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  • CLASSES

    Psychostimulants, Amphetamines

    BOXED WARNING

    Alcoholism, substance abuse

    Stimulants, such as lisdexamfetamine, have a high potential for substance abuse and dependence. Assess the risk for abuse and dependence prior to initiating lisdexamfetamine treatment, to include evaluating the child or adult patient for a personal or family history of abuse of prescription medicines or street drugs, or abuse or dependence on alcohol (alcoholism). All patients should be monitored for signs of abuse and dependence while receiving lisdexamfetamine. Administration of amphetamines for a prolonged period of time may lead to physical and psychological drug dependence. Misuse of amphetamines may cause sudden death and serious cardiovascular adverse events. The least amount reasonable should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to limit the potential for overuse or drug diversion. Symptoms of chronic intoxication include insomnia, irritability, change in personality, and psychotic symptoms that may be clinically indistinguishable from psychotic disorders.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, schedule II

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral CNS stimulant in the amphetamine class and pro-drug of dextroamphetamine
    Indicated for ADHD in adult and pediatric patients 6 years and older; efficacious for binge-eating disorder (BED) in adults 18 to 55 years
    Assess the risk of substance abuse prior to prescribing; monitor for abuse and dependence during treatment

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Vyvanse

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Vyvanse Oral Cap: 10mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 50mg, 60mg, 70mg
    Vyvanse Oral Tab Chew: 10mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 50mg, 60mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 30 mg PO once daily in the morning. If necessary, dosage increases may be made in increments of 10 to 20 mg per day at weekly intervals. Do not exceed 70 mg/day PO. Avoid afternoon dosing to prevent insomnia. It is generally agreed that long-term treatment of ADHD may be needed; however, periodically reassess to determine the need for continued maintenance therapy. Capsules and chewable tablets are interchangable.

    Geriatric Adults

    The usual adult initial dose is 30 mg PO once daily in the morning. However, in geriatric patients, generally start with lower initial doses. If necessary, dosage increases may be made in increments of 10 to 20 mg per day at weekly intervals. Do not exceed 70 mg/day PO.

    Children and Adolescents 6 years and older

    20 to 30 mg PO once daily in the morning initially. FDA-approved labeling specifies an initial dose of 30 mg PO once daily, titrated in 10 to 20 mg increments at weekly intervals ; however, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends a lower initial dose of 20 mg PO once daily, titrated every 3 to 7 days. Dosage should be individualized; use minimum effective dose. Max: 70 mg/day PO. Avoid afternoon doses due to the potential for sleep interference. Capsules and chewable tablets are interchangable. Lack of response to one stimulant does not predict response to other stimulants. ADHD is a chronic condition that will require ongoing management and monitoring. Sixty to eighty percent of children will continue to need treatment in adulthood. The effect of behavioral therapy is controversial; however, combined drug and behavioral therapy has been shown to be more effective than behavioral therapy alone. In many cases, drug treatment alone showed a consistent dose-sensitive effect in improving core ADHD symptoms. Treatment strategies must be individualized for patients based on psychosocial and comorbid factors. Stimulants have been shown to be effective first-line agents in the treatment of ADHD.

    For the treatment of moderate to severe binge-eating disorder (BED).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 30 mg PO once daily in the morning. Titrate daily dosage by 20 mg at weekly intervals to achieve the recommended target effective dose range of 50 to 70 mg PO once daily. Max: 70 mg/day PO. Capsules and chewable tablets are interchangeable. Consider lower initial dosage and slower titration schedules in the geriatric adult. Closely monitor the patient to evaluate response. Discontinue the drug if binge-eating does not improve.[33263] Two controlled trials in adults (18 to 55 years) with moderate to severe binge-eating disorder (BED) as defined by the DSM-IV criteria demonstrated that treatment at the target dose (50 to 70 mg per day) significantly reduced the number of binge-eating days per week vs. placebo. A 30 mg/day dose was not more effective than placebo. A higher percentage of treated patients reported improved secondary outcomes including the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) rating scale, 4-week binge cessation, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating (Y-BOCS-BE) total score vs. placebo. LIMITS OF USE: Lisdexamfetamine is not indicated or recommended for weight loss. Safety and efficacy for treatment of obesity have not been established. Use of other sympathomimetic drugs for weight loss has been associated with serious cardiovascular adverse events.[33263]

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    70 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    70 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    70 mg/day PO.

    Children

    >= 6 years: 70 mg/day PO.
    < 6 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed. Hepatic dysfunction has the potential to slow the elimination of amphetamines; use with caution and titrate dosages carefully.

    Renal Impairment

    GFR 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or more: Specific dosage adjustments not specified; titrate dosage carefully in patients with renal impairment.
    GFR 15 to 29 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Do not exceed 50 mg/day PO.
    GFR less than 15 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Do not exceed 30 mg/day PO.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Lisdexamfetamine and d-amphetamine are not dialyzable.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer dose once daily in the morning. Avoid afternoon doses due to the potential for sleep interference.
    May be given without regard to meals.
    Do not administer less than 1 chewable tablet or capsule per day; a single chewable tablet or capsule should not be divided.
    Chewable tablets: Must be chewed completely before swallowing.
    Capsules: Swallow whole. Alternatively, the capsule may be opened and the mixed with yogurt, water, or orange juice as follows:
    If the capsule contents include any compacted powder, use a spoon to break apart the powder.
    Mix the entire capsule contents in the medium until completely dispersed. The active ingredient will dissolve completely, but a film containing the inactive ingredients may remain in the glass or container after the mixture is consumed.
    Instruct the patient to consume the entire mixture immediately; do not store.

    STORAGE

    Vyvanse:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Lisdexamfetamine is contraindicated for use in patients with known hypersensitivity to amphetamines or any component of the lisdexamfetamine product.

    Alcoholism, substance abuse

    Stimulants, such as lisdexamfetamine, have a high potential for substance abuse and dependence. Assess the risk for abuse and dependence prior to initiating lisdexamfetamine treatment, to include evaluating the child or adult patient for a personal or family history of abuse of prescription medicines or street drugs, or abuse or dependence on alcohol (alcoholism). All patients should be monitored for signs of abuse and dependence while receiving lisdexamfetamine. Administration of amphetamines for a prolonged period of time may lead to physical and psychological drug dependence. Misuse of amphetamines may cause sudden death and serious cardiovascular adverse events. The least amount reasonable should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to limit the potential for overuse or drug diversion. Symptoms of chronic intoxication include insomnia, irritability, change in personality, and psychotic symptoms that may be clinically indistinguishable from psychotic disorders.

    Bipolar disorder, depression, mania, psychosis, schizophrenia, suicidal ideation

    Lisdexamfetamine should be used with caution in patients in an agitated state. Stimulants such as lisdexamfetamine should be used cautiously in those with bipolar disorder and/or mania due to the potential for manic episodes to occur. An assessment should be performed prior to initiation of therapy to determine the risk for developing a manic episode (e.g., comorbid history of depressive symptoms or a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression). Due to its toxic effects in overdose, lisdexamfetamine should only be used in those with major depression or suicidal ideation when absolutely necessary. Appropriate stimulant therapy should not suppress normal emotions or intellectual ability; the occurrence of certain side effects may indicate a need for dosage reduction or discontinuation. Not all pediatric patients with ADHD will require medication; non-drug measures are often instituted concurrently with drug therapy. Monitoring of the effectiveness of stimulant therapy by the health care prescriber, parents, and teachers is important; periodic reassessment of the need for medication is recommended. It is recommended to monitor for signs of aggression or worsening of pre-existing aggressive behavior when treatment is initiated. Aggression, hostility, and suicidal ideation or behaviors have been reported in both clinical trials and post-marketing experience with ADHD medications. Although causality has not been established and these behaviors may be inherent to ADHD, close monitoring is recommended. Patients and their caregivers should be advised to promptly report any changes in mood or behavior. If suicide-related events emerge during treatment, consideration should be given to dose reduction or drug discontinuation, especially if symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. In psychotic individuals (e.g., schizophrenia), amphetamines may exacerbate behavioral disturbances, psychosis, or thought disorders. New onset psychotic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, mania) may occur in individuals without a prior history of psychosis. If such symptoms occur, discontinuation of treatment should be considered.

