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  • CLASSES

    Omega-3 Dyslipidemic Agents

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
    Used with diet for severe hypertriglyceridemia (500 mg/dL or more) and with a statin to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events
    Use with caution in patients with hypersensitivity to fish or shellfish

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    VASCEPA

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Icosapent ethyl/VASCEPA Oral Cap: 0.5g, 1g

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For use as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (500 mg/dL or more).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    2 g PO twice daily with food.

    For use as an adjunct to maximally tolerated statin therapy for cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction (e.g., myocardial infarction prophylaxis, stroke prophylaxis, risk reduction for coronary revascularization, risk reduction for unstable angina requiring hospitalization) in patients with elevated triglycerides (150 mg/dL or more) and established CV disease or diabetes mellitus and at least 2 additional risk factors for CV disease.
    Oral dosage (Vascepa only)
    Adults

    2 g PO twice daily with food.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    4 g/day PO.

    Geriatric

    4 g/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Administer orally with food. Icosapent ethyl capsules should be swallowed whole; do not break open, crush, dissolve, or chew.

    STORAGE

    VASCEPA:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Fish hypersensitivity

    Icosapent ethyl contains ethyl esters of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), obtained from the oil of fish. According to the manufacturer, it is unknown whether patients with fish hypersensitivity or shellfish hypersensitivity are at increased risk of an allergic reaction to icosapent ethyl. Inform patients with known hypersensitivity to fish or shellfish about the potential for an allergic reaction to icosapent ethyl and advise them to discontinue therapy and seek medical attention if an allergic reaction occurs.

    Anticoagulant therapy, bleeding

    Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, bleeding time may be prolonged in patients receiving icosapent ethyl. In the REDUCE-IT trial (n=8,179), 12% (n=482) of patients treated with icosapent ethyl experienced a bleeding event compared to 10% (n=404) of patients treated with placebo. In addition, serious bleeding events occurred in 3% (n=111) and 2% (n=85) of patients that received icosapent ethyl and placebo, respectively. Concomitant therapy with anticoagulant therapy or antithrombotic therapy, such as aspirin or clopidogrel, was associated with an increased incidence of bleeding events.

    Pregnancy

    Use of icosapent ethyl during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Limited data with icosapent ethyl use in human pregnancy are insufficient to determine an associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies involving pregnant rats exposed to icosapent ethyl at a dose equivalent to the clinical exposure from a human dose of 4 g/day, non-dose related imbalances in visceral and skeletal findings, such as reduced ribs, additional liver lobes, absent optic nerves, early incisor eruption, increased percent cervical ribs, unilateral testes atrophy, testes medially displaced and/or not descended, were observed. No treatment-related malformations or skeletal anomalies were noted in pregnant rabbits that received oral gavage doses of icosapent that were 5 times that human exposure at the maximum dose of 4 g/day; however, a decrease in body weight and food consumption were observed.

    Breast-feeding

    There is no information regarding the presence of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. According to the manufacturer, omega-3 fatty acids, including EPA are excreted in human milk and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in human milk have occurred following oral supplementation. During breast-feeding, omega-3 fatty acids do not appear to be harmful to the infant at levels approximating normal maternal dietary intakes (i.e., via fish in the maternal diet). Until more data are available, caution should be exercised when icosapent ethyl is administered to a nursing mother.

    Children, infants, neonates

    The safety and efficacy of icosapent ethyl have not been established in neonates, infants, children, or adolescents.

    Hepatic disease

    Monitor alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels periodically in patients with hepatic disease who are receiving icosapent ethyl.

    Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter

    Icosapent ethyl therapy is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter requiring hospitalization. Among 8,179 statin -treated patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes plus an additional risk factor for CVD enrolled in the REDUCE-IT trial, 3% (n=127) of icosapent-treated patients experienced adjudicated atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter requiring hospitalization for 24 of more hours compared to 2% (n=84) of placebo-treated patients [HR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.14, 1.98). Patients with a previous history of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter had a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation.
     

