidine serum concentrations which may lead to toxicity. Avoid citric acid; potassium citrate; sodium citrate administration to any patient receiving treatment with quinidine.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Dicyclomine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Digoxin: (Minor) Potassium levels should be monitored closely in patients receiving digoxin and potassium supplementation. Both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia increase the risk of digoxin toxicity. Some patients at increased risk are patients with renal impairment, patients on diuretics, and patients who are on potassium-sparing medications concurrently. Monitor renal function, potassium concentrations, and digoxin concentrations and clinical response during concurrent treatment.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Increases in urinary pH may decrease elimination of memantine, resulting in drug accumulation and potential toxicity. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may decrease the elimination of memantine, resulting in drug accumulation and potential toxicity. The clearance of memantine is reduced by about 80% under alkaline urine conditions at pH 8. Memantine should be used with caution with drugs known to increase urinary pH.
    Drospirenone: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and drospirenone are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Drospirenone has anti-mineralocorticoid activity, including the potential for hyperkalemia in high-risk patients, comparable to 25 mg of spironolactone.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and drospirenone are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Drospirenone has anti-mineralocorticoid activity, including the potential for hyperkalemia in high-risk patients, comparable to 25 mg of spironolactone.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and drospirenone are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Drospirenone has anti-mineralocorticoid activity, including the potential for hyperkalemia in high-risk patients, comparable to 25 mg of spironolactone.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and drospirenone are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Drospirenone has anti-mineralocorticoid activity, including the potential for hyperkalemia in high-risk patients, comparable to 25 mg of spironolactone.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and drospirenone are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Drospirenone has anti-mineralocorticoid activity, including the potential for hyperkalemia in high-risk patients, comparable to 25 mg of spironolactone.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) The renal elimination of ephedrine susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Potassium citrate is a urinary alkalinizing agent. Concomitant administration of ephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of adverse reactions. (Minor) The renal clearance of certain drugs can be affected by the administration of sodium citrate due to urinary alkalinization. Drug-induced urinary alkalization can increase the half-life of ephedrine by increasing tubular reabsorption.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) The renal elimination of ephedrine susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Potassium citrate is a urinary alkalinizing agent. Concomitant administration of ephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of adverse reactions. (Minor) The renal clearance of certain drugs can be affected by the administration of sodium citrate due to urinary alkalinization. Drug-induced urinary alkalization can increase the half-life of ephedrine by increasing tubular reabsorption.
    Eplerenone: (Contraindicated) The use of potassium supplements in patients receiving eplerenone for the treatment of hypertension is contraindicated. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Minimize the risk of hyperkalemia with proper patient selection and monitoring.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Finerenone: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and finerenone are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Flavoxate: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Flecainide: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinization can decrease the renal clearance of flecainide, resulting in an increased elimination half-life and AUC for flecainide.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Food: (Contraindicated) Foods, seasonings, or medicines containing high potassium or sodium content, such as dietary salt substitutes, 'low salt' milk products (which contain potassium), or tomato juice (which has high sodium content), could increase the risk of complications of hyperkalemia or sodium excess. Regularly monitor the serum potassium and/or sodium concentration in patients taking food or medications with high potassium and/or sodium content. Muscle weakness, chest pain, or an abnormal heart rhythm can indicate hyperkalemia. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, nausea, vomiting, and seizures can indicate sodium excess. (Moderate) Food or medicines containing a high sodium content (e.g., tomato juice) could increase the risk of complications of sodium excess when given with sodium citrate (see Adverse Reactions).
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Hyoscyamine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form. (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate, diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines. These drug combinations should be avoided, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Lithium: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with lithium, especially patients who are stabilized on lithium, as urinary alkalinization increases the renal clearance of lithium. If coadministration can not be avoided, monitor lithium serum concentrations and patient clinical response very closely. Also of note, lithium clearance is increased if hypernatremia occurs.
    Loperamide: (Minor) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like loperamide, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Minor) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like loperamide, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Contraindicated) Avoid coadministration of antacids with citrate salts since increased absorption of aluminum can occur. In addition, some antacids like calcium carbonate, share the potential with the citrate salts for development of metabolic alkalosis, when given in higher dosage.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Memantine: (Moderate) Increases in urinary pH may decrease elimination of memantine, resulting in drug accumulation and potential toxicity. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may decrease the elimination of memantine, resulting in drug accumulation and potential toxicity. The clearance of memantine is reduced by about 80% under alkaline urine conditions at pH 8. Memantine should be used with caution with drugs known to increase urinary pH.
    Mepenzolate: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Methamphetamine: (Major) As potassium citrate is a urinary alkalinizer, use will diminish the urinary excretion of and increase the half-life of amphetamines. The interaction of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizers is well documented. Avoid concurrent use, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Methenamine: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form. (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Methscopolamine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Naproxen; Esomeprazole: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Oxybutynin: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Penicillin G: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and high doses of penicillin G potassium are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk for hyperkalemia. Penicillin G potassium contains 1.7 mEq of potassium per million units of penicillin G activity.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Probenecid; Colchicine: (Moderate) Colchicine is an alkaloid and its action is potentiated by alkalinizing agents like potassium citrate. The colchicine dose may need adjustment. (Moderate) The action of colchicine is potentiated by alkalinizing agents. The colchicine dose may need adjustment.