    Hypertension, tachycardia

    Lisdexamfetamine should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing hypertension or tachycardia; prior to initiating treatment, with lisdexamfetamine, the adult, child, or adolescent should be assessed for the presence of cardiovascular disease (e.g., a careful history, family history of arrhythmia or cardiovascular death, and a physical exam).. Stimulant medications must be used very cautiously in patients with even mild hypertension or other conditions in which a modest increase in blood pressure or heart rate could be detrimental. Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (approximately 2 to 4 mmHg) and average heart rate (approximately 3 to 6 bpm); however, some individuals may have larger increases. Although these mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Advise patients that there is a potential serious cardiovascular risk including hypertension with lisdexamfetamine use. Instruct patients to contact a healthcare provider immediately if they develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained fainting, or other symptoms suggestive of heart disease. Further evaluate patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained fainting, or heart rate abnormalities during treatment. Elevated blood pressure may require a dose reduction, discontinuation, and/or initiation of appropriate antihypertensive medication.

    Acute myocardial infarction, aortic stenosis, arteriosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, prosthetic heart valves, stroke, syncope, valvular heart disease, ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular dysfunction

    According to American Heart Association (AHA) guidance and the manufacturer, all patients being considered for treatment with amphetamines should be assessed for cardiac disease (e.g., a careful history, family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmias, and physical exam). Further, the AHA recommends a cardiac evaluation including an ECG and echocardiogram if cardiac disease is suspected. For pediatric patients, the AHA states that it may be useful to obtain a baseline ECG. If a child or adolescent has any significant findings on physical exam, ECG, or family history, a pediatric cardiologist should be consulted before treatment. The manufacturer recommends avoiding use in patients with known structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., ventricular arrhythmias), coronary artery disease, and other serious heart problems that may be exacerbated by the noradrenergic effects of amphetamines (e.g., aortic stenosis, prosthetic heart valves, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, advanced arteriosclerosis, ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction). Because amphetamines can increase blood pressure, all patients should be monitored for tachycardia and hypertension. Patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or arrhythmias should be promptly evaluated. Sudden death, stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) have been reported in adults receiving CNS stimulants at recommended doses, and sudden death has been reported in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities and other serious heart problems taking CNS stimulants at recommended doses for ADHD. The AHA states that it is reasonable to consider ADHD medications in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease without current hemodynamic or arrhythmic concerns or congenital heart disease that the patient's pediatric cardiologist considers stable and without specific concerns. These patients should be closely monitored and treatment discontinuation should be considered if any of the following conditions develop: heart condition associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD), arrhythmia requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, direct current cardioversion/defibrillation, or overdrive pacing, arrhythmia associated with SCD, any clinically significant arrhythmia that is not treated or controlled, QTc interval on ECG of more than 0.46 sec, or heart rate or blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the mean for age. Despite earlier reports of an increased risk, it appears that the short-term risk of serious cardiac events is not significantly increased in otherwise healthy pediatric patients. A large retrospective cohort study of over 1.2 million children, adolescents, and young adults 2 to 24 years of age did not find an increased risk of serious cardiac events in current users of ADHD drugs compared to nonusers. Similar results were seen when current users of ADHD drugs were compared to former users and when current users with severe underlying cardiac disease were included in the analysis. The authors concluded that although the absolute magnitude of risk appears to be low, a modest increased risk could not be ruled out. This data is supported by results from another large population-based retrospective cohort study (patients aged 3 to 18 years) that found no increase in short-term risk of severe cardiac events in stimulant users versus nonusers. Unlike other trials, this second study also included high risk patients (e.g., malignancy, HIV, congenital heart disease, or cardiomyopathy); the odds ratio in the high risk group was 1.02 (95% CI 0.28 to 3.69). The portion of patients specifically using amphetamines in either study is unknown. The authors of both studies concluded that although the absolute magnitude of risk appears to be low, a modest increase in risk could not be ruled out. The effect of long-term use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. Advise patients/caregivers that there are potentially severe cardiac risks including sudden death, MI, stroke, and hypertension, and to contact a healthcare provider immediately if they develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease.

    Hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis

    Stimulants, such as lisdexamfetamine, should be used with caution in patients with hyperthyroidism, including thyrotoxicosis, because sympathomimetic stimulation may induce cardiac arrhythmias or other side effects.

    MAOI therapy

    Lisdexamfetamine is contraindicated in patients who are receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI therapy), including linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, or who have received MAOI therapy within the past 14 days because of the possibility of precipitating a hypertensive crisis. MAOI antidepressants slow amphetamine metabolism, potentiating their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings. This may precipitate hypertensive crisis, malignant hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and a variety of toxic neurologic effects; these events can be fatal. Increased risk for serotonin syndrome also may occur when amphetamines are co-administered with serotonergic agents (e.g., SSRIs, SNRIs, triptans, and others), and may also occur during overdosage situations. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue lisdexamfetamine and all other serotonergic agents, and initiate supportive treatment.

    Glaucoma, visual disturbance

    Amphetamines, such as lisdexamfetamine, should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma. The sympathetic stimulation of amphetamines blocks aqueous outflow and raises intraocular pressure. Occasionally, visual disturbance, such as change in visual accomodation or blurred vision, have been reported in individuals without ocular disease while they are taking amphetamines. Patients should report any new visual disturbance; ophthalmic evaluation may be needed.

    Tics, Tourette's syndrome

    Lisdexamfetamine, like other amphetamines, may precipitate motor or phonetic tics in those with Tourette's syndrome. Some patients with Tourette's syndrome may actually benefit from stimulant therapy; administer under close supervision and at the lowest effective dose.

    Driving or operating machinery

    The use of lisdexamfetamine may cause dizziness, mask signs of fatigue or the need for rest, or impair the ability of a patient to participate in activities that require mental alertness. Patients should not perform such tasks, including driving or operating machinery, until they are aware of how this medication affects them.

    Radiographic contrast administration, seizure disorder, seizures

    Use lisdexamfetamine with caution in patients with a history of a seizure disorder. Stimulants can lower the seizure threshold, particularly during excess CNS stimulation (i.e., amphetamine overdosage). The effects of amphetamines on the seizure threshold, in normal therapeutic dosages, are less clear. Seizure threshold may be reduced in those with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and rarely in patients without a seizure history or EEG abnormalities. Seizures have been reported during postmarketing use of lisdexamfetamine; however, the frequency is unknown. If seizures occur, discontinuation of therapy is recommended. Because of a potential increased risk of seizures, amphetamines should not be used during intrathecal radiographic contrast administration. Based upon recommendations for other amphetamines, lisdexamfetamine should be discontinued 48 hours before the myelography and should not be resumed until at least 24 hours after the procedure.

    Surgery

    The use of inhalational anesthetics during surgery may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of amphetamines and other sympathomimetic drugs. Patients should check with their surgeon prior to elective surgery regarding any adjustments needed in timing of medications for surgical procedures.

    Hypercortisolism

    Lisdexamfetamine may cause hypercortisolism, as amphetamines can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid concentrations. The elevation is greatest in the evening. Amphetamines may interfere with urinary steroid determinations; consider the possible effect of lisdexamfetamine if determination of plasma corticosteroid concentrations is desired.

    Hepatic disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Use lisdexamfetamine with caution in patients with significant hepatic disease or renal impairment. The elimination of amphetamine is dependent on hepatic metabolism, urinary pH and urinary flow rates, as well as active secretion; dysfunction of either system may inhibit elimination and result in prolonged exposure. The mean clearance of lisdexamfetamine's active moiety, d-amphetamine, is reduced in patients with severe renal impairment or renal failure; therefore, reduced maximum daily dosages are recommended. Dialysis does not significantly affect the clearance of d-amphetamine.

    Priapism

    In rare instances, stimulant medications may cause prolonged and sometimes painful erections (priapism). All male patients and their caregivers should be counseled on the signs and symptoms of priapism and the importance of seeking immediate medical attention if an erection lasting more than 4 hours occurs. Immediate diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid tissue damage. Priapism can occur in males of any age; younger males, particularly those who have not reached puberty, may not recognize the problem or may be embarrassed to tell anyone if it occurs. In a review of methylphenidate products by the FDA, the median age of patients who experienced priapism was 12.5 years (range: 8 to 33 years). Reported cases have occurred after a period of time on stimulant therapy and often subsequent to a dose increase. Priapism has also been reported during periods of drug withdrawal (e.g., drug holidays or discontinuation). Practitioners should be aware that both methylphenidate and amphetamine products have been associated with post-marketing reports of priapism; however, causality in relation to the amphetamine products is uncertain because patients had been taking other medications thought to cause priapism. Caution should be used when considering changing male patients from stimulant to non-stimulant medications; atomoxetine is also associated with priapism in young males and appears to carry a higher risk of the condition compared to stimulant medications.

    Peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud's phenomenon

    Stimulant medications are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon. Worsening of peripheral vascular disease is possible. Effects on circulation have been observed with therapeutic doses at different times throughout therapy in all age groups. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild and generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. However, very rare sequelae include digital skin ulcer and/or soft tissue breakdown. Carefully monitor all patients for digital changes during treatment with stimulant medications, especially those with pre-existing circulation problems. Instruct patients to seek immediate medical attention if any new digital numbness, pain, skin discoloration, or temperature sensitivity occur, or if unexplained wounds appear on their fingers or toes. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity treatment

    Lisdexamfetamine is specifically FDA approved to assist patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Other eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, should be ruled out prior to treatment with lisdexamfetamine for either BED or for attention deficit (ADD/ADHD). Patients with eating disorders may have physiologic complications, such as metabolic and electrolyte abnormalities, which increase their susceptibility to the adverse effects of stimulants. Use of other sympathomimetic drugs for weight loss has been associated with serious cardiovascular adverse events. Lisdexamfetamine is not indicated or recommended to promote generalized weight loss. The safety and effectiveness of lisdexamfetamine for obesity treatment have not been established.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Administration of amphetamines for a prolonged period of time may lead to physical and psychological drug dependence. Abrupt discontinuation after chronic use (therapeutic and recreational) may result in severe depressive symptoms, extreme fatigue, sleep EEG changes, and symptoms of withdrawal. Close supervision during gradual withdrawal of therapy is recommended. Of note, drug 'holidays', the temporary discontinuation of drug during weekends, holidays, summer vacations, and etc. in patients with well-controlled attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, are not usually associated with drug withdrawal symptoms.

    Growth inhibition, infants

    Pediatric patients 3 years and older have been successfully treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with amphetamines; however, safe and effective use for lisdexamfetamine have not been established in children and infants less than 6 years of age for ADHD, and safety and efficacy are not established in pediatric patients for the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). The potential for growth inhibition in pediatric patients should be monitored during stimulant therapy with lisdexamfetamine. Monitor height and weight parameters relative to age at treatment initiation and periodically thereafter (at minimum yearly). Patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted. In a study of children aged 6 to 12 years receiving lisdexamfetamine 30 mg, 50 mg, and 70 mg mean weight loss from baseline over 4 weeks was -0.9, -1.9, and -2.5 pounds, respectively, compared to a 1 pound weight gain for patients receiving placebo. Adolescents aged 13 to 17 years had a mean weight loss from baseline of -2.7, -4.3, and -4.8 pounds when receiving the same doses over 4 weeks compared to a 2 pound weight gain for patients receiving placebo. Follow-up of children aged 6 to 12 years who were consistently medicated (treatment for 7 days/week) over a 12 month period showed a slowing in growth rate. Data obtained on the effects of stimulants on growth suppression in children 7 to 10 years of age suggested that regularly medicated children (7 days/week) had a temporary average slowing in growth of 2 cm in height and 2.7 kg in weight over 3 years. Data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of stimulants causes long-term growth inhibition. Although data are limited, available studies do not indicate that stimulant use compromises the attainment of normal adult height and weight in most children.

    Labor, neonates, obstetric delivery, pregnancy, premature labor

    Amphetamines should be avoided during pregnancy if possible. The limited available data from published literature and postmarketing reports on use of lisdexamfetamine during human pregnancy are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. However, amphetamines have been shown to have both embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in some animals when administered at high doses. In addition, because amphetamines cause vasoconstriction, they may decrease placental perfusion. Amphetamines can stimulate uterine contractions increasing the risk of premature labor and there is no essential use of the drugs during labor or obstetric delivery. Neonates born to amphetamine-dependent mothers are at increased risk for premature delivery and low birth weight. Physical withdrawal symptoms (e.g., abnormal sleep patterns, poor feeding, tremor, irritability, agitation, excessive drowsiness, and hypertonia) may occur in the neonate following delivery. There is 1 case of a neonate born with a severe congenital bony deformity, tracheo-esophageal fistula, and anal atresia following maternal exposure to dextroamphetamine sulfate and lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. However, most available data indicate that amphetamines are not teratogenic in humans. Of 671 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project who had first trimester exposure to amphetamines and 1898 mother-child pairs with amphetamine exposures at any time during pregnancy, there was no evidence suggesting a relationship to large categories of major or minor malformations. In a prospective comparison study, neonates exposed to cocaine, methamphetamine, or a combination of cocaine and narcotic in utero had a 35.1% incidence of cranial abnormalities (i.e., intraventricular hemorrhage, echodensities known to be associated with necrosis, and cavitary lesions) compared to a 5.3% incidence in normal infants as assessed by cranial ultrasonography; the authors attributed the findings to the vasoconstrictive properties of the drugs.

    Breast-feeding

    Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, including serious cardiovascular reactions, blood pressure and heart rate increase, suppression of growth, and peripheral vasculopathy, advise patients that breast-feeding is not recommended during treatment with lisdexamfetamine. Lisdexamfetamine is a pro-drug of dextroamphetamine. Based on limited case reports in published literature, amphetamine (d-or d, l-) is present in human milk, at relative infant doses of 2% to 13.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.9 and 7.5. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breast-fed infant. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from amphetamine exposure are unknown. It is possible that large dosages of dextroamphetamine might interfere with milk production, especially in women whose lactation is not well established. The effect of stimulant medication exposure via breast milk on the neurological development of the infant has not been well studied. In a study of 4 women with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving d-amphetamine (median dose 18 mg/day) while breast-feeding, the mean relative infant dose was 5.7% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose (range: 3.9 to 13.8%). Of the 3 infants in whom blood samples were obtained, plasma d-amphetamine levels were undetectable in 1 infant; d-amphetamine levels were approximately 6% and 14% of the corresponding maternal plasma concentrations in the remaining 2 infants. None of the 4 infants in the study showed any adverse effects. If breast-feeding cannot be avoided during administration of a stimulant, the nursing infant should be monitored for signs of central nervous system hyperactivity, including decreased appetite, insomnia, and irritability. If possible, long-term infant exposure to stimulants through breast milk should be avoided since the consequences of such exposure are unknown. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, health care providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Geriatric