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    atrial fibrillation / Early / 3.0-5.3
    atrial flutter / Early / 3.0-3.0

    Moderate

    bleeding / Early / 12.0-12.0
    peripheral edema / Delayed / 6.5-6.5
    constipation / Delayed / 5.4-5.4
    gout / Delayed / 3.0
    prolonged bleeding time / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    arthralgia / Delayed / 2.3-2.3
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 3.0
    epistaxis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ecchymosis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Alteplase: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Anticoagulants: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Apixaban: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Argatroban: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Beta-adrenergic blockers: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Betrixaban: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Bivalirudin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Conjugated Estrogens: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Dabigatran: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Dalteparin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Danaparoid: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Desirudin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Diethylstilbestrol, DES: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Edoxaban: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Enoxaparin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Eptifibatide: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Esterified Estrogens: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estradiol; Progesterone: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estrogens: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Estropipate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Ethynodiol Diacetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Etonogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Fondaparinux: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Heparin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Lepirudin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous Bisglycinate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Norethindrone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Pentosan: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Platelet Inhibitors: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Reteplase, r-PA: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Rivaroxaban: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Streptokinase: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Tenecteplase: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Thrombolytic Agents: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Ticlopidine: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Tinzaparin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Tirofiban: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Urokinase: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Because omega-3 fatty acids inhibit platelet aggregation, caution is advised when icosapent ethyl is used concurrently with anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, or thrombolytic agents. Theoretically, the risk of bleeding may be increased, but some studies that combined these agents did not produce clinically significant bleeding events. In one placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study, patients receiving stable, chronic warfarin therapy were administered various doses of fish oil supplements to determine the effect on INR determinations. Patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo or 3 or 6 grams of fish oil daily. Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo or treatment period within each group. There was also no difference in INRs found between groups. One episode of ecchymosis was reported, but no major bleeding episodes occurred. The authors concluded that fish oil supplementation in doses of 36 grams per day does not have a statistically significant effect on the INR of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. However, an increase in INR from 2.8 to 4.3 in a patient stable on warfarin therapy has been reported when increasing the dose of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids from 1 gram/day to 2 grams/day. The INR decreased once the patient decreased her dose of fish oil to 1 gram/day. This implies that a dose-related effect of fish oil on warfarin may be possible. Patients receiving warfarin that initiate concomitant icosapent ethyl therapy should have their INR monitored more closely and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Use of icosapent ethyl during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Limited data with icosapent ethyl use in human pregnancy are insufficient to determine an associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies involving pregnant rats exposed to icosapent ethyl at a dose equivalent to the clinical exposure from a human dose of 4 g/day, non-dose related imbalances in visceral and skeletal findings, such as reduced ribs, additional liver lobes, absent optic nerves, early incisor eruption, increased percent cervical ribs, unilateral testes atrophy, testes medially displaced and/or not descended, were observed. No treatment-related malformations or skeletal anomalies were noted in pregnant rabbits that received oral gavage doses of icosapent that were 5 times that human exposure at the maximum dose of 4 g/day; however, a decrease in body weight and food consumption were observed.

    There is no information regarding the presence of fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. According to the manufacturer, omega-3 fatty acids, including EPA are excreted in human milk and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in human milk have occurred following oral supplementation. During breast-feeding, omega-3 fatty acids do not appear to be harmful to the infant at levels approximating normal maternal dietary intakes (i.e., via fish in the maternal diet). Until more data are available, caution should be exercised when icosapent ethyl is administered to a nursing mother.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA is thought to inhibit hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides synthesis and/or secretion and enhance the clearance of triglycerides from circulating VLDL particles. Other potential mechanisms of action include increased beta-oxidation, inhibition of acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity.
     
    The mechanisms by which icosapent ethyl to the reduction in cardiovascular events is not completely known but may be multifactorial. During EPA therapy, increased EPA lipid composition from carotid plaque specimens and increased circulating EPA/arachidonic acid ratio have been observed. EPA has demonstrated inhibition of platelet aggregation under some ex vivo conditions. The clinical significance of these findings are unknown.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Icosapent ethyl is administered orally. Icosapent ethyl is de-esterified during absorption to the active metabolite eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The majority of EPA circulating in plasma is incorporated in phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesteryl esters, and less than 1% is present as the unesterified fatty acid. Unesterified EPA is greater than 99% bound to plasma proteins. Like dietary fatty acids, EPA is metabolized mainly by the liver via beta-oxidation. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism is a minor elimination pathway of EPA. Icosapent ethyl does not undergo renal elimination. The plasma-elimination half-life of EPA is approximately 89 hours.

    Oral Route

    After oral administration of icosapent ethyl, peak plasma concentrations of EPA are reached in approximately 5 hours. The effect of food on the absorption of icosapent ethyl has not been studied. In all clinical studies, the drug was administered with or following a meal, and therefore, it is recommended that icosapent ethyl be given with food or following a meal.