    Propantheline: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Minor) Pseudoephedrine renal elimination is susceptible to changes in urinary pH. Urinary alkalinizers allow for increased tubular reabsorption of pseudoephedrine. Concomitant administration of pseudoephedrine with urinary alkalinizers may increase the likelihood of pseudoephedrine adverse reactions.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Quinidine: (Major) Alkalinizing agents such as potassium citrate can increase renal tubular reabsorption of quinidine by alkalinizing the urine; higher quinidine serum concentrations and quinidine toxicity are possible. (Major) Urinary alkalinization increases the renal tubular reabsorption of quinidine, resulting in higher quinidine serum concentrations which may lead to toxicity. Avoid citric acid; potassium citrate; sodium citrate administration to any patient receiving treatment with quinidine.
    Quinine: (Moderate) Use caution if using potassium citrate and quinine concomitantly. Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase plasma quinine concentrations because quinine is reabsorbed when the urine is alkaline.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance. (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizing agents, like potassium citrate, increase the excretion of salicylates by increasing renal clearance.
    Scopolamine: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate: (Contraindicated) Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is indicated for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Administration of all potassium salts should be discontinued whenever therapy with sodium polystyrene sulfonate is indicated.
    Spironolactone: (Major) The use of potassium supplements in patients receiving spironolactone may increase the risk for hyperkalemia. Potassium supplements should generally be avoided in heart failure patients receiving spironolactone. Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if concomitant use is necessary.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) The use of potassium supplements in patients receiving spironolactone may increase the risk for hyperkalemia. Potassium supplements should generally be avoided in heart failure patients receiving spironolactone. Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and trimethoprim are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and tacrolimus are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Telmisartan; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Corticotropin can cause alterations in serum potassium levels. The use of potassium salts or supplements would be expected to alter the effects of corticotropin on serum potassium levels. Also, there have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness associated with use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizure disorder. Therefore, magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate should be administered with caution during concurrent use of medications that lower the seizure threshold such as systemic corticosteroids.
    Triamterene: (Major) The use of potassium supplements in patients treated with triamterene is generally contraindicated. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If potassium supplementation is used, monitor serum potassium concentrations closely.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) The use of potassium supplements in patients treated with triamterene is generally contraindicated. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If potassium supplementation is used, monitor serum potassium concentrations closely.
    Trihexyphenidyl: (Major) Drugs that decrease GI motility may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. The use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients taking glycopyrrolate oral solution. In one study, healthy subjects were examined for GI irritation following the administration of oral potassium for at least 7 days. Glycopyrrolate was coadministered to some subjects in order to study the additional effects of delayed gastric emptying. Results indicated that subjects administered wax-matrix tablets had the highest incidence of erosions (43%) and ulcers (11%). Evidence of GI irritation was less frequent among subjects receiving liquid (0%) and microencapsulated (10.5% erosions, 1.2% ulcers) formulations. Therefore, if oral potassium supplementation is necessary in a patient taking antimuscarinics, a liquid formulation should be considered. If a solid formulation is being prescribed, the patient should be counseled on strategies that can be used to avoid GI irritation such as taking potassium products only while seated or standing, remaining upright for 10 minutes after each dose, and ingesting each dose with plenty of fluids.
    Trimethoprim: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and trimethoprim are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Potassium citrate is classified in FDA pregnancy category C. According to the manufacturer, potassium citrate should only be administered to a pregnant woman if clearly needed. Potassium and citric acid are both naturally occurring substances (i.e., in human tissue and in foods) and are not expected to cause harm at concentrations that are within normal limits. Elevated potassium concentrations can affect cardiac function of both the mother and the fetus. If treatment with potassium citrate is required in a pregnant woman, it would be prudent to carefully monitor potassium concentrations, acid-base balance, and overall electrolyte status.