    Clinical studies for lisdexamphetamine for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) did not include sufficient numbers of geriatric adults 65 years of age or older to determine whether they respond differently from younger adults. Clinical studies for binge-eating disorder (BED) did not include adult and geriatric patients older than 55 years of age; therefore, dosing recommendations are not available for this condition. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses. In general, dose selection for an elderly a geriatric patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Stimulant medications are used as the treatments of choice in the adult patient over 50 years of age with ADHD when behavioral and lifestyle modifications alone have failed to improve concerns associated with inattention, such as task focus and completion, or organization and time management. Medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. Debilitated or geriatric patients may be more susceptible to the CNS and sympathomimetic side effects of the amphetamines; use with caution in the older adult. Side effects of amphetamines or other stimulants are usually mild but may include mood or behavior changes, tremor, insomnia, increased blood pressure, headache, or gastroesophageal reflux or other GI complaints. Adults should have their blood pressure and heart rate checked at baseline and periodically during treatment. If treatment is considered necessary, periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ocular hypertension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    visual impairment / Early / Incidence not known
    Tourette's syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / Incidence not known
    cardiomyopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bradycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 0-6.0
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / 2.6-2.6
    palpitations / Early / 2.0-2.0
    dyspnea / Early / 2.0-2.0
    psychosis / Early / 0.1-0.2
    mania / Early / 0.1-0.1
    supranormalization / Delayed / Incidence not known
    euphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    hostility / Early / Incidence not known
    dysphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    hallucinations / Early / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known
    dyskinesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    teeth grinding (bruxism) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral vasoconstriction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    skin ulcer / Delayed / Incidence not known
    priapism / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperthermia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    tachypnea / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperreflexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    delirium / Early / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tolerance / Delayed / Incidence not known
    psychological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    physiological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    withdrawal / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    insomnia / Early / 13.0-36.0
    xerostomia / Early / 4.0-36.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 2.0-12.0
    irritability / Delayed / 10.0-10.0
    vomiting / Early / 2.0-9.0
    nausea / Early / 6.0-7.0
    diarrhea / Early / 4.0-7.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0-6.0
    dizziness / Early / 5.0-5.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 2.0-5.0
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 3.0-4.0
    restlessness / Early / 0-3.0
    agitation / Early / 3.0-3.0
    rash / Early / 3.0-3.0
    tremor / Early / 2.0-2.0
    drowsiness / Early / 2.0-2.0
    fever / Early / 2.0-2.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 0-2.0
    nightmares / Early / 0-2.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-2.0
    libido decrease / Delayed / 1.4-1.4
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    emotional lability / Early / Incidence not known
    mydriasis / Early / Incidence not known
    diplopia / Early / Incidence not known
    dysgeusia / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspepsia / Early / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known
    photosensitivity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    alopecia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    libido increase / Delayed / Incidence not known
    paranoia / Early / Incidence not known
    infection / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acarbose: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acebutolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Major) During overdosage of propoxyphene, the central stimulant effects of lisdexamfetamine and other amphetamines may be potentiated and the combination may produce fatal convulsions.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and tramadol. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. An additive risk of seizures is also possible. Monitor for serotonin syndrome and seizures or other adverse effects, particularly after a dose increase or the addition of interacting medications. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Acetazolamide: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizers, such as acetazolamide and methazolamide, result in decreased renal excretion of amphetamines. Monitor for amphetamine-related side effects. Avoid concomitant use in amphetamine overdose situations. Urinary alkalinizers increase the proportion of non-ionized metabolites of the amphetamine molecule, resulting in decreased renal excretion of these compounds. Alkaline urine will significantly increase the half-life of lisdexamfetamine.
    Albiglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Albuterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Albuterol; Ipratropium: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Aliskiren: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving aliskiren and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving aliskiren and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents. (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving aliskiren and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents. (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving aliskiren and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving aliskiren and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Alkalinizing Agents: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Ambrisentan: (Minor) Sympathomimetics such as lisdexamfetamine can antagonize the effects of vasodilators when administered concomitantly. Patients should be monitored for reduced efficacy of ambrisentan.
    Amifampridine: (Major) Carefully consider the need for concomitant treatment with lisdexamfetamine and amifampridine, as coadministration may increase the risk of seizures. If coadministration occurs, closely monitor patients for seizure activity. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures taking amifampridine at recommended doses. Lisdexamfetamine may increase the risk of seizures.
    Amlodipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Ammonium Chloride: (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as ammonium chloride, and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Antacids: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Armodafinil: (Moderate) The use of armodafinil with other psychostimulants, including amphetamines, (e.g., dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, amphetamine) has not been studied. In a single-dose study of dextroamphetamine combined with modafinil, a racemic compound containing armodafinil, no pharmacokinetic interactions occurred but a slight increase in stimulant-associated side effects was noted. Patients receiving combination therapy of armodafinil with other psychostimulants should be closely observed for signs of nervousness, irritability, insomnia, arrhythmias, or other stimulant-related side effects.
    Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C: (Moderate) Concurrent use of amphetamines and gastrointestinal acidifying agents, such as ascorbic acid, vitamin C, should be used with caution. Vitamin C lowers the absorption of amphetamines, resulting in reduced efficacy. It may be advisable to separate times of administration. In addition, ascorbic acid acts as a urinary acidifier, which reduces the renal tubular reabsorption of amphetamines, accelerating amphetamine clearance and reducing the duration of effect. If combined use is necessary, the amphetamine dose should be adjusted according to clinical response as needed.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Atenolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Consider monitoring heart rate and blood pressure at baseline and regularly throughout treatment if these agents must be used together. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure; atomoxetine has been reported to also increase blood pressure and heart rate. Due to an additive pharmacodynamic effect, lisdexamfetamine and atomoxetine should be used together cautiously, particularly in patients with a history of cardiac disease.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Severe) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of phenobarbital, although the extent of absorption is not known to be affected.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable. (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of phenobarbital, although the extent of absorption is not known to be affected.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Severe) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Beta-blockers: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Betaxolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Bethanechol offsets the effects of sympathomimetics at sites where sympathomimetic and cholinergic receptors have opposite effects.
    Bisoprolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bosentan: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with bosentan. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including bosentan. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Bromocriptine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of bromocriptine and some sympathomimetics such as amphetamines should be approached with caution. One case report documented worsening headache, hypertension, premature ventricular complexes, and ventricular tachycardia in a post-partum patient receiving bromocriptine for lactation suppression who was subsequently prescribed an isometheptene-containing medication for a headache. A second case involved a post-partum patient receiving bromocriptine who was later prescribed a phenylpropanolamine-expectorant combination and subsequently developed hypertension, tachycardia, seizures, and cerebral vasospasm.
    Bupropion: (Major) The risk of seizures from the use of bupropion may be increased with concomitant use of CNS stimulants that may induce seizures, including the lisdexamfetamine. Concurrent use is not recommended. Extreme caution and close clinical monitoring is recommended if these agents must be used together.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) The risk of seizures from the use of bupropion may be increased with concomitant use of CNS stimulants that may induce seizures, including the lisdexamfetamine. Concurrent use is not recommended. Extreme caution and close clinical monitoring is recommended if these agents must be used together.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and buspirone. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Cabergoline: (Minor) In theory, an interaction is possible between cabergoline, an ergot derivative, and some sympathomimetic agents such as amphetamines. Use of the ergot derivative bromocriptine for lactation suppression in conjunction with a sympathomimetic (i.e., isometheptene or phenylpropanolamine) for other therapeutic uses has resulted in adverse effects such as worsening headache, hypertension, ventricular tachycardia, seizures, sudden loss of vision, and cerebral vasospasm.
    Caffeine: (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine. (Moderate) CNS-stimulating actions of caffeine can be additive with other CNS stimulants. Patients may need to reduce, limit, or avoid caffeine intake. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, supplements or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, guarana, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, insomnia, or tremor.
    Caffeine; Ergotamine: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable. (Moderate) Avoid excessive caffeine intake during use of lisdexamfetamine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants or psychostimulants. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, foods like chocolate, dietary supplements, or beverages including coffee, green tea, other teas, colas) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, nausea, insomnia, or tremor. Patients should avoid medications and dietary supplements which contain high amounts of caffeine.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Moderate) Calcium carbonate is a gastrointestinal alkalinizing agent that may iincrease the oral absorption of amphetamines and increase amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take caclium carbonate at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration. (Moderate) Calcium carbonate is a gastrointestinal alkalinizing agent that may iincrease the oral absorption of amphetamines and increase amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take caclium carbonate at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Moderate) Calcium carbonate is a gastrointestinal alkalinizing agent that may iincrease the oral absorption of amphetamines and increase amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take caclium carbonate at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Moderate) Calcium carbonate is a gastrointestinal alkalinizing agent that may iincrease the oral absorption of amphetamines and increase amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take caclium carbonate at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Calcium-channel blockers: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Canagliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Major) Levodopa, due to its conversion to dopamine, may increase the risk of developing amphetamine-induced cardiac arrhythmias; dosage reductions of lisdexamfetamine may be advisable when the two agents are used concurrently.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Major) Levodopa, due to its conversion to dopamine, may increase the risk of developing amphetamine-induced cardiac arrhythmias; dosage reductions of lisdexamfetamine may be advisable when the two agents are used concurrently.
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizers, such as acetazolamide and methazolamide, result in decreased renal excretion of amphetamines. Monitor for amphetamine-related side effects. Avoid concomitant use in amphetamine overdose situations. Urinary alkalinizers increase the proportion of non-ionized metabolites of the amphetamine molecule, resulting in decreased renal excretion of these compounds. Alkaline urine will significantly increase the half-life of lisdexamfetamine.
    Cardiac glycosides: (Major) Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides with sympathomimetics can cause arrhythmias because sympathomimetics enhance ectopic pacemaker activity. Caution is warranted during co-administration of digoxin and sympathomimetics.
    Carteolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Carvedilol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving clonidine and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Cinacalcet: (Moderate) Warn patients that there are potentially serious drug interactions between cinacalcet and prescription amphetamine therapy or illicit amphetamine use. The risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors such as cinacalcet. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and citalopram. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged. (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate, diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines. These drug combinations should be avoided, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate; Sodium Citrate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged. (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate, diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines. These drug combinations should be avoided, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Citric Acid; Sodium Citrate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Clevidipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Clobazam: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide, ethotoin (hydantoin), phenobarbital, and phenytoin, the extent of absorption of these seizure medications is not known to be affected.
    Clonazepam: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Clonidine: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving clonidine and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Clorazepate: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Cocaine: (Severe) Additive effects and increased toxicity may be observed when using cocaine in combination with other sympathomimetics. The combined use of these agents may have the potential for additive adrenergic stimulation and side effects, such as CNS stimulation, hypertensive crisis, cardiac arrhythmias or ischemia (angina).
    Colchicine: (Minor) The response to sympathomimetics may be enhanced by colchicine.
    Colchicine; Probenecid: (Minor) The response to sympathomimetics may be enhanced by colchicine.
    Dacomitinib: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity, including serotonin syndrome, may be increased during concurrent use with dacomitinib. Concurrent use of dacomitinib, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase exposure to the amphetamine increasing the risk for serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and dacomitinib should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Dapagliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of ritonavir, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) Warn patients that there are potentially serious drug interactions between delavirdine and prescription amphetamine therapy or illicit amphetamine use. The risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors such as delavirdine. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Desvenlafaxine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of quinidine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Diazepam: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Digitoxin: (Major) Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides with sympathomimetics can cause arrhythmias because sympathomimetics enhance ectopic pacemaker activity. Caution is warranted during co-administration of digoxin and sympathomimetics.
    Digoxin: (Major) Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides with sympathomimetics can cause arrhythmias because sympathomimetics enhance ectopic pacemaker activity. Caution is warranted during co-administration of digoxin and sympathomimetics.
    Dihydroergotamine: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Diltiazem: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Doxazosin: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving doxazosin and amphetamines. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as doxazosin.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Concurrent use of dronabinol, THC with sympathomimetics may result in additive hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity. Dronabinol, THC has been associated with occasional hypotension, hypertension, syncope, and tachycardia. In a study of 7 adult males, combinations of IV cocaine and smoked marijuana, 1 g marijuana cigarette, 0 to 2.7% delta-9-THC, increased the heart rate above levels seen with either agent alone, with increases plateauing at 50 bpm.
    Dulaglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Dyphylline: (Moderate) Use of sympathomimetics with dyphylline should be approached with caution. Coadministration may lead to adverse effects, such as tremors, insomnia, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Dyphylline; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Use of sympathomimetics with dyphylline should be approached with caution. Coadministration may lead to adverse effects, such as tremors, insomnia, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias.
    Empagliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Eplerenone: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving eplerenone and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Epoprostenol: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with epoprostenol. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including epoprostenol. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Ergoloid Mesylates: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Ergonovine: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Ergot alkaloids: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Ergotamine: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Ertugliflozin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and escitalopram. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Esketamine: (Major) Closely monitor blood pressure during concomitant use of esketamine and an amphetamine. Coadministration of psychostimulants, such as amphetamines, with esketamine may increase blood pressure, including the possibility of hypertensive crisis.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide, ethotoin (hydantoin), phenobarbital, and phenytoin, the extent of absorption of these seizure medications is not known to be affected.
    Esmolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Exenatide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide, ethotoin (hydantoin), phenobarbital, and phenytoin, the extent of absorption of these seizure medications is not known to be affected.
    Felbamate: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Felodipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering amphetamines with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as fentanyl. Further study is needed to fully elucidate the severity and frequency of adverse effects that may occur from concomitant administration of amphetamines and fentanyl. Patients receiving fentanyl and an amphetamine should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. The amphetamine and fentanyl should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and fluoxetine. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management. In addition, amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and fluoxetine is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Increased systemic exposure to amphetamines from CYP2D6 inhibition may result in high blood pressure, tachycardia, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, or other amphetamine-related adverse effects.
    Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and fluoxetine. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management. In addition, amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and fluoxetine is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Increased systemic exposure to amphetamines from CYP2D6 inhibition may result in high blood pressure, tachycardia, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, or other amphetamine-related adverse effects.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should also be used when salmeterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as vilanterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as vilanterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and fluvoxamine. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Food: (Major) Avoid administering marijuana and amphetamines together as concurrent use may result in adverse cardiovascular effects, such as tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmias. Marijuana is known to produce significant increases in heart rate and cardiac output lasting for 2-3 hours. Further, rare case reports of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmias have been associated with marijuana use. Amphetamines have also been reported to produce a wide range of cardiovascular effects including cardiac arrhythmias, palpitations, and sinus tachycardia. Coadministration of marijuana with amphetamines may result in significant cardiovascular adverse events and thus, should be avoided. (Moderate) Foods that acidify the urine, such as cranberry juice, orange juice, or those that contain ascorbic acid, vitamin C may increase amphetamine renal excretion. Patients should not significantly alter their diets, however as these changes are not expected to be clinically significant. (Moderate) Foods that alkalinize the urine, such as beets, dairy products, kale, spinach may slightly slow urinary excretion of amphetamines. Patients should not significantly alter their diets, however as these changes are not expected to be clinically significant. (Moderate) In general, food does not significantly interact with the amphetamine stimulants, a dose may be taken with or without food. However, certain gastrointestinal acidifying agents (e.g., certain fruit juices, etc.) can lower the oral absorption of amphetamines. To ensure proper absorption, it may be prudent for the patient to avoid citrus fruits and citrus juices 1 hour before a dose, at the time of dosing, and for the 1 hour following a dose. In addition, the excretion of amphetamines is increased in acidic urine and decreased in alkaline urine. Foods that acidify the urine, such as cranberry juice, orange juice, or those that contain vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may increase amphetamine renal excretion. Conversely, foods that alkalinize the urine, such as beets, dairy products, kale, spinach may slightly slow urinary excretion of amphetamines. Patients should not significantly alter their diets, however, as these changes in urinary pH from foods are not expected to be clinically significant for most patients.
    Gabapentin: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, discontinue use of amphetamines.
    General anesthetics: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of lisdexamfetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Glimepiride; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Green Tea: (Major) Some green tea products contain caffeine. Caffeine is a CNS-stimulant and such actions are expected to be additive when coadministered with other CNS stimulants. Caffeine should be avoided or used cautiously with sympathomimetics. Excessive caffeine ingestion (via medicines, supplements or beverages including green te) may contribute to side effects like nervousness, irritability, insomnia, or tremor.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the antihypertensive effects of guanabenz when administered concomitantly. Patients should be monitored for loss of blood pressure control.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents, such as amphetamines, may increase blood pressure and reduce the antihypertensive effects of antihypertensive agents, such as guanfacine. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate periodically when prescribed together. Guanfacine may be used adjunctively to psychostimulants such as amphetamines in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pharmacokinetic studies reveal that guanfacine does not influence lisdexamfetamine pharmacokinetics and lisdexamfetamine does not affect guanfacine pharmacokinetics. No dosage adjustments are required when guanfacine and amphetamines are used together for ADHD. Monitor heart rate, blood pressure and for sedation during ADHD treatment.
    Hydantoins: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Also, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethotoin and phenytoin, although the extent of absorption is not known to be affected.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving methyldopa and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Severe) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Iloprost: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with iloprost. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including iloprost. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Incretin Mimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Indacaterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Indapamide may increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines. Thiazide diuretics and related drugs like indapamide may increase urinary pH, acting as a urinary alkalinizer, thus reducing urinary excretion and increasing blood concentrations of the amphetamine. Co-administration of amphetamines and urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If needed, monitor for common amphetamine side effects, including decreased appetite, anxiety, dizziness, dry mouth, irritability, insomnia, nausea, increased blood pressure or increased heart rate.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Insulins: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Iobenguane I 131: (Major) Discontinue sympathomimetics for at least 5 half-lives before the administration of the dosimetry dose or a therapeutic dose of iobenguane I-131. Do not restart sympathomimetics until at least 7 days after each iobenguane I-131 dose. Drugs that reduce catecholamine uptake or deplete catecholamine stores, such as sympathomimetics, may interfere with iobenguane I-131 uptake into cells and interfere with dosimetry calculations resulting in altered iobenguane I-131 efficacy.
    Isocarboxazid: (Severe) In general, all types of sympathomimetics and psychostimulants should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and even respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Isradipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Labetalol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Lacosamide: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Lamotrigine: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Levalbuterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Levetiracetam: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Levobetaxolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Levobunolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Levodopa: (Major) Levodopa, due to its conversion to dopamine, may increase the risk of developing amphetamine-induced cardiac arrhythmias; dosage reductions of lisdexamfetamine may be advisable when the two agents are used concurrently.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Levothyroxine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Linezolid: (Severe) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of linezolid. Linezolid possesses MAO-inhibiting activity and can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of the amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Linezolid also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue serotonergic drugs and institute appropriate medical management.
    Liothyronine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Liraglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and lithium. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Loop diuretics: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as loop diuretics. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of ritonavir, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Lorazepam: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and lorcaserin. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management. Also, the safety and efficacy of coadministration of lorcaserin with other products for weight loss, including amphetamines, have not been established.
    Lurasidone: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Macitentan: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with macitentan. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including macitentan. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids and other gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the oral absorption of amphetamines. This may lead to increased amphetamine concentrations. To help limit an interaction, do not take antacids at the same time as the amphetamine product. It is recommended to separate times of administration.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Use maprotiline and sympathomimetics together with caution and close clinical monitoring. Regularly assess blood pressure, heart rate, the efficacy of treatment, and the emergence of sympathomimetic/adrenergic adverse events. Carefully adjust dosages as clinically indicated. Maprotiline has pharmacologic activity similar to tricyclic antidepressant agents and may cause additive sympathomimetic effects when combined with agents with adrenergic/sympathomimetic activity.
    Meglitinides: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Meperidine: (Major) Amphetamines have been reported to increase the analgesic effects of meperidine. However, due to the MAO-inhibitor activity of amphetamines, the concurrent use lisdexamfetamine and meperidine is not recommended. Hypotension, severe respiratory depression, coma, convulsions, hyperpyrexia, vascular collapse, and death can occur.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Amphetamines have been reported to increase the analgesic effects of meperidine. However, due to the MAO-inhibitor activity of amphetamines, the concurrent use lisdexamfetamine and meperidine is not recommended. Hypotension, severe respiratory depression, coma, convulsions, hyperpyrexia, vascular collapse, and death can occur.
    Mephobarbital: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Metformin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Metformin; Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Methazolamide: (Moderate) Urinary alkalinizers, such as acetazolamide and methazolamide, result in decreased renal excretion of amphetamines. Monitor for amphetamine-related side effects. Avoid concomitant use in amphetamine overdose situations. Urinary alkalinizers increase the proportion of non-ionized metabolites of the amphetamine molecule, resulting in decreased renal excretion of these compounds. Alkaline urine will significantly increase the half-life of lisdexamfetamine.
    Methenamine: (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate: (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Severe) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Methohexital: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of lisdexamfetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Methyldopa: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving methyldopa and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Methylene Blue: (Severe) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma.
    Methylergonovine: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Methysergide: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Metoprolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Miglitol: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and mirtazapine. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release and act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management
    Modafinil: (Moderate) The use of modafinil with other psychostimulants, including amphetamines (e.g., amphetamine, dextroamphetamine. lisdexamfetamine), has not been extensively studied. Patients receiving combination therapy of modafinil with other psychostimulants should be closely observed for signs of nervousness, irritability, insomnia, arrhythmias, or other CNS stimulant-related side effects. In single-dose studies of dextroamphetamine combined with modafinil, no significant pharmacokinetic interactions occurred, but a slight increase in stimulant-associated side effects was noted.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Severe) In general, all types of sympathomimetics and psychostimulants should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and even respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concurrent use of nabilone with sympathomimetics (e.g., amphetamine or cocaine) may result in additive hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity. In a study of 7 adult males, combinations of cocaine (IV) and smoked marijuana (1 g marijuana cigarette, 0 to 2.7% delta-9-THC) increased the heart rate above levels seen with either agent alone, with increases reaching a plateau at 50 bpm.
    Nadolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Nebivolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and nefazodone. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Nicardipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Nifedipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Nimodipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Nisoldipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Nitrates: (Moderate) Sympathomimetics can antagonize the antianginal effects of nitrates, and can increase blood pressure and/or heart rate. Anginal pain may be induced when coronary insufficiency is present.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Major) Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold, such as lisdexamfetamine, should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours postprocedure.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of ritonavir, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and paroxetine. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management. In addition, amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and paroxetine is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Increased systemic exposure to amphetamines from CYP2D6 inhibition may result in high blood pressure, tachycardia, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, or other amphetamine-related adverse effects.
    Penbutolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Pentobarbital: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Perampanel: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide, ethotoin (hydantoin), phenobarbital, and phenytoin, the extent of absorption of these seizure medications is not known to be affected.
    Pergolide: (Major) Amphetamines, which increase catecholamine release, can increase blood pressure; this effect may be additive with the prolonged vasoconstriction caused by ergot alkaloids. Monitoring for cardiac effects during concurrent use of ergot alkaloids with amphetamines may be advisable.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Phenelzine: (Severe) In general, all types of sympathomimetics and psychostimulants should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and even respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Phenobarbital: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of phenobarbital, although the extent of absorption is not known to be affected.
    Phenoxybenzamine: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents. Due to the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity, amphetamines should be used cautiously with beta-blockers. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation. In particular, amphetamines can inhibit the antihypertensive response to guanadrel, an adrenergic antagonist that causes depletion of norepinephrine in the synapse. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of phentermine with amphetamines may result in additive cardiovascular and CNS adverse effects. Coadministration is not recommended when amphetamines are used for weight loss as safety and efficacy of phentermine in combination with other weight loss products has not been established.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines and urinary alkalinizers, such as topiramate, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of these compounds. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged in the presence of these drugs. In addition, patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. (Moderate) Concurrent use of phentermine with amphetamines may result in additive cardiovascular and CNS adverse effects. Coadministration is not recommended when amphetamines are used for weight loss as safety and efficacy of phentermine in combination with other weight loss products has not been established.
    Phentolamine: (Major) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents. Due to the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity, amphetamines should be used cautiously with beta-blockers. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Phentolamine may decrease, but not completely reverse, the pressor response of amphetamine overdose. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Pindolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Pioglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Potassium Bicarbonate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged. (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate, diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines. These drug combinations should be avoided, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Potassium Chloride: (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate, diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines. These drug combinations should be avoided, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Potassium Citrate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged. (Major) Urinary alkalinizers, such as potassium citrate, diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines. These drug combinations should be avoided, especially in amphetamine overdose situations.
    Potassium-sparing diuretics: (Minor) Lisedexamfetamine may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like potassium-sparing diuretics. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Pramlintide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Prazosin: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving prazosin and amphetamines. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as prazosin.
    Pregabalin: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide, ethotoin (hydantoin), phenobarbital, and phenytoin, the extent of absorption of these seizure medications is not known to be affected.
    Primidone: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Because procarbazine exhibits some monoamine oxidase inhibitory (MAOI) activity, sympathomimetic drugs should be avoided. As with MAOIs, the use of a sympathomimetic drug with procarbazine may precipitate hypertensive crisis or other serious side effects. In the presence of MAOIs, drugs that cause release of norepinephrine induce severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses. In general, do not use a sympathomimetic drug unless clinically necessary (e.g., medical emergencies, agents like dopamine) within the 14 days prior, during or 14 days after procarbazine therapy. If use is necessary within 2 weeks of the MAOI drug, in general the initial dose of the sympathomimetic agent must be greatly reduced. Patients should be counseled to avoid non-prescription (OTC) decongestants and other drug products, weight loss products, and energy supplements that contain sympathomimetic agents.
    Propoxyphene: (Major) During overdosage of propoxyphene, the central stimulant effects of lisdexamfetamine and other amphetamines may be potentiated and the combination may produce fatal convulsions.
    Propranolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Quinidine: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of quinidine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Racepinephrine: (Major) Racepinephrine is a sympathomimetic drug with agonist actions at both the alpha and beta receptors. Patients using racepinephrine inhalation are advised to avoid other non-prescription products containing sympathomimetics since additive adverse effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system are possible, some which may be undesirable. Side effects such as nausea, tremor, nervousness, difficulty with sleep, and increased heart rate or blood pressure may be additive. Patients should avoid use of non-prescription decongestants, such as phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine, while using racepinephrine inhalations. Patients should avoid dietary supplements containing ingredients that are reported or claimed to have a stimulant or weight-loss effect, such as ephedrine and ephedra, Ma huang, and phenylpropanolamine. Patients taking prescription sympathomimetic or stimulant medications (including amphetamines, methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, isometheptane, epinephrine) should seek health care professional advice prior to the use of racepinephrine inhalations; consider therapeutic alternatives to racepinephrine for these patients.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) The concomitant use of rasagiline and sympathomimetics was not allowed in clinical studies; therefore, caution is advised during concurrent use of rasagiline and sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD and weight loss, non-prescription nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants, and weight loss dietary supplements containing Ephedra. Although sympathomimetics are contraindicated for use with other non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), hypertensive reactions generally are not expected to occur during concurrent use with rasagiline because of the selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition of rasagiline at manufacturer recommended doses. One case of elevated blood pressure has been reported in a patient during concurrent use of the recommended dose of rasagiline and ophthalmic tetrahydrozoline. One case of hypertensive crisis has been reported in a patient taking the recommended dose of another MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, in combination with ephedrine. It should be noted that the MAO-B selectivity of rasagiline decreases in a dose-related manner as increases are made above the recommended daily dose and interactions with sympathomimetics may be more likely to occur at these higher doses.
    Reserpine: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines and gastrointestinal acidifying agents, such as reserpine, lowers the absorption of amphetamines, reducing their efficacy. In addition, amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some agents for blood pressure such as reserpine. Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed.
    Riociguat: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with riociguat. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including riociguat. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Warn patients that the risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of ritonavir, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Rufinamide: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide, ethotoin (hydantoin), phenobarbital, and phenytoin, the extent of absorption of these seizure medications is not known to be affected.
    Safinamide: (Severe) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Salmeterol: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should also be used when salmeterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects.
    Selegiline: (Severe) In general, all types of sympathomimetics and psychostimulants should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and even respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Selexipag: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with selexipag. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including selexipag. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Semaglutide: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Serotonin-Receptor Agonists: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin-receptor agonists. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and sertraline. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    SGLT2 Inhibitors: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Sibutramine: (Major) The use of sibutramine with CNS stimulants not used for weight loss, such as lisdexamfetamine, has not been evaluated and is not recommended. Consider alternatives. Concomitant use may raise blood pressure or heart rate. Serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening reaction, may also occur when lisdexamfetamine is used in combination with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems such as sibutramine. If use together is clinically warranted, consider initiating lisdexamfetamine with lower doses, monitoring patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome during drug initiation or titration, and informing patients of the increased risk for serotonin syndrome. Discontinue treatment with lisdexamfetamine and any concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, and initiate supportive symptomatic treatment.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Sodium Lactate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Sodium Oxybate: (Moderate) Sodium oxybate has the potential to induce seizures; it has been speculated that this effect may be mediated through the action of sodium oxybate at GABA receptors. Although convulsant effects occur primarily at high dosages, sodium oxybate should be used cautiously with psychostimulants that are known to lower seizure threshold such as the amphetamines. Note that CNS stimulants, including the amphetamines, methylphenidate, and modafinil are frequently used in the treatment of narcolepsy, and clinical trials involving the use of psychostimulants with sodium oxybate have not found the combinations to be unsafe. Pharmacodynamic interactions cannot be ruled out, however.
    Solriamfetol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and heart rate during coadministration of solriamfetol, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and amphetamines, which are CNS stimulants. Concurrent use of solriamfetol and other medications that increase blood pressure and/or heart rate may increase the risk of such effects. Coadministration of solriamfetol with other drugs that increase blood pressure or heart rate has not been evaluated.
    Sotalol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and St. John's Wort. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Succinimides: (Major) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use lisdexamfetamine with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary. Additionally, amphetamines may delay the intestinal absorption of ethosuximide. The extent of absorption of ethosuximide is not known to be affected.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Tedizolid: (Minor) Theoretically, drugs that possess MAO-inhibiting activity, such as tedizolid, can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines. Serious CNS reactions, such as serotonin syndrome, have been reported during the concurrent use of linezolid, which is structurally similar to tedizolid, and psychiatric medications that enhance central serotonergic activity; therefore, caution is warranted with concomitant use of other agents with serotonergic activity, including amphetamines.
    Terazosin: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving terazosin and amphetamines. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as terazosin.
    Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of theophylline or aminophylline with some sympathomimetics can produce excessive stimulation and effects such as nervousness, irritability, or insomnia. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of theophylline or aminophylline with some sympathomimetics can produce excessive stimulation and effects such as nervousness, irritability, or insomnia. Seizures or cardiac arrhythmias are also possible.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Minor) Amphetamines may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, such as thiazide diuretics. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised. Thiazide diuretics may also increase and prolong the actions of amphetamines by increasing the urinary pH.
    Thiazolidinediones: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Thiopental: (Major) Inhalational general anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of lisdexamfetamine. Dosages of the amphetamines should be substantially reduced prior to surgery, and caution should be observed with concurrent use of anesthetics.
    Thiothixene: (Major) Concurrent use of antipsychotics, such as thiothixene, and amphetamines should generally be avoided. Antipsychotics and amphetamines may interact pharmacodynamically to diminish the therapeutic effects of either agent through opposing effects on dopamine. Amphetamines are thought to block central dopamine reuptake, which has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, and antipsychotics, which are central dopamine antagonists, may diminish the effectiveness of amphetamines.
    Thyroid hormones: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic amines should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis since these patients are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of sympathomimetic drugs, the concomitant use of sympathomimetics and thyroid hormones can enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of coronary insufficiency from either agent. Concomitant use of these agents may increase this risk further. In addition, dopamine at a dose of >= 1 mcg/kg/min and dopamine agonists (e.g., apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) may result in a transient reduction in TSH secretion. The reduction in TSH secretion is not sustained; hypothyroidism does not occur.
    Tiagabine: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Timolol: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents to the sympathomimetic agent may be needed in patients receiving a beta-blocker. Sympathomimetics, such as amphetamines, phentermine, and decongestants (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine), and many other drugs, may increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of the beta-blockers. Concurrent use increases the risk of unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. Increased blood pressure, bradycardia, or heart block may occur due to excessive alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Warn patients that there are potentially serious drug interactions between tipranavir and prescription amphetamine therapy or illicit amphetamine use. The risk of amphetamine toxicity may be increased during concurrent use of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors such as tipranavir. Amphetamines are partially metabolized by CYP2D6 and have serotonergic properties; inhibition of amphetamine metabolism may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome or other toxicity. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue both the amphetamine and CYP2D6 inhibitor and initiate appropriate medical treatment.
    Topiramate: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines and urinary alkalinizers, such as topiramate, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of these compounds. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged in the presence of these drugs. In addition, patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Tramadol: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and tramadol. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. An additive risk of seizures is also possible. Monitor for serotonin syndrome and seizures or other adverse effects, particularly after a dose increase or the addition of interacting medications. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Tranylcypromine: (Severe) In general, all types of sympathomimetics and psychostimulants should be avoided in patients receiving MAOIs due to an increased risk of hypertensive crisis. This applies to sympathomimetics including stimulants for ADHD, narcolepsy or weight loss, nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold products, and even respiratory sympathomimetics (e.g., beta agonist drugs). Some local anesthetics also contain a sympathomimetic (e.g., epinephrine). In general, medicines containing sympathomimetic agents should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or within 14 days before or after their use.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Coadministration of trazodone and amphetamines may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with both drugs when taken alone, but especially when coadministered with other serotonergic agents. The MAOI activity of amphetamines may also be of concern with trazodone. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Trazodone and the amphetamine should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
    Treprostinil: (Major) Avoid use of sympathomimetic agents with treprostinil. Sympathomimetics counteract the medications used to stabilize pulmonary hypertension, including treprostinil. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, and may cause vasoconstriction resulting in chest pain and shortness of breath in these patients. Patients should be advised to avoid amphetamine drugs, decongestants (including nasal decongestants) and sympathomimetic anorexiants for weight loss, including dietary supplements. Intravenous vasopressors may be used in the emergency management of pulmonary hypertension patients when needed, but hemodynamic monitoring and careful monitoring of cardiac status are needed to avoid ischemia and other complications.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Use of amphetamines with tricyclic antidepressants may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome or have effects on blood pressure or heart rate. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release and act as serotonin agonists. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management. Also monitor blood pressure and heart rate. If the patient experiences changes in heart rate or rhythm, an ECG may be indicated. A dose reduction of one or both agents may be needed if side effects occur.
    Tromethamine: (Major) Concurrent use of amphetamines with urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided if possible. If avoidance is not possible, the dose of the amphetamine therapy may need to be adjusted (decreased) in some patients. Monitor for increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased appetite, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, or other changes in moods and behaviors. Urinary alkalinizers diminish the urinary excretion of amphetamines by increasing the proportion of non-ionized amphetamines, resulting in increased renal tubular reabsorption of the amphetamines. The half-life and therapeutic actions of amphetamines will be prolonged.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as vilanterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, discontinue the amphetamine.
    Vasodilators: (Moderate) Use sympathomimetic agents with caution in patients receiving therapy for hypertension. Patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved. Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure and heart rate, and antagonize the antihypertensive effects of vasodilators when administered concomitantly. Anginal pain may be induced when coronary insufficiency is present.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release, as well as act as serotonin agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Verapamil: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Vigabatrin: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and vilazodone. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release and act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Vortioxetine: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of serotonergic drugs such as amphetamines and vortioxetine. At high doses, amphetamines can increase serotonin release and act as serotonin agonists. Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Ziprasidone: (Minor) Serotonin syndrome has been reported during the combined use of amphetamine stimulants and other medications with serotonergic properties. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during postmarketing use of ziprasidone; however, a causal relationship has not been established.
    Zonisamide: (Moderate) Patients who are taking anticonvulsants for epilepsy/seizure control should use amphetamines with caution. Amphetamines may decrease the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures. If seizures occur, amphetamine discontinuation may be necessary.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Amphetamines should be avoided during pregnancy if possible. The limited available data from published literature and postmarketing reports on use of lisdexamfetamine during human pregnancy are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. However, amphetamines have been shown to have both embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in some animals when administered at high doses. In addition, because amphetamines cause vasoconstriction, they may decrease placental perfusion. Amphetamines can stimulate uterine contractions increasing the risk of premature labor and there is no essential use of the drugs during labor or obstetric delivery. Neonates born to amphetamine-dependent mothers are at increased risk for premature delivery and low birth weight. Physical withdrawal symptoms (e.g., abnormal sleep patterns, poor feeding, tremor, irritability, agitation, excessive drowsiness, and hypertonia) may occur in the neonate following delivery. There is 1 case of a neonate born with a severe congenital bony deformity, tracheo-esophageal fistula, and anal atresia following maternal exposure to dextroamphetamine sulfate and lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. However, most available data indicate that amphetamines are not teratogenic in humans. Of 671 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project who had first trimester exposure to amphetamines and 1898 mother-child pairs with amphetamine exposures at any time during pregnancy, there was no evidence suggesting a relationship to large categories of major or minor malformations. In a prospective comparison study, neonates exposed to cocaine, methamphetamine, or a combination of cocaine and narcotic in utero had a 35.1% incidence of cranial abnormalities (i.e., intraventricular hemorrhage, echodensities known to be associated with necrosis, and cavitary lesions) compared to a 5.3% incidence in normal infants as assessed by cranial ultrasonography; the authors attributed the findings to the vasoconstrictive properties of the drugs.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine, and in vitro data indicate that lisdexamfetamine does not bind to the sites responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. The predominant mechanism of lisdexamfetamine, after its conversion to dextroamphetamine, is to stimulate the release of some biogenic amines (e.g., dopamine, norepinephrine) from storage sites in the nerve terminal and block the reuptake of these amines into the presynaptic neuron thereby increasing their availability in the extraneuronal space. Amphetamines are relatively weak serotonin reuptake inhibitors. At typical doses, amphetamines stimulate the release of norepinephrine. At higher doses, dopamine is released from its storage sites accounting for some of the behavioral changes seen with amphetamine. It is thought that the release of dopamine is responsible for the reinforcing properties of amphetamine. At still higher doses, amphetamine stimulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). It is this neurotransmitter that is thought to explain the overt psychotic behavior associated with amphetamine excess. Finally, amphetamine may act as a direct agonist on central 5-HT receptors. Thus, amphetamine is both a direct and an indirect stimulant. Indirect agonists are associated with tachyphylaxis due to the ever-decreasing supply of endogenous neurotransmitter than can be displaced from the nerve ending. Amphetamines may also inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO), but this is a minor action. The primary sites of activity in the CNS appear to be in the cerebral cortex and the reticular activating system. Amphetamine-induced CNS stimulation produces a decreased sense of fatigue, an increase in motor activity and mental alertness, mild euphoria, and brighter spirits. These effects are believed to be due to stimulation of norepinephrine release from central noradrenergic neurons. Lithium may offset amphetamine-induced euphoria.
     