    Breast milk is naturally high in potassium (13 mEq/L). According to the manufacturer, it is not known if potassium citrate has an effect on human breast milk or the potassium concentration. Caution should be exercised when potassium citrate is administered to a breast-feeding woman. Potassium is freely excreted into breast milk. The use of potassium citrate in a nursing mother with normal potassium levels would not be expected to adversely affect a nursing infant; however, higher milk potassium concentrations may occur in women with hyperkalemia. In such patients, nursing infants should be monitored for adverse effects such as gastrointestinal discomfort. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action:•Urinary alkalinization for treatment of certain nephrolithiasis conditions: Potassium citrate treats certain nephrolithiasis conditions by raising urinary pH and citrate concentrations. When potassium citrate is given orally, the metabolism of absorbed citrate produces an alkaline load. The induced alkaline load in turn increases urinary pH and raises urinary citrate by augmenting citrate clearance, without measurably altering ultrafilterable serum citrate. Thus, potassium citrate may increase urinary citrate principally by modifying the renal handling of citrate, rather than by increasing the filtered load of citrate. The increased filtered load of citrate may also play some role. Potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit®-K) increase urinary potassium by approximately the amount contained in the dose. In some patients, potassium citrate causes a transient reduction in urinary calcium. The changes induced by potassium citrate produce a urine that is less conducive to the crystallization of certain stone-forming salts (calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid). Increased citrate in the urine, by complexing with calcium, decreases calcium ion activity and thus the saturation of calcium oxalate. Citrate also inhibits the spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (brushite). The increase in urinary pH decreases calcium ion activity (by increasing calcium complexation to dissociated anions) and increases the ionization of uric acid to a more soluble urate ion.Potassium citrate therapy does not alter the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate, since the effect of increased citrate complexation of calcium is opposed by the rise in pH-dependent dissociation of phosphate. Calcium phosphate stones are more stable in alkaline urine.In patients with severe renal tubular acidosis or chronic diarrheal syndromes where urinary citrate may be very low (<100 mg/day), potassium citrate may be relatively ineffective in raising urinary citrate. A higher dose of potassium citrate may be required to produce a satisfactory citraturic response. In patients with renal tubular acidosis in whom urinary pH may be high, potassium citrate produces a relatively small rise in urinary pH.•Prevention or treatment of hypokalemia: Potassium salts such as potassium citrate may be used as a supplement to maintain potassium homeostasis. Potassium is actively transported into cells through a process facilitated by dextrose, insulin, and oxygen. Transport maintains a high potassium gradient across cell membranes, thus playing a vital role in electrical excitability of nerves and muscle. Relatively high intracellular potassium concentrations leads to passive diffusion out of the cell. The membrane gradient is responsible for the resting transmembrane electric potential, primarily determined by the diffusion of potassium out of the cell. Membrane depolarization will occur only when a current is applied to the nerve that exceeds the outward potassium current. This is usually accomplished by sodium rushing into the cell by fast inward channels, causing the action or 'spike' potential. Repolarization is partially but quickly attained by potassium flowing out of the cell through its own channel.Hydrogen ions are also in higher concentration inside cells. When the extracellular hydrogen ion concentration is increased, as occurs in acidosis, potassium shifts to the extracellular environment; when it is decreased, potassium ions move into the cells. Hypo- or hyperkalemia can initiate changes in concentration of other ions. In the former state, when potassium becomes depleted, as the ion leaves the cell it is exchanged with extracellular sodium and hydrogen ions to maintain electroneutrality. The redistribution of hydrogen ions causes intracellular acidosis and extracellular alkalosis. The opposite happens in hyperkalemia.Within or near the normal range of potassium balance, the ion plays a part in regulating renal synthesis of ammonia and in the pH of urine. A decrease in dietary intake of potassium stimulates renal synthesis of ammonia and increases urinary pH slightly by diminishing net acid secretion. If potassium loss is low, metabolic acidosis results. Greater potassium loss can cause systemic metabolic alkalosis and intracellular acidosis. Tubular secretion of potassium is inhibited by acidemia and stimulated by alkalemia.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Potassium citrate is administered orally.  Potassium first enters the extracellular fluid and is then actively transported into cells. Skeletal muscle accounts for the bulk of the intracellular store of potassium. Renal excretion of potassium normally is equal to the amount being absorbed in the diet. Potassium is freely filtered at the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Tubular secretion occurs in the late distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct, and accounts for the potassium excreted in the urine, which is about 10% of the amount filtered. Fecal elimination of potassium is minimal and plays no significant role in potassium homeostasis.
     
    When potassium citrate is used to alkalinize the urine, urinary citrate and urinary pH values are important. In the setting of normal renal function, the rise in urinary citrate following a single dose of extended-release potassium citrate (Urocit-K) begins by the first hour and lasts for 12 hours. With multiple doses the rise in citrate excretion reaches its peak by the third day and averts the normally wide circadian fluctuation in urinary citrate, thus maintaining urinary citrate at a higher, more constant level throughout the day. The rise in citrate excretion is directly dependent on the potassium citrate dosage. Following long-term treatment, Urocit-K at a dosage of 60 mEq/day raises urinary citrate by approximately 400 mg/day and increases urinary pH by approximately 0.7 units. When potassium citrate therapy is withdrawn, urinary citrate begins to decline toward the pre-treatment level on the first day.

    Oral Route

    Potassium citrate extended-release tablets (Urocit-K) are embedded in a wax matrix which is formulated to leach the salt slowly from the tablet and gradually deliver it over a large segment of the intestine. Pathologically high concentrations of potassium are unlikely with the wax matrix dosage form unless passage through the GI tract is either delayed or blocked, as could potentially occur in diabetic gastroparesis or GI obstructive conditions (see Contraindications). Normally, the concentration of potassium in the GI tract is about 2—3 times that of the plasma, but almost all the dietary potassium is eventually absorbed.