    •Actions in ADHD: There is no conclusive evidence for the mechanism(s) of action of amphetamines on the mental and behavioral characteristics of ADHD. Improved attention spans, decreased distractability, increased ability to follow directions or complete tasks, and decreased impulsivity and aggression have been noted when stimulants are prescribed for the treatment of ADHD. Current research suggests that the modulation of serotonergic pathways by the amphetamines may contribute to the calming effects in the treatment of this disorder.
     
    •Actions in Binge Eating Disorder (BED): The exact mechanism of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of BED is not known, but is thought to involve increases in the release of norepinephrine and dopamine into the extraneuronal space by re-uptake blockade of these neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron. Animal data suggest that another possible mechanism is an effect at the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 is thought to regulate dopamine and moderate the response to amphetamine and other psychostimulants.
     
    •Anorectic actions: The anorectic effect of amphetamines is postulated to be secondary to CNS stimulation. In addition, it has been suggested that amphetamines decrease olfactory acuity, which may contribute to their anorexic properties. Amphetamines do not seem to alter the basal metabolic rate or nitrogen excretion. It is unknown if other CNS actions or metabolic effects may be involved in the promotion of weight loss with amphetamines. Lisdexamfetamine is not indicated for weight loss. Use of other sympathomimetic drugs for weight loss has been associated with serious cardiovascular adverse events.
     
    •Peripheral actions: In the periphery, the actions of amphetamines are believed to occur through release of norepinephrine from the adrenergic nerve terminals and by a direct stimulant action on alpha- and beta-receptors. Amphetamines increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cause respiratory stimulation and weak bronchodilation. Heart rate typically increases slightly with normal therapeutic doses of stimulants (about 3 to 6 bpm); however, a reflexive decrease in heart rate in response to increased blood pressure can also occur. At high doses, such as in overdoses, amphetamine and its derivatives can cause significant hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and other serious complications.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Lisdexamfetamine is an orally administered prodrug of dextroamphetamine. Conversion to dextroamphetamine and L-lysine occurs primarily in the blood due to the high hydrolytic activity of red blood cells. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system is not involved in the metabolism of lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. In amphetamine-dependent adults, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations were found to be 80% that of plasma.[54940] Under normal physiologic conditions, the plasma half-life of dextroamphetamine is 10 to 12 hours in adults, while the plasma half-life of lisdexamfetamine averages less than 1 hour. The urinary elimination of amphetamines may be affected by agents that acidify or alkalinize the urinary fluids. Amphetamines are bases; therefore, urinary excretion decreases as the pH increases. Conversely, acidification of the urine speeds amphetamine elimination. Excretion is primarily via the kidney, with approximately 96% of a dose recovered in the urine. Data from the administration of lisdexamfetamine to healthy adult subjects indicates that 42% of a dose is recovered in the urine as amphetamine, 25% as hippuric acid, and 2% as lisdexamfetamine.[33263] [62803]
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP2D6 (theoretical)
    Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine; lisdexamfetamine is pharmacologically inactive until converted to dextroamphetamine and l-lysine, which occurs primarily via enzymatic hydrolysis. The specific enzymes involved in dextroamphetamine metabolism are not described; however, the formation of 4-hydroxy-amphetamine is known to be catalyzed by CYP2D6. Because CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic, variations in amphetamine metabolism are a possibility.[29332] Pharmacokinetic data suggest dosage adjustment of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, or CYP3A4 substrates is not necessary when lisdexamfetamine is co-administered.[33263]

    Oral Route

    Oral capsules: Lisdexamfetamine capsules are readily absorbed from the GI tract following administration. Administration of a single dose of lisdexamfetamine results in a Tmax of 3.5 hours for dextroamphetamine and 1 hour for lisdexamfetamine. Administration with food does not affect the Cmax or AUC; however, the Tmax of dextroamphetamine is prolonged by about 1 hour (from 3.8 hours in a fasted state to 4.7 hours after a high fat meal or to 4.8 hours with yogurt).
    Chewable tablets: After a single 60 mg dose of the chewable tablet in healthy subjects under fasting conditions, the Tmax of lisdexamfetamine and dextroamphetamine was reached in about 1 hour and 4.4 hour post dose, respectively. Compared to 60 mg of the lisdexamfetamine capsule, exposure (Cmax and AUC) to lisdexamfetamine chewable tablet was about 15% lower. The exposure (Cmax and AUC) of dextroamphetamine is similar between the chewable tablet and capsule.